INDTECH Final Research Paper


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Final Research of Drinkikng Water and Wastewater Treatment Process From Las Vegas Nevada

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INDTECH Final Research Paper

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY Dr.-Ing. George Power RESEARCH WORK Drinking water and wastewater treatment processes
  2. 2. QUESTIONS 1. Where exactly are the plants located? Are they in rural or populated areas? Are there other similar facilities? 2. What is the installed and planned plant capacity? 3. Analyze available water reserves and possible shortages in the near future. 4. Describe the drinking water process. Draw a process flow diagram with basic instrumentation and control loops. 5. Investigate and describe the process used for ozone production. 6. Describe the different analysis performed for water quality control. 7. What is the main use of the treated wastewater? Where is the excess sewage water treated? Describe both processes and draw the corresponding PFDs. 8. Estimate the annual cost of chemicals and energy used in both processes. 9. Explain the water-saving measures adopted by the City of Las Vegas and how these are enforced. How does automation help in this task? 10. Compare process technology, resource management, quality control, price, etc. between Las Vegas and our city.
  3. 3. 1.- INTRODUCTION • The water supply for Las Vegas Valley is comprised of groundwater Setting wells and surface water. • Groundwater wells were the initial source of supply until after Hoover Dam was dedicated in 1935. • Surface water from Lake Mead, the water impounded behind the Hoover Dam, then became a source of water supply in 1942. • The Alfred Merritt Smith Water Treatment Facility (AMSWTF), a new intake, and a pumping system were designed and placed into service in 1971, providing a secondary source of raw-water supply from Lake Mead. • In 1991 the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) was created to establish regional coordination of water resources and Nevada’s water entitlement from the Colorado River. SNWA includes all major water and wastewater agencies in southern Nevada, which are Las Vegas Valley Water District, City of Henderson, City of North Las Vegas, Boulder City, Las Vegas, Clark County Water Reclamation District, and Big Bend Water District.
  4. 4. Located
  5. 5. Geographical Map- Colorado River
  6. 6. Alfred Merritt Smith Water Treatment Facility
  7. 7. New River Mountains Water Treatment Facility (NRMWTF)
  8. 8. DURANGO HILLS WATER RESOURCE CENTER • The City of Las Vegas and Las Vegas Valley Water District partnered to develop the Durango Hills Water Resource Center. • The $37 million Durango Hills Water Resource Center is one of the biggest public works projects ever undertaken by the City of Las Vegas. • The City of Las Vegas owns and operates the Durango Hills Water which can ultimately produce up to 10 million gallons of recycled water a day. That’s enough water to fill 1,000 residential swimming pools a day. • The Durango Hills Water collects and treats wastewater flow from municipal sewer interceptors and produces recycled water, treated to specific water quality standards so it can be safely used for irrigation purposes.
  9. 9. 2.- INSTALLED AND PLANNED CAPACITY PARAMETER 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 BOD. mglL Annual average 163 196 184 201 186 202 209 215 Peak monlh 177 249 202 222 213 209 210 214 Peak day 243 416 291 484 356 349 349 401 During peak monlh now 165 249 162 191 192 195 180 191 TSS, mg/L Annual average 229 287 178 314 277 282 281 278 Peak monlh 249 338 305 382 318 321 332 314 Peak day 436 672 530 534 543 652 671 650 During peak monlh flow 232 305 260 297 274 280 279 278 Waslewater Temperature, °C Peak month 23.5 23.1 23.1 23.4 23.3 23.2 23.4 23.5 Minimum month 14.8 14.8 13.9 13.5 14.3 14.8 14.2 14.5 During peak month flow 22.9 20.1 23.1 23.4 22.4 21.2 21.3 22.5 Soutern Nevada Water Authority Capacity Table 1: Southern Nevada Water Authority River Mountain Water Treatment Facility 1998 -2005 The South wastewater treatment plant (SWWTP) was constructed in southern Henderson County near the Webster County line in 1995 and early 1996. The SWWTP has a 4.0 MGD (Million gallons per day). The North WWTP is located on Drury Lane near the Ohio River southwest of the Henderson downtown area. The plant was originally constructed as a primary treatment facility in 1954. It was upgraded to secondary treatment in 1975 and renovated and expanded in 1991, 1996 and 2001. The 1991 expansion increased the design capacity to 7.5 mgd (Million gallons per day). Monthly Operating Data-2012 Calendar Year Summary of Flows and Loads – Henderson North Wastewater Treatment Plant
  10. 10. 3. Analyze available water reserves and possible shortages in the near future
  11. 11. Analysis of Water Reserves in Nevada Water recycling is a key component of Southern Nevada’s strategic plan for the region’s water resources. The climate of Nevada is characterized as semi- arid to arid with precipitation and temperature varying widely between the northern and southern regions of the State, and between valley floors and mountain tops.
  12. 12. AVERAGE ANNUAL PRECIPITATION AT SELECTED LOCATIONS Total precipitation averages approximately 9 inches per year (53,000,000 acre-feet) making Nevada the most arid State in the Nation. Of the total annual average precipitation amount, approximately 10 percent accounts for stream runoff and ground-water recharge. County City Average Annual Precipitation, in inches Carson City Carson City 10.8 Churchill Fallon 4.9 Clark Las Vegas 4.2 Douglas Minden 8.2 Elko Elko 9.3 Esmeralda Goldfield 5.6 Humboldt Winnemucca 7.9 Lander Battle Mountain 7.5 Lincoln Caliente 9.1 Lyon Yerington 5.5 Mineral Hawthorne 4.6 Nye Tonopah 4.9 Pershing Lovelock 5.5 Storey Virginia City 12.1 Washoe Reno 7.5 White Pine Ely 9
  13. 13. Future Demands of water in Nevada Nevada estimates that between 2.3 and 2.6 million people will reside in Nevada’s Study Area by In 2015. Population is expected to increase to 4.2 to 5.1 million by 2060. A B C1 C2 D1 D2 Population (millions) 2.6 4.4 4.2 5.1 5.1 4.4 5.1 Change in per capita water usage (%), from 2015 - -20% -20% -20% -20% -20% -20% Irrigated acreage (millions of acres) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Change in per acre water delivery (%), from 2015 - n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Key Study Area Demand Scenario Parameters 2060 Scenario Parameters 2015 A B C1 C2 D1 D2 Ag demand 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M&I demand 289 506 497 589 589 506 589 Energy demand 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Minerals demand 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 FWR demand 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Tribal demand 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 Total Study Area Demand 300 517 490 600 600 517 600 2015 2060 Scenario Demands Colorado River Demand (thousand acre-ft) A B C1 C2 D1 D2 Ag demand 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M&I demand 366 530 503 613 613 530 613 Energy demand 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Minerals demand 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 FWR demand 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 Tribal demand 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 Total Study Area Demand 377 541 514 624 624 541 624 2015 2060 Scenario Demands Study Area Demand (thousand acre-ft) Appendix C8 Nevada Water Demand Scenario Quantification
  14. 14. Analysis Indicators
  15. 15. 4. Describe the drinking water process. Draw a process flow diagram with basic instrumentation and control loops.
  16. 16. Las Vegas Valley Treatment Plants and Recycling Sites
  17. 17. Source : Southern Nevada Water Authority Website
  18. 18. Video
  19. 19. Flow metering Flow control structure Ozonation Contactor Filter to waste Backwash supply tank Filtration Clearwells Zinc orthophosphate Treated water to distribution Flocculation Two-stage flash mix Raw water LIC Sodium hypochlorite Caustic soda FC PIC Ozone Calcium thiosulfate FIC Ferric chloride PIC FCV Ferric chloride PIC FCV FIC FCV LIC Southern Nevada Water System Water Treatment Process PFD Air In Air Filter convert (8-12)% of the oxygen Ozone Generator Oxygen Concentration Chlorine AIPH DRYING BEDS Splitter Gates Supply Air in O2 Out Oxygen Buffer Metter Vacuum Pumps Unit PI PI 1 Saddle Island on Lake Mead 2 Intake Pumping Station 3 Ozone Process 4 Ozone Contactors 5 Flash & Rapid Mixers 6 Splitter Gates 7 Floculation Basin 8 Filters 9 Clearwell 10 High-pressure pumping Stations 11 Backwash 12 Sedimentation Basins 13 Drying Beds Course : Industrial Technology Industrial and Comercial Engineering Group : Carlos Pariona , Daniela Barberis , Andre Sueldo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 11 13 Backwash Off Gas PIC To Atmosphere Catalyst bedScrew Coneyor M Mix Tank M LIC FCV FluorideM AIPH M Hipochloride
  20. 20. 5.-Investigate and describe the process used for ozone production.
  21. 21. Ozone Production: • Corona discharge method. • Reaction is endoderm and requires application of a large amount of energy. • Produced by means of an electric discharge applied to dry air or oxygen. • Applying a high voltage (6,000-20,000 V) to two electrodes and voltage produces an electric arc. In the arc of the O2 becomes O3. • Ozone is generated onsite because it is unstable and decomposes to elemental oxygen in a short amount of time after generation.
  22. 22. Ozone Production SNWA - Pressure swing adsorption
  23. 23. Preparation of Gas Ozone Generator Dry Air Ozone Ozone Injection System Static Mixer Water Inlet Contact Tank Ozone/Water Ozone Water Oulet Ozone Monitoring Excess Ozone Destruction Operation of Water Ozonation • The ozonation system consists of 6 components to achieve the irrigation water ozonation and anwashing. • Bubble difussers • Venturi Injection • Static Mixer
  24. 24. • After generation, ozone is fed into a down-flow contact chamber containing the wastewater to be disinfected. • The main purpose of the contactor is to transfer ozone from the gas bubble into the bulk liquid while providing sufficient contact time for disinfection. • The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the susceptibility of the target organisms, the contact time, and the concentration of the ozone. International regulations ozone •The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard average ozone concentration of 0.08 ppm in air for 8 hrs. •The OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Administration) states that workers should not be exposed to a concentration greater than 1.0 ppm ozone for more than 8 hrs of work.
  25. 25. Ozone Treatments Features • Improved water organoleptic characteristics. • Color, smell and taste undesirable, attenuated or eliminated. • Total destruction and fast (3000 times faster than chlorine) of bacteria, viruses and spores, with short contact times. • Destruction of iron and magnesium salts in the form of hydrates, resulting in easily removable products by decantation or filtration. • Clarifies water, leaving it particularly clean. • Its disinfectant covers a wide range of both temperatures and pH's. Ozone Safety Advantages • Ozone is not stored in bulk on-site • Catastrophic large-scale release is not likely because generator shutdown eliminates supply of ozone • Ozone is not explosive or flammable • No reported fatalities due to ozone exposure
  26. 26. Ozone Advantages and Disadvantages ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE Ozone is more effective than chlorine in destroying viruses and bacteria. Low dosage may not effectively inactivate some viruses, spores, and cysts. The ozonation process utilizes a short contact time (approximately 10 to 30 minutes). Ozonation is a more complex technology than is chlorine or UV disinfection, requiring complicated equipment and efficient contacting systems. • There are no harmful residuals that need to be removed after ozonation because ozone decomposes rapidly. Ozone is very reactive and corrosive, thus requiring corrosion-resistant material such as stainless steel. • After ozonation, there is no regrowth of microorganisms, except for those protected by the particulates in the wastewater stream. Ozonation is not economical for wastewater with high levels of suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon. Ozone is generated onsite, and thus, there are fewer safety problems associated with shipping and handling. Ozone is extremely irritating and possibly toxic, so off- gases from the contactor must be destroyed to prevent worker exposure. • Ozonation elevates the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the effluent. The increase in DO can eliminate the need for reaeration and also raise the level of DO in the receiving stream. The cost of treatment can be relatively high in capital and in power intensiveness.
  27. 27. 6.- QUALITY OF WATER Water delivered by the Las Vegas Valley Water District meets or surpasses all State of Nevada and federal drinking-water standards. • Treat water withdrawn from Lake Mead with small quantities of a disinfectant to destroy invasive quagga mussels, which do not impact water quality but can plug pumping equipment and pipelines. • Water then is sent to either the Alfred Merritt Smith Water Treatment Facility or the River Mountains Water Treatment Facility, where we treat it with ozone to kill potentially harmful microscopic organisms that may be present. • Use a multistage filtration system. • Add chlorine to minimize pipeline corrosion. • Uses advanced computer technologies to move water more quickly through the distribution system, which protects water quality and improves energy efficiency. TREATMENT Also test many regulated and unregulated contaminants more frequently than required. To ensure water safety: • Collected about 37,000 water samples in 2011 and conducted nearly 370,000 analyses of those samples. • Continually monitor water quality in “real time” 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. • Conduct tests for 91 regulated contaminants as well as about 30 unregulated contaminants. • Conduct extensive quality control sampling of our distribution system. While not required, this sampling is important for identifying potential areas for improvement. • They manage 363 sampling stations where They draw water samples for required bacteriological and chemical testing. Some stations are aboveground; others are installed in customers’ meter boxes to help ensure water quality is maintained all the way to the tap. TASTE • The tap water’s taste comes from naturally occurring minerals and from chlorine used in the treatment process. TESTING
  28. 28. The U.S. EPA requires water agencies to monitor for 91 regulated contaminants: • 76 contaminants have “primary” standards: Are established to protect the public against consuming drinking-water contaminants at levels that present human-health risks. In 2011, They detected 21 contaminants with primary standards. • 15 contaminants have “secondary” standards: Established to help public water systems manage their drinking water for aesthetic considerations, such as taste, color and odor. These contaminants, while regulated, are not considered to present a risk to human health. • Turbidity: regulated by a Treatment Technique (tt) requirement: 95% of all samples taken after filtration each month must be less than 0.3 NTU. Maximum turbidity cannot exceed 1.0 NTU. • Before Las Vegas Valley Water District delivers your water, it undergoes a multistage treatment process. Drinking water, as well as bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants—any substances that are not H2O.
  29. 29. Contaminants that may be present in source (untreated) water include: • Microbial contaminants: such as viruses and bacteria, which may come from urban runoff, septic systems, wildlife, agriculture and domestic wastewater discharges. Inorganic contaminants: such as salts and metals, which can be naturally occurring or result from urban runoff, septic systems and industrial or domestic wastewater discharges. • Pesticides and herbicides: which may come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban runoff and residential uses. • Organic chemical contaminants: including synthetic or volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and can come from gas stations, urban runoff and septic systems. • Radioactive contaminants: which can be naturally occurring or the result of industrial activities. To ensure tap-water safety, EPA regulations limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems.
  30. 30. Regulatedcontaminants Unit MCL(EPALimit) MCLG(EPAGoal) Minimum Maximum Average Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum Average Minimum Maximum Average PossibleSourceofContamination Erosionofnaturaldepositsofcertainmineralsthatareradiactive andmayemitaformofradiationknownasalpharadiation Arsenic ppb 10 0 N/D 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Erosionofnaturaldeposits Erosionofnaturaldeposits,dischargefrommetalrefineries, dischargeofdrillingwastes. Decayofnaturalandman-madedepositsofcertainmineral thatare radiactiveandmayemitformofradiationknownasphotonsandbeta. Copper ppm 1.3(7)(ActionLevel) 1.3 N/D 1.3 0.95(90th%Value) Corrosionofhouseholdplumbingsystems;erosionofnaturaldeposits. Di(2-Ethylhexyl)Phthalate ppb 6 0.0 N/D 4 N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D Dischargefromrubberandchemicalfactories. Fluoride ppm 4.0 4.0 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.2 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.7 Erosionofnaturaldeposits;wateradditive. FreeChlorineResidual ppm 4.0(9)(MRDL) 4.0(9)(MRDL) N/D 1.8 1.0(5) Wateraddiviteusedtocontrolmicrobes. RAA(5)27 LRAA(11)41 Lead ppb 15(7)(ActionLevel) 0 N/D 15 3.3(90th%Value) Corrosionofhouseholdplumbingsystems;erosionofnaturaldeposits. Runofffromfertilizeruse;leachingfromseptictanks, sewage;erosionofnaturaldeposits. Picloram ppb 500 500 N/D 0.4 N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D Herbiciderunoff Radium226andRadium228 pCi/L 5 0 N/D 1.2 N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D N/D Erosionofnaturaldeposits. Selenium ppb 50 50 1 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 Erosionofnaturaldeposits,dischargefrommines,componentofpetroleum. TotalColiforms %positive/month 5% 0 0% 1.4% 0.3% Naturallypresentintheenvironment. RAA(5)60 LRAA(11)69 Uranium 30 30 0 2 4 4 4 4 4 Erosionofnaturaldeposits. By-productofdrinking-waterdisinfection. Byproductofdrinking-waterdisinfection SoilRunoff 5.7(3)N/D(3) 3.2(3)3.2(3)3.2(3)3.5(3)3.5(3)3.5(3) TreatmentfacilityMonitoringOnly DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly 0.5 WATERQUALITYTESTRESULTS 2.910N/D EntrypointMonitoringOnly N/Agroundwaterisnot DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly Turbidity NTU 95%ofsamples<0.3NTU N/A TreatmentFacilitymonotoringOnly 015pCi/L 050pCi/LBetaParticlesandPothonEmitters 22ppm DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly EntrypointMonitoringOnly 100%ofsampleswerebelow0.3NTU. 100%ofsampleswerebelow0.3NTU. MaximumNTUwas0.074onDec.2012 MaximumNTUwas0.080onFeb.2012 DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly DistributionSystemMonitoringOnly TotalTrihalomethanes ppb 80 N/A(10) 3 84(13) LasVegasValleyWaterDistrict LasVegasValleyWater DistrictGroundWater Barium RiverMountains WaterTreatmentFacility EntrypointMonitoringOnly HaloaceticAcids ppm 60 N/A(10) N/D 54 DistributionSystem AlfredMerrittSmith WaterTreatmentFacility treatedwhitozone EntrypointMonitoringOnly 0 5.7(12)0.410 10Nitrate(asNitrogen) ppm EntrypointMonitoringOnly 6(5) 3 15(4) 8(5) Byproductofdrinking-waterdisinfectionbyozonation10ppbBromate 3 11(4) Water Quality Test Results
  31. 31. What about other potential water contaminants that have no regulatory limits? • They monitor and report results for about 30 contaminants unregulated by the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. • Cryptosporidium is a naturally occurring organism in many U.S. source. • Cause gastrointestinal distress. • The EPA requires water systems that treat surface water to assure removal of Cryptosporidium. • The Southern Nevada Water Authority monitors for Cryptosporidium; none was detected in any 2011 source-water samples. • Ozonation, used at both our regional water treatment facilities, is highly effective at destroying.
  32. 32. 7. What is the main use of the treated wastewater? Where is the excess sewage water treated? Describe both processes and draw the corresponding PFDs
  33. 33. The major aim of wastewater treatment Remove as much of the suspended solids Involved in treating water for drinking purpose may be solids separation using physical processes "Primary Treatment" Removes about 60 % of suspended solids
  34. 34. Las Vegas Water Cycle Municipal Colorado River Irrigation and other uses Las Vegas Wash SNWS Water (Return Flow Credits) Treatment Plant Groundwater Pumping Reclaimed Water Use Wastewater treatment Municipalities Plant (Homes and Business) Satellite Collection Municipal WRFs System Irrigation
  36. 36. Incoming Wastewater Bar Screen Grit Basin Primary SedimentationBasin Trickling Filter Secondary Sedimentation Basin Activated Sludge Aeration Basin Clarifier Biological Nutrient Removal BNR Basins Secondary Clarifier Waste Activated Sludge Basin Solids removed Gravity Thickner Slugde Holding Digesters Bio SolidsScrubbers Atmosphere Clean Air Slugde Ferric Chloride Ferric Chloride Alum Sodium Hypochlorite Sodium Bisulfite Reuse Lake Mead Dewatering Centrifuge Centrifuge 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6a 10 9 1 Bar Screen Grit Basin Primary SedimentationBasin Trickling Filter Secondary Sedimentation Basin Activated Sludge Aeration Basin Clarifier Biological Nutrient Removal BNR Basins Secondary Clarifier Filtration Desinfection Solids removed Reuse/Lake Mead 2 3 4 5 6 6a 7 8 9 10 Resume Course : Industrial Technology Industrial and Comercial Engineering Group : Carlos Pariona , Daniela Barberis , Andrés Sueldo The Treatment Process - City of Las Vegas
  37. 37. 8.- ANNUAL COST OF CHEMICALS AND ENERGY USED Chemicals used in the processes per Million Gallons • In the water treatment plants in Vegas, treated approximately 222,350,000 gallons per month. • The chemical cost per million gallons is around $ 122.14. • In Las Vegas, the approximately cost of chemicals would arrive at $ 88.38 per million gallons. 222.350 MILL GALLONS X $ 88.38 GALONS PER MILL X 12 MONTHS = $ 235 816 IN ONE YEAR Chemical Cost/unit Use Alum(aluminumsulfate) 0.1 coagulation Fluoride 0.1 disinfection Chlorine 0.1 disinfection Polymer 3 Coagulation Caustic soda 0.32 Coagulation Ferric chloride 0.18 Disinfection Activated carbon 0.58 Coagulation Ammonia 0.24 Disinfection Potassium permanganate 1.58 Coagulation Copper sulfate 0.06 Disinfection Soda Ash 0.1 pHadjustment Sodium Bisulfite 0.14 Disinfection • This doen’t show the cost price relationship, but a relationship of economic cost will require an estimate of costs of all inputs. • Therefore an empirical approach is used to explain the unit cost by chemical treatment. TOTAL ANNUAL COST OF CHEMICALS AND ENERGY USED = $ 1 157 060.31 PER YEAR
  38. 38. Estimate the annual cost of chemicals and energy used in both processes United States has about 80,000 water treatment systems and wastewater treatment facilities. The City of Las Vegas, use an average of 1,200 kWh per million gallons (MG) of the treated wastewater. A plant of 7.4 MGD (millions of gallons per day) wastewater with dissolved air flotation followed by anaerobic digestion can consume 3,200 kWh / day of electricity. Graphic 1: Percentage Breakdown of Typical Wastewater System Energy Consumption.
  39. 39. Table 9: Energy Cost Summary for 7.4 Mill gallons per day Pumping 1402 Screens 2 Aerated Grit Removal 134 Primary Clarifiers 155 Aeration 5320 Biological Nitrification 0 Return slugde pumping 423 Secondary Clarifiers 155 Chemical Addition 0 Fillet Feed Pumping 0 Filtration 0 Gravity Thinckening 25 Dissolved Air Flotation 1805 Anaerobic Digestion 1400 Belt Filter Press 384 Chlorination 27 Lighting and building 800 Ozonation 90 Flocculation 435 Total Electricity Consumption 12557 kWh/d TOTAL ELECTRICITY CONSUPTION x AVERAGE PRICES FOR ELECTRICITY = 12557 KWH PER DAY X 0.201 $/KWH X 365 DAYS = $ 921 244.305 IN ONE YEAR This table shows the electricity demand from the treatment processes for 7.4 MGD (millions of gallons per day) activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. If we want to have the total consumption in dollars for year, I’ll be: Energy used in wastewater Plants
  40. 40. 9. Explain the water-saving measures adopted by the City of Las Vegas and how these are enforced. How does automation help in this task?
  41. 41. Conservation Measure Water waste fee on your bill and/or termination of service Landscape Watering Conservation Restrictions Violations of these measures The Water District established these measures to help the community reach a conservation goal of 199 GPCD by 2035 Since 2002 SNWA has reduced its GPCD demand 29 percent from 314 GPCD to 222 GPCD in 2011. GPCD:Gallons per capita per day
  42. 42. How does automation help ? Indoor Tips Appliance Tips Faucets Shower Tips Toilet Tips Vehicle and Surface Washing Restrictions Indoor Water Audit and Retrofit Kits Pool and Spa Leaks Pool Cover Instant Rebate Coupon Reading Your Water Meter WaterSense Labeled Irrigation Controllers Soil Moisture Sensors Rainfall Shutoff Devices
  43. 43. Watering Restrictions Time Restictions Summer Any day of the w eek from May 1 through Aug. 31.. 11 a.m. and 7 p.m. from May 1 until Oct. 1. Fall Assigned days per w eek from Sept. 1 through Oct. 31. Watering is prohibited from 11 a.m. to 7 p.m. until Oct. 1 Winter One assigned day per w eek from Nov. 1 through Feb. 28. Divided by Group(Example A:Monday , B: Tuesday, etc) Spring three assigned days per w eek from March 1 through April 30. Divided by Group(Example A:Monday , B: Tuesday, etc) Landscape Watering Mist Systems Boulder City Clark County Turf Limits Henderson City of Las Vegas North Las Vegas Single-Family Homes Installation of new turf is prohibited in front yards.(turf must not exceed 5,000 square feet in side and back yards) No new turf is allowed in front yards. Turf in side and rear yards may not exceed 50 percent, or 100 square feet No new turf is allowed in front yards. Turf in side and rear yards may not exceed 50 percent, or 100 square feet No new turf is allowed in front yards. Turf in side and rear yards may not exceed 50 percent, or 100 square feet New grass is prohibited in residential front yards and restricted to 50 percent of side and back yards. A maximum of 5,000 square feet of turf is allowed. Multifamily Homes (Apartments, Condos) New turf is prohibited in common areas or front yards (except for private or public parks). New turf is prohibited in common areas or front yards (except for privately-owned parks) with an area greater than 10 feet. New turf is prohibited in common areas, except for public and privately-owned parks as long as turf area is not less than 10 feet. New turf is prohibited in common areas, except for public and privately- owned parks as long as turf area is not less than 10 feet. Turf is prohibited in common areas of residential neighborhoods. This does NOT apply to parks, including required open space in multifamily Non- Residential Developments Installation of new turf is prohibited with the exception of community-use recreational turf, golf New turf is prohibited except for major schools, parks or cemeteries. New turf installation is prohibited, unless specifically permitted by approval of land use application. New turf installation is prohibited, unless specifically permitted by approval of land use application. Prohibited unless specifically permitted by a land use application that is approved by the city. Turf Limits - Prohibit the amount of grass to be planted at new properties. A Monday Monday, Wednesday, Friday Any Day B Tuesday Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday Any Day C Wednesday Monday, Wednesday, Friday Any Day D Thursday Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday Any Day E Friday Monday, Wednesday, Friday Any Day F Saturday Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday Any Day Summer (May-August) Watering Group Winter (November- February) Spring/Fall (March- April/September- October) Water Restrictions
  44. 44. 10.- LAS VEGAS AND LA ATARJEA In the area of water and sanitation in Peru: • Increased access to potable water from 30% to 62% occurred between the years 1980 to 2004. • Increasing access to sanitation from 9% to 30% between 1985 and 2004 in rural areas. • Disinfection of drinking water and sewage treatment. However, many challenges remain in the sector, such as: - Insufficient coverage of services. - Poor quality of service delivery that jeopardizes the health of the population. - Poor sustainability of constructed systems. - Rates that do not cover the costs of investment, operation and maintenance services. - Institutional and financial weakness. - Human resources in excess, low-skilled and high turnover. While in Las Vegas, The Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) was formed in 1991 to manage Southern Nevada's water needs on a regional basis. • SNWA provides wholesale water treatment and delivery for the greater Las Vegas Valley. • Is responsible for acquiring and managing long-term water resources for Southern Nevada. • From its inception, the SNWA has worked to acquire additional water resources, manage existing and future water resources, construct and operate regional water facilities and promote water conservation.
  45. 45. Source Raw Water Lake Mead, America’s largest man-made reservoir, was formed in 1935 after the completion of Hoover Dam. Lake Mead has the capacity to store up to 28.5 million acre-feet1 (AF) of water. Nearly 97 percent of the water flowing into Lake Mead comes from the Colorado River. The remaining 3 percent of the water in Lake Mead comes from the Muddy and Virgin rivers and the Las Vegas Wash. Rímac River is a river in Peru, part of the Pacific slope, which ends after bathing the cities of Lima and Callao, in conjunction with the Chillon River in the north, and the river Lurin, south. It has a length of 160 km and a basin of 3,312 km ², of which 2237.2 km ² is wet basin. The basin has a total of 191 lakes, of which only 89 have been studied. SNWA SEDAPAL Process Treatment Escheme 1 : Conventional treatment line applied to surface waters in the 60s and 70s. Escheme 2 : Typical treatment line for surface waters in the 90s
  46. 46. OZONE CHLORINE Oxidation Potential (Volts)- 2.07 1.36 Disinfection: Bacteria Excellent Moderate Viruses Excellent Moderate Environmentally Friendly Yes No Color Removal Excellent Good Carcinogen Formation Unlikely Likely Organics Oxidation High Moderate Micro flocculation Moderate None pH Effect Lowers Variable Water Half-Life 20 min. 2-3 hours Operation Hazards: Skin Toxicity Moderate High Inhalation Toxicity High High Complexity High Low Capital Cost High Low Monthly Use Cost Low Moderate-High Air Pre-treatment Filer and dehumidify air None Comparison of Disinfection Technology (Ozone against Chlorine)
  47. 47. Rates Comparison Single-Family Residential Meter Sizes Billing Detail per Range in SEDAPAL Rate per 1,000 gallons $0.3355 1 0 - 5 $1.16 X 30 days = $10.06 2 5.01 - 10 $2.08 3 10.01 - 20 $3.09 4 20.01 and over $4.58 $0.3863 1 0 - 6.8 $1.16 X 30 days = $11.59 2 6.81 - 13.5 $2.08 3 13.51 - 27.0 $3.09 4 27.01 - and over $4.58 $0.4880 1 0 - 10.1 $1.16 X 30 days = $14.64 2 10.11 - 20.32 $2.08 3 20.33 - 57.5 $3.09 4 57.51 and over $4.58 $0.7419 1 0 - 18.6 $1.16 X 30 days = $22.26 2 18.61 - 37.2 $2.08 3 37.21 - 175.7 $3.09 4 175.71 and over $4.58 $1.0472 1 0 - 28.71 $1.16 X 30 days = $31.42 2 28.72 - 57.43 $2.08 3 57.44 - 385.26 $3.09 4 385.27 and over $4.58 Threshold X 1,000 gallons Meter Size (inches) Daily Service Charge Tie r 5/8 3/4 1 1.5 2 Range (m3) 10 25 50 1000 2000 2500 Volumen de Agua Potable 9.92 24.8 49.6 992 1984 2480 Servicio de Alcantarillado 4.34 10.85 21.7 434 868 1085 Cargo Fijo 4.89 4.89 4.89 4.89 4.89 4.89 IGV 18% 3.447 7.2972 13.7142 257.5602 514.2402 642.5802 Total 22.60S/. 47.84S/. 89.90S/. 1,688.45S/. 3,371.13S/. 4,212.47S/. USD 8.37S/. 17.72S/. 33.30S/. 625.35S/. 1,248.57S/. 1,560.17S/. RESIDENCIAL Social 10 8.37$ Domestic 25 17.72$ 50 33.30$ NO RESIDENCIAL Comercial 1000 625.35$ 2000 1,248.57$ Industrial 2500 1,560.17$ Range m3/month Total (USD/m3)
  48. 48. Thecnology: SNWA SEDAPAL EEC SOUTH AMERICA S.A.C • Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a technology used to separate some gas species from a mixture of gases under pressure according to the species' molecular characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material. • It operates at near-ambient temperatures and so differs from cryogenic distillation techniques of gas separation. • Special adsorptive materials (e.g., zeolites) are used as a molecular sieve, preferentially adsorbing the target gas species at high pressure. The process then swings to low pressure to desorb the adsorbent material. • Implementing the SCADA system for the automation of the plant, including in the process of modernization of the company, so you can have the latest technology for monitoring and remote operation through a radio or optical fiber. • Automation System Control • Using a Moving Bed Bio Reactor- MBBR, where the hydraulic resistance time is reduced to one- fifth, making it more compact compared to other systems. The process involves the degradation bio aerobic through moving bed, caused by continuous aeration in the bioreactor. The effluent passes through the high-speed laminar settler where clarified. after liquid chlorine is dosed. • AMB Serve as support for the formation of microbial colonies performing effluent organic degradation. the AMB offer simple solutions to the problem of biological treatment and organic load strippage, ammonia nitrogen and nutrients without the need for expansion of existing tanks.
  49. 49. Wastewater Treatment Applications in Peru
  50. 50. SERIE MINI CON SERIE CON Features Unid 6 KLPD 20 KLPD 30 KLPD Flow m3 /d 6 20 30 Length mm 3500 3500 4000 Height mm 1400 2200 2200 Width mm 600 1500 2000 Electricity Consumpti on HP 2 2.76 3.4 Load Weight Kg 1500 2100 2600 Weight Running Kg 5250 10000 15000 MODELO SERIE MINI CON Features Unidad 8CON 10CON 15CON 19CON 23CON 30CON 35CON 39CON Flow m3 /d 40 60 110 150 180 240 300 400 Length mm 2500 3100 4500 5780 7000 9000 10700 12000 Height mm 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2500 Width mm 2192 2192 2192 2192 2192 2192 2192 2192 Electricity Consumption HP 3 4.5 7 7 10 10 13 15.5 Load Weight Kg 3720 4460 5895 7180 8350 10450 12130 15090 Weight Running Kg 9060 11780 18085 23860 29360 38380 46050 52850 MODELOS SERIE CON PRODUCTS
  51. 51. BASIC PROCESS SYSTEMS EEC 1. Chamber of lattices. 2. Oil and Grease Trap. 3. Homogenization tank. 4. Bio Reactor 1 and 2 (AMB Bio Rotate half by aeration). 5. Final Sedimentation and recycling of sludge. 6. Effluent Recycling Treaty, irrigation, complying with any law of discharge to the environment.
  52. 52. Cost of Installation Specs Flujo Población UNID m3/d Pers. 6 KLPD 06 a 10 40 20 KLPD 15 a 20 130 30 KLPD 25 a 30 200 8CON 26 170 10CON 40 265 15CON 73 480 19CON 100 670 23CON 120 800 30CON 160 1060 35CON 200 1330 39CON 266 1770 Video of Installation
  53. 53. CONCLUSION  Through this research work, we have known the different water treatment processes and all the technologies that are used today to improve water quality. Also, we have learned what the key processes are during this process and what the way to make the process more efficient is.  This approach ignores important benefits of indoor conservation efforts. Increasing indoor water- use efficiency would: -Reduce energy and chemical costs associated with pumping water from the Colorado River, treating it for use, transporting it, and treating it again as wastewater. -Reduce energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. -Save the customer money over the life of those improvements through reductions in energy, water, and wastewater bills. -Permit more people to be served with the same volume of water, without affecting return flows. -Reduce dependence on water sources vulnerable to drought and political conflict. Delay or eliminate the need for significant capital investment to expand conveyance and treatment infrastructure. The benefits of conservation extend beyond water. Saving water saves energy and money and ensures that adequate water supply is available for future generations. Furthermore, extensive water conservation and efficiency improvements will not result in demand hardening  We can conclude that Water treatment is necessary to remove the impurities that are contained in water as found in nature. Control or elimination of these impurities is necessary to combat corrosion, scale formation, and fouling of heat transfer surfaces throughout the reactor facility and support systems. Also, there are three reasons for using very pure water in reactor facility systems to minimize corrosion, which is enhanced by impurities. To minimize radiation levels in a reactor facility. Some of the natural impurities and most of the corrosion products become highly radioactive after exposure to the neutron flux in the core region. If not removed.
  54. 54. RECOMMENDATIONS • The recommendations offered in this study support Southern Nevada’s existing recycled water programs and offer opportunities to expand them as well as to promote new recycled water uses. These recommendations and the guiding principles that support them are complementary to the region’s conservation efforts and provide sustainable solutions to make the best use of Southern Nevada’s water resources. BIBLIOGRAPHY WEB SITE: BOOKS: Crites, R. and G. Tchobanoglous. 1998. Small and Decentralized Wastewater Management Systems. The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York, New York. Martin, E. J. and E. T. Martin. 1991. Technologies for Small Water and Wastewater Systems. Environmental Engineering Series. Van Nostrand Reinhold (now acquired by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.). New York, New York. 209–213 p. Heather Cooley, Taryn Hutchins-Cabibi; Michael Cohen; Peter H. Gleick and Matthew Heberger. Hidden Oasis: Water Conservation and Efficiency in Las Vegas. Colorado. Pacific Institute November 2007. 36-45 p. MWH's Water Treatment - Principles and Design, 3d Edition. John C. Crittenden Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, NAE; Hightower Chair and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar; Director of the Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems Georgia Institute of Technology R. Rhodes Trussell Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, NAE Principal; Trussell Technologies, Inc. David W. Hand Ph.D., BCEEM; Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Michigan Technical University; Kerry J. Howe Ph.D., P.E., BCEE Associate Professor of Civil Engineering; University of New Mexico. George Tchobanoglous Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, NAE Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California at Davis. Kevin L. Rakness 2005. Ozone in Drinking Water Process Design Operations and Optimization. American Water Works Association