8th Grade Grammar Review Mech Caps,Abbrev,Punc


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8th Grade Grammar Review Mech Caps,Abbrev,Punc

  1. 1. 8 th Grade Grammar Review Mechanics
  2. 2. Mechanics <ul><li>Capital rules </li></ul><ul><li>First word in a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>First word in dialogue (inside quotes) </li></ul><ul><li>Proper nouns & adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Title of people & things (except prepositions and conjunctions) </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Always use all caps and periods (where necessary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Titles of people, time and historical dates, geographical names, measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>End marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclamation point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question mark </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(All end marks are placed INSIDE of quotations; quotes finish off) </li></ul><ul><li>Connectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commas used with conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semicolons ( NEVER use a conjunction with a semicolon) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotation marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyphen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apostrophe </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Capitals <ul><li>First word in a sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: There were many flavors of ice cream. I like them all. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First word in dialogue ( inside quotation marks) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Jim shouted, “What did you say?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All proper nouns & adjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: CeCe and Jim went to the Science Center of Iowa . (CeCe and Jim are people; SCI is a place) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Title of people & things (except prepositions); only capitalize titles in direct address (except government officials; they are always capitalized) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Mr. Swensen was *president of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) . ( Mr. is title, Swensen is proper noun, ASPCA are all the non-preposition or conjunction words) *president is his position in this case, not his title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncle Harold and Aunt Mary live in Arizona. She is my *aunt. ( Uncle Harold and Aunt Mary are directly addressed; titles after possessive pronouns are NEVER capitalized </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Abbreviations <ul><li>Always use all caps and periods (where necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Titles of people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Mrs. Mr. Ms. Dr. Fr. Bro. Sr. Mme. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time and historical dates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: A.M./a.m. P.M./p.m. B.C.E. A.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographical names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: (mailing addresses) Ave. Rd. St. P.O. Box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: (states/districts) Ia. / IA D.C. B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: (countries) U.S.A. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measurements (must be with number in order to use the abbreviation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: in. (inches) yd. (yards) c. (cups) gal. (gallon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* METRIC measurements use NO PERIODS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L (liters) C (Celsius) kg (kilograms) m (meters) cm (centimeters) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Punctuation <ul><li>End marks </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a statement; exclamation point may end a non-sentence as well (interjection) & question mark is ONLY used to answer questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Our dog is Moose. “Yes,” she said, “we want that one.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclamation point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: You did not! “Holy Cats!” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “Are you sure?” he asked. Where are we? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>* All end marks are placed INSIDE of quotations; end quotes are ALWAYS last </li></ul><ul><li>Connectors </li></ul><ul><li>Commas used with conjunctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Marcie was right , but she didn’t rub it in. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semicolons ( NEVER use a conjunction with a semicolon) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Kaylee’s favorite subject is math; Jake’s is history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: We carried in all our food; there are not supply stops out on the trail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Use of a semicolon shows higher writing skills; this is looked for in testing </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Punctuation <ul><li>Others - comma </li></ul><ul><li>Commas in a listing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Kelly, Josh, and Hank went on the trip. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appositives (non-essential information about the subject or object; separated for clarity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Tony , our best player, had just fouled out. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dates and places </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: January 31, 2009 Des Moines, IA </li></ul><ul><li>Others – colon </li></ul><ul><li>Used to set off lists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: I still need to pack: clothes, books, and my laptop. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End a salutation in business letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Dear sir: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: We have practice from 4:30 – 6:00 tonight. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Punctuation <ul><li>Others – quotation marks </li></ul><ul><li>Always in direct quotes; should be first and last items written around spoken words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “We did it !” they hollered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Split quotes should end first item with a comma and the last item with an end mark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “Nate,” she called, “Could you let the dog out before you leave?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In references: short stories, articles, episode of TV show, title of song, chapter of book, visual aid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: I enjoyed “Shame” in Boom! By Tom Brokaw. (“Shame” is title of chapter; Boom! is title of book) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Underlined in references: title of book, title of play, name of TV show, name of journal / magazine, title of website. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: I used Education Today , TIME , and The Greatest Generation and History.com as references in my research paper. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Punctuation <ul><li>Others – hyphen </li></ul><ul><li>Within written numbers / fractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: seventy-five three-fifths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compound nouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: great-grandmother sister-in-law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dividing words in writing: split on the syllable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: We are in mid-dle school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* With formal writing, DO NOT use hyphens in place of commas </li></ul><ul><li>Others – apostrophe </li></ul><ul><li>Possessives all end in “ ‘s” (EXCEPT its); if the word ends in “s”, you only need to add an apostrophe after that “s” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Colleen’s book boys’ shoes Kris’ sled its side </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contractions: apostrophe shows where letters were removed to combine words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: They’re going to town. It’s my party. I’ll take that bet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pluralizing letters, numbers, and symbols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: You need to roll your r’s in Spanish. </li></ul></ul>