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Quo basis? The changing
landscape of scholarly
communication
23 February 2015
Keith Webster
Dean of University Libraries
@cmkeithw
TODAY’s WORLD
Students crowd libraries - without using libraries
Open Science
The success of e-journals has driven the researcher from
the library
Growth of web-based knowledge and research tools -
often outside the institution
Open access has shaped policy agenda
Library budgets under pressure
Shareholders and VCs expect ROI
Industry
Company
Customer pressure
Investor pressure
What is happening in the world
is bypassing university libraries
Peter Murray-Rust
The scientist’s view
JISC Libraries of the future debate, April 2009
“…contact with librarians and
information professionals is
rare”
“…researchers are generally
confident in their [self-
taught] abilities.., librarians
see them as..relatively
unsophisticated”
“…librarians see it as a
problem that they are not
reaching all researchers
with formal training,
whereas most researchers
don’t think they need it”
Where do library clients go?
Specific e-resource
General search engine
Library catalogue
Library building
1
18
38
47
13
28
21
37
2003 2012
Search engine
Wikipedia
SNS
Email
Online database
Virtual reference
Library website 0
0
1
1
2
7
83
Where do student start a search? Where do academics begin research?
Perceptions of libraries 2010,
OCLC
Faculty study 2012: key insights for
libraries and publishers, Ithaka
Faculty study 2012: key insights for libraries and publishers, Ithaka
http://mystory.gale.com/watch/
WHERE HAVE WE COME FROM?
1 - The Library
Collection-centric - 1st generation
Client-focused - 2nd generation
Experience-centered - 3rd generation
Connected Learning Experiences - 4th
generation
Collaborative knowledge, media and
fabrication facilities - 5th generation
In-library expert - 1st generation
Library instruction - 2nd generation
Information specialist - 3rd generation
Library technology - 1st generation
Library technology - 2nd generation
Library technology - 3rd generation
Library technology - 4th generation
Library technology - 5th generation
• Each of those is additive, not a substitute
• As libraries have added new formats, these have
not led to disposal of old materials
• Libraries are increasingly pursuing important - but
niche - technology projects
2. The scholarly journal
The growth of global scientific output in the last 30 years
Thomson Reuters, Journal Citation Reports
http://sciencewatch.com/grr/china
http://sciencewatch.com/grr/china
https://royalsociety.org/policy/projects/knowledge-networks-nations/report/
The big deal
• Access to vast quantities of content for researchers
• Bundles bought on basis of package rather than titles
• Difficult to select/remove individual titles
• Pricing structures change
• Incentives to launch new titles? Incentives to use M&A?
• Majority of bundle use is by top 10% of titles - a lifeline for lesser-
used titles
• Citations were currency of print world - usage is today’s measure
3. Media consumption
W(h)ither the Library?
Local
distribution
1990s
Global
digital
2000s
Cloud-based
models
2010s
Convergent media services
Adapted from http://www.eab.com/Research-and-Insights/Academic-Affairs-Forum/
Studies/2011/Redefining-the-Academic-Library
4. Researchers & communication
Ever talk with citizens about science, research
Ever talk with reporters about research findings
Ever use social media to discuss or follow science
Ever blog about science and research
0 25 50 75 100
% of AAAS scientists who ever do each of the activities
How scientists engage the public
http://www.pewinternet.org/files/2015/02/PI_PublicEngagementbyScientists_021515.pdf
http://archive.sciencewatch.com/newsletter/2012/201207/multiauthor_papers/
5. The learned society
• In-house journals ‘sold off’
• GMIs have brought essential revenue
• Open access financially challenging
• Newer generations of researchers less interested in
membership
• Conferences under threat?
Created with Haiku Deck
CURRENT TRENDS
RESEARCHER WORKFLOWS
Discover
Share Gather
Create
Structured Finding
Data Sharing
Reviewing &
Rating
Writing Annotating
Rights
Publishing
Analyzing
Serendipitous Finding Keeping
Current
Collaborative Finding
Collecting
Organizing
AcquiringTeaching
Describing
www.umn.edu
Grant-­‐wri)ng
Compliance
Data	
  management
Data	
  analysis
Resource	
  management
Networking
IP	
  protec)on
Publica)on
Compe))ve	
  intelligence
IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION
PLANNING
DISSEMINATION
Protocols
RESEARCH	
  
WORKFLOW
Research	
  planning
Literature	
  
interac)on
Insight	
  and	
  decision	
  
support
Grant-­‐wri)ng
Compliance
Data	
  management
Data	
  analysis
Resource	
  management
Networking
IP	
  protec)on
Publica)on
Compe))ve	
  intelligence
IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION
PLANNING
DISSEMINATION
Protocols
Research	
  planning
Literature	
  
interac)on
Insight	
  and	
  decision	
  
support
Grant-­‐wri)ng
Compliance
Data	
  management
Data	
  analysis
Resource	
  management
Networking
IP	
  protec)on
Publica)on
Compe))ve	
  intelligence
IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION
PLANNING
DISSEMINATION
Protocols
Research	
  planning
Literature	
  
interac)on
Insight	
  and	
  decision	
  
support
Grant-­‐wri)ng
Compliance
Data	
  management
Data	
  analysis
Resource	
  management
Networking
IP	
  protec)on
Publica)on
Compe))ve	
  intelligence
IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION
PLANNING
DISSEMINATION
Protocols
Research	
  planning
Literature	
  
interac)on
Insight	
  and	
  decision	
  
support
http://figshare.com/articles/101_Innovations_in_Scholarly_Communication_the_Changing_Research_Workflow/1286826
Traditional workflow
All of these tools licensed by institution
http://figshare.com/articles/101_Innovations_in_Scholarly_Communication_the_Changing_Research_Workflow/1286826
Open Science
All of these tools accessible by researcher
http://figshare.com/articles/101_Innovations_in_Scholarly_Communication_the_Changing_Research_Workflow/1286826
FUNDING
http://scimaps.org/mapdetail/chemical_rd_powers_t_89
http://scimaps.org/mapdetail/chemical_rd_powers_t_89
www.arl.org
THE LIBRARY
Size doesn’t matter any more
Traditional library metrics
• Number of volumes
• Number of serials subscriptions
• Reference requests
• Gate count
• Number of issues
• Anything else that moves and is easy
to count
Evolving library metrics
• Impact on student recruitment and
retention
• Impact on student learning
outcomes
• Contribution to research excellence
• Impact on broader economic, social
and health outcomes
• Return on investment
The need to
understand
• Dubious about some studies
which make claims about the
value of libraries
• Commissioned a study to assess
the value library-provided
information resources deliver to
their research communities
Personal expenditure on information
resources
Nothing 15.4
$1-250 33.4
$251-500 23.9
$501-1000 16.3
$1001-1250 4.3
$1251-1500 1.7
Over $1500 5.1
Where else would you go for stuff?
Obtain	
  from	
  colleagues/authors 183
Other	
  universiBes	
  to	
  which	
  I	
  have	
  no	
  affiliaBon 173
Purchase	
  from	
  publishers	
  or	
  document	
  delivery	
  intermediaries 172
InsBtuBonal	
  and	
  open	
  access	
  repositories 160
State	
  libraries 149
NaBonal	
  Library	
  of	
  Australia 113
Another	
  university	
  to	
  which	
  I	
  am	
  also	
  affiliated 106
Overseas	
  universiBes 97
Specialist	
  subject-­‐focused	
  research	
  insBtuBons 73
Other	
  public	
  libraries 58
Learned	
  SocieBes 36
Other	
   23
Medium-long term effect
on research
Volume of research outputs
Volume will increase 16
Volume will remain unchanged 37
Volume will decrease 326
Total responses: 379
Quality of research
Quality will increase 15
Quality will remain unchanged 62
Quality will decrease 302
Total responses: 379
Funding scenarios
• Current spent on information resources across
the three sites is $2,496 per capita
• Respondents were asked to recommend a budget
for the purchase of single-user access to the
resources they need - average $3,511 per capita
• Respondents were also asked to estimate the
costs if they had to be self-sufficient (purchases,
travel to libraries etc) - average $5,894 per capita
Summary finding
• The final scenario would result in total
costs to the institution of $81.4m
compared to actual spend of $34.5m - a
financial return of 136 percent
OPEN ACCESS
An	
  Impacts	
  Framework
http://www.humanities.org.au/Events/NSCF/NSCF2007/PowerPoints/NSCF2007-Houghton.ppt
RESEARCH

Most/Many	
  served,	
  

but	
  not	
  all
CONSUMERS/

SOCIETY

Few	
  served
INDUSTRY/

GOVERNMENT

Part	
  served,	
  

but	
  not	
  all
SUBSCRIPTION PUBLISHING

Current reach
OPEN ACCESS

Potentially serves all
RESEARCH

Access	
  for	
  all,	
  research	
  
participation	
  based	
  on	
  merit,	
  
not	
  means.	
  
Potential benefits:

Speeding	
  up	
  discovery.

Reduction	
  of	
  duplicative	
  
research.

Fewer	
  blind	
  alleys.

New	
  research	
  possibilities.	
  
Better	
  educational	
  outcomes	
  &	
  
enhanced	
  research	
  
capabilities.
SOCIETY

Access	
  as	
  needed,	
  informed	
  
consumers	
  (e.g.	
  health	
  and	
  
education).	
  
Potential benefits:

Contribution	
  to	
  the	
  'informed	
  
citizen'	
  and	
  'informed	
  consumer',	
  
with	
  implications	
  for	
  better	
  use	
  
of	
  health	
  and	
  education	
  services,	
  
better	
  consumption	
  choices,	
  etc.	
  
leading	
  to	
  greater	
  welfare	
  
benefits,	
  which	
  in	
  turn	
  may	
  lead	
  
to	
  productivity	
  improvements.	
  
INDUSTRY

(1)	
  Access	
  as	
  needed,	
  
more	
  informed	
  
producers	
  &	
  policy.	
  
(2)	
  New	
  businesses	
  add	
  
value	
  to	
  content	
  (e.g.	
  
Weather	
  Derivatives).

Potential benefits:

Accelerate	
  and	
  widen	
  
opportunities	
  for	
  
collaboration,	
  
commercialisation	
  	
  
&	
  adoption.	
  	
  
The	
  potential	
  for	
  much	
  
wider	
  access	
  for	
  GPs/
nurses,	
  teachers/
students,	
  and	
  small	
  firms	
  
in	
  consulting,	
  
engineering,	
  ICT,	
  
nanotechnology,	
  
biotechnology,	
  etc.	
  
The	
  potential	
  for	
  the	
  
emergence	
  of	
  new	
  
industries	
  based	
  upon	
  
the	
  open	
  access	
  content.
“The Holdren Memo”
To achieve the Administration’s
commitment to increase access to
federally funded published
research and digital scientific data,
Federal agencies investing in
research and development must have
clear and coordinated policies for
increasing such access.
Memo on Increasing Access to the Results of
Federally Funded Scientific Research
White House Office of Science and Technology
Policy
February 22, 2013
Pinfield et al (2015)
http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/81227/
OPEN SCIENCE
Useful	
  knowledge
Sharable	
  
knowledge
WHERE ARE WE GOING?
THE LIBRARY
Current directions in
academic libraries
1. Continue the migration from print to
electronic and realign service operations
2. Review location of lesser-used collections
3. Continue to repurpose library as primary
learning space
4. Reposition library expertise and resources
to be more closely embedded in research
and teaching enterprise outside library
5. Extend focus of collection development from
external purchase to local curation
The role of librarians
Current state
Many libraries retain large
numbers of librarians to catalogue
and count
Even more librarians wait at
service desks ‘just in case’
Few librarians leave the library
building
Future state
Librarians embedded in research
and teaching activities
Librarians become campus
specialists in areas such as e-
science, academic technology and
research evaluation
Librarians have meaningful impact
Current barriers
Many librarians lack skills and useful qualifications
Many librarians are resistant to change
Academics do not believe librarians are useful or credible
partners
cilip.org.uk
THE JOURNAL
http://www.scilogs.com/eresearch/pages-of-history/
UNIVERSITY FUNDING
Science funding
• Ever-increasing expenditure on healthcare in most
nations will support continued expansion of the
medical subsegment of the STM market
• Publishers will look to offset the decline in print
revenues through new solutions - eg workflow,
performance measurement and cool ‘toys’
• R&D growth in Asia and the US will continue to
underpin the STM market
uqkeithw
Keith Webster
k.webster@library.uq.edu.au
kgw@cmu.edu
cmkeithw
Keith Webster

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The changing landscape of scholarly communication

  • 1. Quo basis? The changing landscape of scholarly communication 23 February 2015 Keith Webster Dean of University Libraries @cmkeithw
  • 3. Students crowd libraries - without using libraries
  • 5. The success of e-journals has driven the researcher from the library
  • 6. Growth of web-based knowledge and research tools - often outside the institution
  • 7. Open access has shaped policy agenda
  • 9. Shareholders and VCs expect ROI Industry Company
  • 11. What is happening in the world is bypassing university libraries Peter Murray-Rust The scientist’s view JISC Libraries of the future debate, April 2009
  • 12. “…contact with librarians and information professionals is rare” “…researchers are generally confident in their [self- taught] abilities.., librarians see them as..relatively unsophisticated” “…librarians see it as a problem that they are not reaching all researchers with formal training, whereas most researchers don’t think they need it”
  • 13. Where do library clients go? Specific e-resource General search engine Library catalogue Library building 1 18 38 47 13 28 21 37 2003 2012 Search engine Wikipedia SNS Email Online database Virtual reference Library website 0 0 1 1 2 7 83 Where do student start a search? Where do academics begin research? Perceptions of libraries 2010, OCLC Faculty study 2012: key insights for libraries and publishers, Ithaka
  • 14. Faculty study 2012: key insights for libraries and publishers, Ithaka
  • 16. WHERE HAVE WE COME FROM?
  • 17. 1 - The Library
  • 19. Client-focused - 2nd generation
  • 21. Connected Learning Experiences - 4th generation
  • 22. Collaborative knowledge, media and fabrication facilities - 5th generation
  • 23. In-library expert - 1st generation
  • 24. Library instruction - 2nd generation
  • 25. Information specialist - 3rd generation
  • 26. Library technology - 1st generation
  • 27. Library technology - 2nd generation
  • 28. Library technology - 3rd generation
  • 29. Library technology - 4th generation
  • 30. Library technology - 5th generation
  • 31. • Each of those is additive, not a substitute • As libraries have added new formats, these have not led to disposal of old materials • Libraries are increasingly pursuing important - but niche - technology projects
  • 32. 2. The scholarly journal
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. The growth of global scientific output in the last 30 years Thomson Reuters, Journal Citation Reports
  • 39.
  • 40. The big deal • Access to vast quantities of content for researchers • Bundles bought on basis of package rather than titles • Difficult to select/remove individual titles • Pricing structures change • Incentives to launch new titles? Incentives to use M&A? • Majority of bundle use is by top 10% of titles - a lifeline for lesser- used titles • Citations were currency of print world - usage is today’s measure
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55. W(h)ither the Library? Local distribution 1990s Global digital 2000s Cloud-based models 2010s Convergent media services Adapted from http://www.eab.com/Research-and-Insights/Academic-Affairs-Forum/ Studies/2011/Redefining-the-Academic-Library
  • 56. 4. Researchers & communication
  • 57.
  • 58. Ever talk with citizens about science, research Ever talk with reporters about research findings Ever use social media to discuss or follow science Ever blog about science and research 0 25 50 75 100 % of AAAS scientists who ever do each of the activities How scientists engage the public http://www.pewinternet.org/files/2015/02/PI_PublicEngagementbyScientists_021515.pdf
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63. 5. The learned society
  • 64. • In-house journals ‘sold off’ • GMIs have brought essential revenue • Open access financially challenging • Newer generations of researchers less interested in membership • Conferences under threat?
  • 65. Created with Haiku Deck CURRENT TRENDS
  • 67. Discover Share Gather Create Structured Finding Data Sharing Reviewing & Rating Writing Annotating Rights Publishing Analyzing Serendipitous Finding Keeping Current Collaborative Finding Collecting Organizing AcquiringTeaching Describing www.umn.edu
  • 68. Grant-­‐wri)ng Compliance Data  management Data  analysis Resource  management Networking IP  protec)on Publica)on Compe))ve  intelligence IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION PLANNING DISSEMINATION Protocols RESEARCH   WORKFLOW Research  planning Literature   interac)on Insight  and  decision   support
  • 69. Grant-­‐wri)ng Compliance Data  management Data  analysis Resource  management Networking IP  protec)on Publica)on Compe))ve  intelligence IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION PLANNING DISSEMINATION Protocols Research  planning Literature   interac)on Insight  and  decision   support
  • 70. Grant-­‐wri)ng Compliance Data  management Data  analysis Resource  management Networking IP  protec)on Publica)on Compe))ve  intelligence IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION PLANNING DISSEMINATION Protocols Research  planning Literature   interac)on Insight  and  decision   support
  • 71. Grant-­‐wri)ng Compliance Data  management Data  analysis Resource  management Networking IP  protec)on Publica)on Compe))ve  intelligence IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION PLANNING DISSEMINATION Protocols Research  planning Literature   interac)on Insight  and  decision   support
  • 73. Traditional workflow All of these tools licensed by institution http://figshare.com/articles/101_Innovations_in_Scholarly_Communication_the_Changing_Research_Workflow/1286826
  • 74. Open Science All of these tools accessible by researcher http://figshare.com/articles/101_Innovations_in_Scholarly_Communication_the_Changing_Research_Workflow/1286826
  • 76.
  • 80. Size doesn’t matter any more Traditional library metrics • Number of volumes • Number of serials subscriptions • Reference requests • Gate count • Number of issues • Anything else that moves and is easy to count Evolving library metrics • Impact on student recruitment and retention • Impact on student learning outcomes • Contribution to research excellence • Impact on broader economic, social and health outcomes • Return on investment
  • 81. The need to understand • Dubious about some studies which make claims about the value of libraries • Commissioned a study to assess the value library-provided information resources deliver to their research communities
  • 82. Personal expenditure on information resources Nothing 15.4 $1-250 33.4 $251-500 23.9 $501-1000 16.3 $1001-1250 4.3 $1251-1500 1.7 Over $1500 5.1
  • 83. Where else would you go for stuff? Obtain  from  colleagues/authors 183 Other  universiBes  to  which  I  have  no  affiliaBon 173 Purchase  from  publishers  or  document  delivery  intermediaries 172 InsBtuBonal  and  open  access  repositories 160 State  libraries 149 NaBonal  Library  of  Australia 113 Another  university  to  which  I  am  also  affiliated 106 Overseas  universiBes 97 Specialist  subject-­‐focused  research  insBtuBons 73 Other  public  libraries 58 Learned  SocieBes 36 Other   23
  • 84. Medium-long term effect on research Volume of research outputs Volume will increase 16 Volume will remain unchanged 37 Volume will decrease 326 Total responses: 379 Quality of research Quality will increase 15 Quality will remain unchanged 62 Quality will decrease 302 Total responses: 379
  • 85. Funding scenarios • Current spent on information resources across the three sites is $2,496 per capita • Respondents were asked to recommend a budget for the purchase of single-user access to the resources they need - average $3,511 per capita • Respondents were also asked to estimate the costs if they had to be self-sufficient (purchases, travel to libraries etc) - average $5,894 per capita
  • 86. Summary finding • The final scenario would result in total costs to the institution of $81.4m compared to actual spend of $34.5m - a financial return of 136 percent
  • 88. An  Impacts  Framework http://www.humanities.org.au/Events/NSCF/NSCF2007/PowerPoints/NSCF2007-Houghton.ppt RESEARCH
 Most/Many  served,  
 but  not  all CONSUMERS/
 SOCIETY
 Few  served INDUSTRY/
 GOVERNMENT
 Part  served,  
 but  not  all SUBSCRIPTION PUBLISHING
 Current reach OPEN ACCESS
 Potentially serves all RESEARCH
 Access  for  all,  research   participation  based  on  merit,   not  means.   Potential benefits:
 Speeding  up  discovery.
 Reduction  of  duplicative   research.
 Fewer  blind  alleys.
 New  research  possibilities.   Better  educational  outcomes  &   enhanced  research   capabilities. SOCIETY
 Access  as  needed,  informed   consumers  (e.g.  health  and   education).   Potential benefits:
 Contribution  to  the  'informed   citizen'  and  'informed  consumer',   with  implications  for  better  use   of  health  and  education  services,   better  consumption  choices,  etc.   leading  to  greater  welfare   benefits,  which  in  turn  may  lead   to  productivity  improvements.   INDUSTRY
 (1)  Access  as  needed,   more  informed   producers  &  policy.   (2)  New  businesses  add   value  to  content  (e.g.   Weather  Derivatives).
 Potential benefits:
 Accelerate  and  widen   opportunities  for   collaboration,   commercialisation     &  adoption.     The  potential  for  much   wider  access  for  GPs/ nurses,  teachers/ students,  and  small  firms   in  consulting,   engineering,  ICT,   nanotechnology,   biotechnology,  etc.   The  potential  for  the   emergence  of  new   industries  based  upon   the  open  access  content.
  • 89. “The Holdren Memo” To achieve the Administration’s commitment to increase access to federally funded published research and digital scientific data, Federal agencies investing in research and development must have clear and coordinated policies for increasing such access. Memo on Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research White House Office of Science and Technology Policy February 22, 2013
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92. Pinfield et al (2015) http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/81227/
  • 93.
  • 96.
  • 97.
  • 98. WHERE ARE WE GOING?
  • 100. Current directions in academic libraries 1. Continue the migration from print to electronic and realign service operations 2. Review location of lesser-used collections 3. Continue to repurpose library as primary learning space 4. Reposition library expertise and resources to be more closely embedded in research and teaching enterprise outside library 5. Extend focus of collection development from external purchase to local curation
  • 101. The role of librarians Current state Many libraries retain large numbers of librarians to catalogue and count Even more librarians wait at service desks ‘just in case’ Few librarians leave the library building Future state Librarians embedded in research and teaching activities Librarians become campus specialists in areas such as e- science, academic technology and research evaluation Librarians have meaningful impact Current barriers Many librarians lack skills and useful qualifications Many librarians are resistant to change Academics do not believe librarians are useful or credible partners
  • 103.
  • 106.
  • 107.
  • 109.
  • 110.
  • 111.
  • 112. Science funding • Ever-increasing expenditure on healthcare in most nations will support continued expansion of the medical subsegment of the STM market • Publishers will look to offset the decline in print revenues through new solutions - eg workflow, performance measurement and cool ‘toys’ • R&D growth in Asia and the US will continue to underpin the STM market
  • 113.