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215 reported speech


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215 reported speech

  2. 2. WAYS OF RELATING WHAT A PERSON HAS SAID <ul><li>DIRECT </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the original speaker´s exact words: </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “I have lost my umbrella” </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT </li></ul><ul><li>Give the speaker´s exact meanig without using the speakers exact words: </li></ul><ul><li>He said (that) he had lost his umbrella. </li></ul>
  3. 3. SATATEMENTS <ul><li>“ I never eat meat”, he explained </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am waitnig for Ann”, he said </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have found a flat,” he said </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “I have been waiting for ages” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I took it home with me,” she said </li></ul><ul><li>He said,”I will be in Paris on Monday” </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “ I would like to see it” </li></ul><ul><li>He expalined (that) he never ate meat </li></ul><ul><li>He said (that) he was waitnig for Ann </li></ul><ul><li>He said (that) he had found a flat </li></ul><ul><li>He said he had been waiting for ages </li></ul><ul><li>She said (that) she had taken it home with her </li></ul><ul><li>He said (that) he would be in Paris on Monday </li></ul><ul><li>He said (that) he would like to see it </li></ul>
  4. 4. UNREAL PAST (SUBJUNCTIVE) <ul><li>“ We wish we didn´t have to take exams”,said the children </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bill wants to go alone,” said Ann, “but I´d rather he went with a group </li></ul><ul><li>It is time we began planning our holidays,”he said </li></ul><ul><li>“ The children had better go to bed early,” said Tom </li></ul><ul><li>The children said (that) they wished they didn´t have to take exams </li></ul><ul><li>Ann said that Bill wanted to go alone but that she´d rather he went with a group </li></ul><ul><li>He said that it was time they began planning their holidays </li></ul><ul><li>Tom said that the children had better go to bed early </li></ul>
  5. 5. MODALS IN REPORTED SPEECH <ul><li>MIGHT: remains unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “ann might ring today”: </li></ul><ul><li>He said that ann might ring (that day) </li></ul><ul><li>BUT!!! </li></ul><ul><li>“ You might post this letters for me”: </li></ul><ul><li>He asked me to post the letters hor him </li></ul><ul><li>OUGHT TO/SHOULD: unchanged for advice or reported by advice+object+infinitive: </li></ul><ul><li>“ You should read the instructions,” Ann said: </li></ul><ul><li>Ann adivised/warned me to read the instrustions: </li></ul><ul><li>Ann said that I should read the instrcutions </li></ul><ul><li>USED TO: doesn´t change </li></ul><ul><li>“ know the place well because I used to live there”,he explained: </li></ul><ul><li>He explained that he knew the place well because he used to live there </li></ul><ul><li>CAN/COULD: unchanged/be allowed to </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “I could stand on my head “ : </li></ul><ul><li>He said that he could stand on his head </li></ul><ul><li>“ If I had the tools, I could mend it “, he said: </li></ul><ul><li>He said that if he had the tools he could mend it </li></ul><ul><li>IF I WERE YOU I WOULD…: unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Or we use advise </li></ul>
  6. 6. EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE AND PRONOUNS <ul><li>TODAY </li></ul><ul><li>YESTERDAY </li></ul><ul><li>THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY </li></ul><ul><li>TOMORROW </li></ul><ul><li>THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW </li></ul><ul><li>NEXT WEEK/YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>LAST WEEK/YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>A YEAR/MONTH AGO </li></ul><ul><li>HERE </li></ul><ul><li>THAT DAY </li></ul><ul><li>THE DAY BEFORE </li></ul><ul><li>TWO DAYS BEF ORE </li></ul><ul><li>THE NEXT DAY/THE FOLL OWING DAY </li></ul><ul><li>IN TWO DAYS´TIME </li></ul><ul><li>THE FOLLOWING WEEK </li></ul><ul><li>THE PREVIOUS WEEK </li></ul><ul><li>A YEAR BEFORE/THE PREVIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>THERE </li></ul>
  7. 7. PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES <ul><li>THIS: TIME EXPRESSION </li></ul><ul><li>THIS/THESE: ADJECTIVIES </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “I´ve bought this pearl /these pearlsfor his mother” </li></ul><ul><li>THIS/THESE: PRONOUN </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “we will discuss this tomorrow” </li></ul><ul><li>THAT </li></ul><ul><li>THE </li></ul><ul><li>He said that he had bought the pearl f/pearls for his mother </li></ul><ul><li>IT/THEY/THEM </li></ul><ul><li>He said he would discuss it/the matter the following day </li></ul>
  8. 8. SAY & TELL IN STATEMENTS <ul><li>DIRECT: SAY </li></ul><ul><li>Tomsaid, “I have heard the news” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have heard the news,”Tom said </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have heard the new”, said Tom </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have heard the news,”Tom said to me </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT: SAY </li></ul><ul><li>Tom said that he had just heard the news </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT: TELL </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am leaving at once” Tom told me </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT: TELL </li></ul><ul><li>He told me that he had heard the news </li></ul>
  9. 9. QUESTIONS IN INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>Tenses, pronouns, possessive adjectives, adverbs of time change as in statements. </li></ul><ul><li>The interrogative form and question mark are omitted </li></ul><ul><li>The introductory verb say must be chaged to a verb of inquiry: ask, inquire, want to know,wonder,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask can be followed by the person addressed </li></ul><ul><li>The question words are repeated in indirect questions </li></ul><ul><li>Yes-no questions: whether-if </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “where is she going?”: </li></ul><ul><li>He asked where she was going </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “Where does she live?”: </li></ul><ul><li>He asked where she lived </li></ul><ul><li>He asked, “Where is thestation?”: </li></ul><ul><li>He asked where the station was </li></ul><ul><li>“ Did you see the accident or not?”the policeman asked </li></ul><ul><li>The policeman asked if I had seen the accident or not/whether or not I had seen the accident </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is anyone there?, he asked: </li></ul><ul><li>He asked if/whether anyone was there </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do you know Bill?” he said </li></ul><ul><li>He asked if I knew Bill </li></ul>
  10. 10. REQUESTS, OFFERS AND SUGGESTIONS <ul><li>REQUESTS: for information and instructions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shall I ever see him again?”, he wondered-He wondered if he should ever see him again </li></ul><ul><li>“ What shall I do with it?”, he asked-He asked what he should do with it:he asked what to do </li></ul><ul><li>OFFERS: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shall I bring you some tea?”, he asked- He asked to bring some tea: He asked if he shoul bring us some tea </li></ul><ul><li>SUGGESTION: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shall we meet at the theatre?” He asked- He suggested meeting at the theatre </li></ul>
  11. 11. COMMANDS, REQUESTS AND ADVICE <ul><li>INTRODUCTORY VERBS: </li></ul><ul><li>Advise,Ask,Beg,Command,Encourage,Forbid,Implore, Invite,Order, Recommend, Tell, Urge, Warn </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li> OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li> INFINITIVE </li></ul>
  12. 12. COMMANDS, REQUESTS, ADVICE: EXAMPLES <ul><li>He said, “Get your coat,tom!” He told Tom to get his coat </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don´t swim too far, boys!”I said I told the boys not to swim too far </li></ul><ul><li>“ He said,Go away!” He told us to go away </li></ul><ul><li>FURTHER EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>“ If I were you, I would stop taking tranquilizers,” I said I advised him to stop taking tranquilizers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Could/would you show me your passport ,please? He asked me to show him his passport/He asked to see my passport/He asked me for my passport </li></ul><ul><li>“ Please, please don´t take any risks” said his wife His wife begged/implred him not to take any risks </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don´t forget to order the wine”, said Mrs Pitt Mrs Pitt reminded her husband to order the wine </li></ul><ul><li>“ Go on, apply for the job2, said Jack Jack encouraged me to apply for the job </li></ul>
  13. 13. LET´S, LET US, LET HIM/THEM IN INDIRECT SPEECH <ul><li>He said, “Let´s leave the case at the station: </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested leaving the case at the station </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested that they should leave the case at the station </li></ul><ul><li>He said, “Let´s stop now and finsh it later”: </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested stopping then and finishing it later </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested that they should stop then and finish it later </li></ul><ul><li>“ It´s not my business. Let the goverment do it” said the postman: </li></ul><ul><li>The postman said that it wasn´t his business and that the goverment should do something about it </li></ul>