FungiBy: Christina Martin, MadelineRyan, and Megan Brinkerhoff
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis It can been found in North America, South America, Europe and Africa. This pathogen often causes diseases and death in many amphibians. It invades the top layer of skincells that are keratinized and thickens them so that it is hard to breathe. It also makes use of zoospores for various reasons . It also uses a flagella to help it maintains its mobility. They can live on land or in the water.
Rhizopus stolonifer (Black Bread Mold)It is heterotrophic and dependant on sugar and starch, so it attaches to foods like bread. It releases spores through itsmycellium and when the spores mature they turn black. Its spores are commonly found in the air. If moist enough, it can take over a piece of bread in a few days. It hascommercial use in manufacturing alcohol and organic acids.
Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric)It is a poisonous fungus that lives throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. It contains psychoactive chemicals ibotenic acid and muscimol. It’s a mushroom with oval shaped spores. It has been used as a treatment for cancer, sore throat, and arthiritis.
Sarcoscypha coccinea (Scarlet Elf Cup) It can be found in Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, andAustralia. They only appear in the winter months. The cupped area is no morethan 4 centimeters across. The colors vary and may be orange, yellow, or even white. Its spores are translucent and have lipids at both ends.
Acaulospora myriocarpaIt can be found in South America and Asia. Its spores occursingly and in loose small groups. They can be found in soil, crevices, roots, insect bodies, and old seeds. They are formed with a sporiferous saccule. It forms mycorrhizae with other species.
Penicillium candidumIt is a mold that is used to make Brie and Camembert cheese. It is closely related to the penicillium that is used as medicine, but not close enough to ward off infection in those who consume the cheese. Allergiccross-reactivity can occur though. Also, just because aperson is allergic to Penicllin medicine does not mean they are allergic to this type that is in cheeses.
Caecomyces sympodialisIt lives in the 1st stomach of yellow cows. It contains bulbous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores. It also hasmultisporangiate and sympodial sporangia. It was discovered in China because that is where yellow cows reside. The function of it within the stomach is unknown at this time because it is a very new fungus.
Enterocytozoon bieneusi It infects the intestinal epithelial cells of its host,which causes diarrhea. It is an obligate intracellular parasite. Their spores contain a long coiled polar tube which distinguishes them from all other organisms and helps in host cell invasion. It hascaused major infections in pigs, thus affecting the swine industry.
Encephalitozoon cuniculiIt is an obligate intracellular parasite that affects mammals.Its spores can survive for a long time in the environment. Itcauses neurological impairment if things like nervous tissue are reached with the infection, especially in rabbits. The only way to get rid of it is to urinate it out.
Acaulospora laevis They have a unique globose shape. The spores consist of a three-layered spore wall and two bi- layered flexible germinal walls. These are uniquebecause there is a long dormancy period before the spores are infective.
Cyllamyces aberensisThis fungus can be found in cattle feces. Its zoospores are spherical and uniflagellate. Sporangiosphores produce several spherical sporangia. It has a single bulbous and lacks rhizoids.
Coprinopsis cinerea It has a typical mushroom form and goes through a complete sexual cycle. It has a short life cycle and canbe cultivated easily. It completes its entire life cycle in aperiod of 2 weeks. The spores are released from the cap and are easily spread.
Synchytrium endobioticum This is the fungus that causes potato wart disease. It is mostly found in Central Europe. It is unique because it has no mycelium. It produces a thick walled structureknown as a winter sporangium. They release zoospores in the spring that infect the potato’s epidermal cells.
Absidia corymbiferaIt is a common human pathogen that causes pulmonary, rhinocerebral, disseminated, CNS or cutaneous types of infection. It can also cause animal disease, particularlymycotic abortion. It lives worldwide and is mostly found in soil and decaying plant matter.
Battarrea phalloidesIt is an inedible mushroom. It can be found in North America, South America, Africa,Australia, Europe, and China. It is one of the puffball species, but also has a stalk.