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The changing landscape of scholarly communication: presentation to the NFAIS 2015 annual conference

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Presentation on the changing relationships between research libraries, publishers, researchers and technology, and the impact of government policy on scholarly publishing and open access.

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The changing landscape of scholarly communication: presentation to the NFAIS 2015 annual conference

  1. 1. Quo basis? The changing landscape of scholarly communication 23 February 2015 Keith Webster Dean of University Libraries @cmkeithw
  2. 2. TODAY’s WORLD
  3. 3. Students crowd libraries - without using libraries
  4. 4. Open Science
  5. 5. The success of e-journals has driven the researcher from the library
  6. 6. Growth of web-based knowledge and research tools - often outside the institution
  7. 7. Open access has shaped policy agenda
  8. 8. Library budgets under pressure
  9. 9. Shareholders and VCs expect ROI Industry Company
  10. 10. Customer pressure Investor pressure
  11. 11. What is happening in the world is bypassing university libraries Peter Murray-Rust The scientist’s view JISC Libraries of the future debate, April 2009
  12. 12. “…contact with librarians and information professionals is rare” “…researchers are generally confident in their [self- taught] abilities.., librarians see them as..relatively unsophisticated” “…librarians see it as a problem that they are not reaching all researchers with formal training, whereas most researchers don’t think they need it”
  13. 13. Where do library clients go? Specific e-resource General search engine Library catalogue Library building 1 18 38 47 13 28 21 37 2003 2012 Search engine Wikipedia SNS Email Online database Virtual reference Library website 0 0 1 1 2 7 83 Where do student start a search? Where do academics begin research? Perceptions of libraries 2010, OCLC Faculty study 2012: key insights for libraries and publishers, Ithaka
  14. 14. Faculty study 2012: key insights for libraries and publishers, Ithaka
  15. 15. http://mystory.gale.com/watch/
  16. 16. WHERE HAVE WE COME FROM?
  17. 17. 1 - The Library
  18. 18. Collection-centric - 1st generation
  19. 19. Client-focused - 2nd generation
  20. 20. Experience-centered - 3rd generation
  21. 21. Connected Learning Experiences - 4th generation
  22. 22. Collaborative knowledge, media and fabrication facilities - 5th generation
  23. 23. In-library expert - 1st generation
  24. 24. Library instruction - 2nd generation
  25. 25. Information specialist - 3rd generation
  26. 26. Library technology - 1st generation
  27. 27. Library technology - 2nd generation
  28. 28. Library technology - 3rd generation
  29. 29. Library technology - 4th generation
  30. 30. Library technology - 5th generation
  31. 31. • Each of those is additive, not a substitute • As libraries have added new formats, these have not led to disposal of old materials • Libraries are increasingly pursuing important - but niche - technology projects
  32. 32. 2. The scholarly journal
  33. 33. The growth of global scientific output in the last 30 years Thomson Reuters, Journal Citation Reports
  34. 34. http://sciencewatch.com/grr/china
  35. 35. http://sciencewatch.com/grr/china
  36. 36. https://royalsociety.org/policy/projects/knowledge-networks-nations/report/
  37. 37. The big deal • Access to vast quantities of content for researchers • Bundles bought on basis of package rather than titles • Difficult to select/remove individual titles • Pricing structures change • Incentives to launch new titles? Incentives to use M&A? • Majority of bundle use is by top 10% of titles - a lifeline for lesser- used titles • Citations were currency of print world - usage is today’s measure
  38. 38. 3. Media consumption
  39. 39. W(h)ither the Library? Local distribution 1990s Global digital 2000s Cloud-based models 2010s Convergent media services Adapted from http://www.eab.com/Research-and-Insights/Academic-Affairs-Forum/ Studies/2011/Redefining-the-Academic-Library
  40. 40. 4. Researchers & communication
  41. 41. Ever talk with citizens about science, research Ever talk with reporters about research findings Ever use social media to discuss or follow science Ever blog about science and research 0 25 50 75 100 % of AAAS scientists who ever do each of the activities How scientists engage the public http://www.pewinternet.org/files/2015/02/PI_PublicEngagementbyScientists_021515.pdf
  42. 42. http://archive.sciencewatch.com/newsletter/2012/201207/multiauthor_papers/
  43. 43. 5. The learned society
  44. 44. • In-house journals ‘sold off’ • GMIs have brought essential revenue • Open access financially challenging • Newer generations of researchers less interested in membership • Conferences under threat?
  45. 45. Created with Haiku Deck CURRENT TRENDS
  46. 46. RESEARCHER WORKFLOWS
  47. 47. Discover Share Gather Create Structured Finding Data Sharing Reviewing & Rating Writing Annotating Rights Publishing Analyzing Serendipitous Finding Keeping Current Collaborative Finding Collecting Organizing AcquiringTeaching Describing www.umn.edu
  48. 48. Grant-­‐wri)ng Compliance Data  management Data  analysis Resource  management Networking IP  protec)on Publica)on Compe))ve  intelligence IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION PLANNING DISSEMINATION Protocols RESEARCH   WORKFLOW Research  planning Literature   interac)on Insight  and  decision   support
  49. 49. Grant-­‐wri)ng Compliance Data  management Data  analysis Resource  management Networking IP  protec)on Publica)on Compe))ve  intelligence IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION PLANNING DISSEMINATION Protocols Research  planning Literature   interac)on Insight  and  decision   support
  50. 50. Grant-­‐wri)ng Compliance Data  management Data  analysis Resource  management Networking IP  protec)on Publica)on Compe))ve  intelligence IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION PLANNING DISSEMINATION Protocols Research  planning Literature   interac)on Insight  and  decision   support
  51. 51. Grant-­‐wri)ng Compliance Data  management Data  analysis Resource  management Networking IP  protec)on Publica)on Compe))ve  intelligence IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION PLANNING DISSEMINATION Protocols Research  planning Literature   interac)on Insight  and  decision   support
  52. 52. http://figshare.com/articles/101_Innovations_in_Scholarly_Communication_the_Changing_Research_Workflow/1286826
  53. 53. Traditional workflow All of these tools licensed by institution http://figshare.com/articles/101_Innovations_in_Scholarly_Communication_the_Changing_Research_Workflow/1286826
  54. 54. Open Science All of these tools accessible by researcher http://figshare.com/articles/101_Innovations_in_Scholarly_Communication_the_Changing_Research_Workflow/1286826
  55. 55. FUNDING
  56. 56. http://scimaps.org/mapdetail/chemical_rd_powers_t_89 http://scimaps.org/mapdetail/chemical_rd_powers_t_89
  57. 57. www.arl.org
  58. 58. THE LIBRARY
  59. 59. Size doesn’t matter any more Traditional library metrics • Number of volumes • Number of serials subscriptions • Reference requests • Gate count • Number of issues • Anything else that moves and is easy to count Evolving library metrics • Impact on student recruitment and retention • Impact on student learning outcomes • Contribution to research excellence • Impact on broader economic, social and health outcomes • Return on investment
  60. 60. The need to understand • Dubious about some studies which make claims about the value of libraries • Commissioned a study to assess the value library-provided information resources deliver to their research communities
  61. 61. Personal expenditure on information resources Nothing 15.4 $1-250 33.4 $251-500 23.9 $501-1000 16.3 $1001-1250 4.3 $1251-1500 1.7 Over $1500 5.1
  62. 62. Where else would you go for stuff? Obtain  from  colleagues/authors 183 Other  universiBes  to  which  I  have  no  affiliaBon 173 Purchase  from  publishers  or  document  delivery  intermediaries 172 InsBtuBonal  and  open  access  repositories 160 State  libraries 149 NaBonal  Library  of  Australia 113 Another  university  to  which  I  am  also  affiliated 106 Overseas  universiBes 97 Specialist  subject-­‐focused  research  insBtuBons 73 Other  public  libraries 58 Learned  SocieBes 36 Other   23
  63. 63. Medium-long term effect on research Volume of research outputs Volume will increase 16 Volume will remain unchanged 37 Volume will decrease 326 Total responses: 379 Quality of research Quality will increase 15 Quality will remain unchanged 62 Quality will decrease 302 Total responses: 379
  64. 64. Funding scenarios • Current spent on information resources across the three sites is $2,496 per capita • Respondents were asked to recommend a budget for the purchase of single-user access to the resources they need - average $3,511 per capita • Respondents were also asked to estimate the costs if they had to be self-sufficient (purchases, travel to libraries etc) - average $5,894 per capita
  65. 65. Summary finding • The final scenario would result in total costs to the institution of $81.4m compared to actual spend of $34.5m - a financial return of 136 percent
  66. 66. OPEN ACCESS
  67. 67. An  Impacts  Framework http://www.humanities.org.au/Events/NSCF/NSCF2007/PowerPoints/NSCF2007-Houghton.ppt RESEARCH
 Most/Many  served,  
 but  not  all CONSUMERS/
 SOCIETY
 Few  served INDUSTRY/
 GOVERNMENT
 Part  served,  
 but  not  all SUBSCRIPTION PUBLISHING
 Current reach OPEN ACCESS
 Potentially serves all RESEARCH
 Access  for  all,  research   participation  based  on  merit,   not  means.   Potential benefits:
 Speeding  up  discovery.
 Reduction  of  duplicative   research.
 Fewer  blind  alleys.
 New  research  possibilities.   Better  educational  outcomes  &   enhanced  research   capabilities. SOCIETY
 Access  as  needed,  informed   consumers  (e.g.  health  and   education).   Potential benefits:
 Contribution  to  the  'informed   citizen'  and  'informed  consumer',   with  implications  for  better  use   of  health  and  education  services,   better  consumption  choices,  etc.   leading  to  greater  welfare   benefits,  which  in  turn  may  lead   to  productivity  improvements.   INDUSTRY
 (1)  Access  as  needed,   more  informed   producers  &  policy.   (2)  New  businesses  add   value  to  content  (e.g.   Weather  Derivatives).
 Potential benefits:
 Accelerate  and  widen   opportunities  for   collaboration,   commercialisation     &  adoption.     The  potential  for  much   wider  access  for  GPs/ nurses,  teachers/ students,  and  small  firms   in  consulting,   engineering,  ICT,   nanotechnology,   biotechnology,  etc.   The  potential  for  the   emergence  of  new   industries  based  upon   the  open  access  content.
  68. 68. “The Holdren Memo” To achieve the Administration’s commitment to increase access to federally funded published research and digital scientific data, Federal agencies investing in research and development must have clear and coordinated policies for increasing such access. Memo on Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research White House Office of Science and Technology Policy February 22, 2013
  69. 69. Pinfield et al (2015) http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/81227/
  70. 70. OPEN SCIENCE
  71. 71. Useful  knowledge Sharable   knowledge
  72. 72. WHERE ARE WE GOING?
  73. 73. THE LIBRARY
  74. 74. Current directions in academic libraries 1. Continue the migration from print to electronic and realign service operations 2. Review location of lesser-used collections 3. Continue to repurpose library as primary learning space 4. Reposition library expertise and resources to be more closely embedded in research and teaching enterprise outside library 5. Extend focus of collection development from external purchase to local curation
  75. 75. The role of librarians Current state Many libraries retain large numbers of librarians to catalogue and count Even more librarians wait at service desks ‘just in case’ Few librarians leave the library building Future state Librarians embedded in research and teaching activities Librarians become campus specialists in areas such as e- science, academic technology and research evaluation Librarians have meaningful impact Current barriers Many librarians lack skills and useful qualifications Many librarians are resistant to change Academics do not believe librarians are useful or credible partners
  76. 76. cilip.org.uk
  77. 77. THE JOURNAL
  78. 78. http://www.scilogs.com/eresearch/pages-of-history/
  79. 79. UNIVERSITY FUNDING
  80. 80. Science funding • Ever-increasing expenditure on healthcare in most nations will support continued expansion of the medical subsegment of the STM market • Publishers will look to offset the decline in print revenues through new solutions - eg workflow, performance measurement and cool ‘toys’ • R&D growth in Asia and the US will continue to underpin the STM market
  81. 81. uqkeithw Keith Webster k.webster@library.uq.edu.au kgw@cmu.edu cmkeithw Keith Webster

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