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Session slides for language culture communication and social care.

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  1. 1. Qualitative Research: Interviewing Interview procedures Types of interview 1
  2. 2. Interviewing: Definition – Interviewing is a meeting of two persons to exchange information and ideas through questions and responses, resulting in communication and joint construction of meaning about a particular topic. Janesick (2004): 72 2
  3. 3. Interview Task • Find someone you know to interview on the following topic. – What are your beliefs about friendship? • The interview should last approximately 15 minutes. 3
  4. 4. Interviewing: procedures (1) • Establishing relationships – The key is ensuring the person you are interviewing is at ease. How do you do that? • • • • • Tell them what you are doing and why Ask for permission to use a tape recorder/take notes Ensure confidentiality … Be sensitive to body language and tone of voice Ask non-threatening questions first 4
  5. 5. Types of interview • Interviews range from: – Structured – (directed) Semi-structured unstructured (non-directed) 5
  6. 6. Interviewing: procedures (2) • Use a schedule which specifies the topics or themes to be covered – For structured interviews this lists the questions to be asked – For unstructured interviews it reminds you which topics/issues to cover (these might not occur in the same order in the interview). 6
  7. 7. Structured Interviews • Structured Interviews have explicit research goals • Are similar to a verbal approximation of a survey questionnaire • Allow for easy comparison between participants • Responses are shaped by the researcher 7
  8. 8. Unstructured Interviews • Unstructured Interviews have an implicit research agenda • Are similar to ‘steered conversations’ or ‘conversations with a purpose’ • Questions emerge typically from the conversation • Skill is in finding the most appropriate time to ask questions  Choosing which type of interview to use depends on the nature of the research and who you are interviewing.  Interviews can move from being structured at the beginning to more unstructured at the end 8
  9. 9. Types of Interview Questions (1) • Degree of focus – ‘grand-tour questions: • Could you show me around the building?’ • ‘What are the general purposes of this room?’ These enable a broad picture to be obtained – Specific questions: • ‘Please tell me more about …’ These help to find out more specific information 9
  10. 10. Types of Interview Questions (2) • Degree of open-endedness – Open-ended • ‘How do you feel about …’  Used to discover participant’s perception of the situation. Allows participants to interpret questions their own way. Allows new questions to be generated. – Closed questions • ‘Do you agree with the idea that …’  Restricts participant’s response. Useful to confirm findings 10
  11. 11. Types of Interview Questions (3) • Types of information – Descriptive • Could you tell me what happened that evening? – Structured • ‘What factors do you think are involved in …?’ – Contrast • ‘In what way has the course improved since last year?’ – Clarification • ‘You talk about how objects represent people. Can you clarify for me what you mean?’ – Follow-up • ‘You mentioned organising space in the room. Can you tell me how you do this to help the residents?’ 11