The Skeletal
System:
The Framework
6

Skeleton’s FunctionSkeleton’s Function
• Provides support and structure
• Allows us to move
• Protects soft body parts
•...

 Bones are primary components
of the skeleton
 Although composed of nonliving
minerals such as calcium and
phosphorus,...

 The word skeleton comes from
Greek word meaning "dried-up
body"
Bones-IntroBones-Intro

 Classified according to their shape
 Long bones: longer than they are wide and
can be found in arms and legs
General ...

 Classified according to their shape
 Short bones: fairly equal in width and length
and found mostly in wrists and ank...

 Classified according to their shape
 Flat bones: thinner and can be either flat or
curved; plate like in nature and w...

 Classified according to their shape
 Irregular bones: like parts of jigsaw puzzle,
odd in shape; include hip bones an...

Figure 6-1
Various bone shapes.

 Periosteum (around bone)
 Tough and fibrous
connective tissue covering
bone
 Contains blood vessels,
which transport...

Bone AnatomyBone Anatomy
 Epiphysis and diaphysis
 Epiphysis: bone end
 Diaphysis: region between
or "running through...

 Bone marrow
 Red marrow: makes
blood cells
 Yellow marrow:
high fat content; can
convert to red
marrow in emergency
...

Figure 6-2
Basic bone anatomy.
• Periosteum
• Epiphysis
• Diaphysis
• Medullary
• Red Marrow
• Yellow Marrow

PA/Instructor Asks:
A. Erythropoetin
B. Electrophoresis
C. Hemorrhage
D. Hemopoiesis

Bone TissueBone Tissue

Bone TissueBone Tissue

 Each unit or osteon
has mature bone cells
(osteocytes)
forming concentric
circles around blood
vessels
 Area around o...

 Osteons run
parallel to each
other; blood
vessels laterally
connect with
them to ensure
there is
sufficient
oxygen and...

 Trabeculae are
bars and plates
with holes in
the middle to
make the bone
lighter and
create space
for marrow to
form r...

Figure 6-3
Comparison of compact and
spongy bone.
Compact
•Osteons with
•Osteophytes
•Connected by blood
and lymph vesse...

 Bone is not perfectly
smooth; has variety of
projections, bumps, and
depressions
 Projections act as
points of
attach...

 Grooves and
depressions act
as pathways
for nerves and
blood vessels
Surface Structure ofSurface Structure of
BonesBon...
 Ossification (osteogenesis): formation of
bone in the body
 Bones grow longitudinally to develop
lengthen and horizont...

 Osteoprogenitor cells: nonspecialized cells
found in periosteum, endosteum, and
central canal of compact bones; can tu...

Bone Growth andBone Growth and
Repair-Cell TypesRepair-Cell Types

Bone GrowthBone Growth
and Repairand Repair
Osteoblasts actually form
bone and secrete a matrix
of calcium and phosphate

Bone Growth andBone Growth and
RepairRepair
Osteocytes mature bone cells that started as
osteoblasts; osteoblasts surrou...

 Osteoclasts: believed to originate from type
of white blood cell called monocyte found in
red bone marrow; job is to t...

FOUR Cells of
Bone Growth

PA/Instructor Asks:PA/Instructor Asks:
A. Osteoblasts
B. Osteoclasts
C. Osteogenitor
D. Osteoporosis

 Bone development and growth begins in the
womb through intramembranous and
endochondral ossification
Bone GrowthBone G...

 Watch video “Skeletal System Bone
Formation”
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIT8zIWmSiI
Bone Growth andBone Growth a...

Figure 6-4
Endochondral ossification of
long bone.
• Begins before birth
• Periosteum surrounds the
“cartilage bone”
• C...

Figure 6-4
Endochondral ossification of
long bone.
• Meanwhile other
osteoblasts form
compact bone under
periosteum.
• O...

Figure 6-4
Endochondral ossification of
long bone.
Epiphyseal
plate is thin
band of
cartilage that
forms between
primary...

 Epiphyseal plate (growth plate)exists as
long as bones need to lengthen and widen
Bone Growth andBone Growth and
Repai...

PA/Instructor Asks:PA/Instructor Asks:
A. Calcium
B. Vitamin D
C. Fluoride
D. Caffeine
*Read “Osteoporosis on Page 122

Figure 6-5
A normal bone compared to an
osteoporotic bone.

 Special form of dense connective tissue
that can withstand fair amount of flexing,
tension, and pressure
CartilageCart...

 Flexible part of nose and ears are cartilage
CartilageCartilage

 Makes flexible
connection
between bones, as
between
breastbone and
ribs, allowing
chest to flex during
deep breathing
...

 Acts as cushion
between bones;
articular cartilage
located on ends of
bones and acts as
shock absorber,
preventing end...

Figure 6-6
Articular cartilage and synovial joint.
At this location, a
small sac, called
bursa, secretes
lubricant calle...

Articulation/JointsArticulation/Joints
When two or
more bones
join together
they form a
joint or
articulation
When two o...

 Ligaments: tough, whitish bands that connect
from bone to bone; can withstand heavy
stress
Joints and LigamentsJoints ...

 Tendons are cordlike structures that attach
muscle to bone
Joints and TendonsJoints and Tendons

Types of JointsTypes of Joints

Types of JointsTypes of Joints

Figure 6-7
Types of Synovial joints.
Hinge: movement in ONE
direction; knee and elbow
Ball & Socket: lots of
movement; s...

Figure 6-7
Types of Synovial joints.
Gliding: flat & platelike that
slide black and forth;
scapula, wrists and ankles
Sa...

Figure 6-8
Classification of joint movements.
Hyperextension: joint forced
to straighten beyond its
normal limits
Abduct...

Figure 6-8
Classification of joint movements.
Supination: turning hand
palm up
Pronation: turning hand palm
down
Circumd...

Figure 6-8
Classification of joint movements.
Flexion: bending a joint and
decreasing angle between
involved bones
Exten...

Figure 6-9
The anterior and posterior
human skeleton.
Axial skeleton (80)
•thorax,
•spinal column,
•hyoid bone,
•bones o...

Figure 6-10
Bones of the skull.
Protects and houses
brain; has openings
needed for sensory organs
(eyes, nose, and ears)...

Figure 6-10 (continued)
Bones of the skull.

Figure 6-10 (continued)
Bones of the skull.

Figure 6-11
The bony thorax.
The Bones of chest form thoracic "cage" that
provides support and protection for heart,
lun...

Figure 6-11
The bony thorax.
Cage is flexible due to cartilaginous
connections that allow for movement during the
proces...

 Sternum (breastbone) is location for
performing chest compressions during
CPR, compressing heart between sternum and
b...

Figure 6-12
The spinal column.
Also called
vertebral column;
super highway for
information
traveling to and
from the cen...
 7 cervical vertebrae
in neck area
 12 thoracic
vertebrae in upper
back
 5 lumbar vertebrae
in lower back
 5 sacral v...

 At birth, vertebral column concave to front,
like a fetal position (primary curvature)
 Curvature changes as infant l...

 From two years onward,
vertebral column
develops secondary
curvature in neck,
primary curvature in
upper back, seconda...

Figure 6-13
Spinal disfigurements compared
to healthy spinal curves.

Figure 6-14
Bones of the upper and lower
extremities.
Appendicular
region consists of
arms and legs
These areas
perform ...

Figure 6-14
Bones of the upper and lower
extremities.
Pelvic girdle different
for women than men
Women have greater
pubi...

 Fracture is any break in a bone
 Types of fractures
 Simple (closed): break without puncture to
skin
 Compound (ope...

 Types of fractures
 Greenstick: incomplete breaks, more common in
children
 Comminuted: when bone has been fragmente...

 Compound or open fractures are particularly
nasty because deep tissue has potential to be
exposed to bacteria once bon...

 Bones take several weeks to heal; can only
heal normally if ends of bones are touching
 If bones are not touching (po...

 A somewhat frail 76-year-old female visits her
physician's office for an annual check-up. Her
social history shows she...

 She has had several fractured bones in the
last five years that required medical attention.
During initial examination...

 What possible bone disease do you think she
is exhibiting?
 Describe the bone changes in this condition on
a macro an...
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Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 6

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Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 6

  1. 1. The Skeletal System: The Framework 6
  2. 2.  Skeleton’s FunctionSkeleton’s Function • Provides support and structure • Allows us to move • Protects soft body parts • Produces blood cells • Stores minerals and fats
  3. 3.   Bones are primary components of the skeleton  Although composed of nonliving minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, bones are very much alive, constantly building and repairing themselves Bones-IntroBones-Intro
  4. 4.   The word skeleton comes from Greek word meaning "dried-up body" Bones-IntroBones-Intro
  5. 5.   Classified according to their shape  Long bones: longer than they are wide and can be found in arms and legs General BoneGeneral Bone ClassificationsClassifications
  6. 6.   Classified according to their shape  Short bones: fairly equal in width and length and found mostly in wrists and ankles General BoneGeneral Bone ClassificationsClassifications
  7. 7.   Classified according to their shape  Flat bones: thinner and can be either flat or curved; plate like in nature and would include skull, ribs, and breastbone (sternum) General BoneGeneral Bone ClassificationsClassifications
  8. 8.   Classified according to their shape  Irregular bones: like parts of jigsaw puzzle, odd in shape; include hip bones and vertebrae General BoneGeneral Bone ClassificationsClassifications
  9. 9.  Figure 6-1 Various bone shapes.
  10. 10.   Periosteum (around bone)  Tough and fibrous connective tissue covering bone  Contains blood vessels, which transport blood and nutrients to nurture bone cells, lymph vessels, and nerves  Acts as anchor points for ligaments and tendons Bone AnatomyBone Anatomy
  11. 11.  Bone AnatomyBone Anatomy  Epiphysis and diaphysis  Epiphysis: bone end  Diaphysis: region between or "running through" two epiphyses; also called shaft  Hollow region in diaphysis (medullary cavity or canal) acts as storage area for bone marrow
  12. 12.   Bone marrow  Red marrow: makes blood cells  Yellow marrow: high fat content; can convert to red marrow in emergency Bone AnatomyBone Anatomy
  13. 13.  Figure 6-2 Basic bone anatomy. • Periosteum • Epiphysis • Diaphysis • Medullary • Red Marrow • Yellow Marrow
  14. 14.  PA/Instructor Asks: A. Erythropoetin B. Electrophoresis C. Hemorrhage D. Hemopoiesis
  15. 15.  Bone TissueBone Tissue
  16. 16.  Bone TissueBone Tissue
  17. 17.   Each unit or osteon has mature bone cells (osteocytes) forming concentric circles around blood vessels  Area around osteocyte filled with protein fibers, calcium, and other minerals Bone Tissue-CompactBone Tissue-Compact
  18. 18.   Osteons run parallel to each other; blood vessels laterally connect with them to ensure there is sufficient oxygen and nutrients for bone cells Bone Tissue-CompactBone Tissue-Compact
  19. 19.   Trabeculae are bars and plates with holes in the middle to make the bone lighter and create space for marrow to form red blood cells Bone Tissue-SpongyBone Tissue-Spongy Trabeculae
  20. 20.  Figure 6-3 Comparison of compact and spongy bone. Compact •Osteons with •Osteophytes •Connected by blood and lymph vessels Spongy •Trabeculae formed by bars and plates •Hollow to give space for marrow
  21. 21.   Bone is not perfectly smooth; has variety of projections, bumps, and depressions  Projections act as points of attachment for muscles, ligaments, or tendons Surface Structure ofSurface Structure of BonesBones
  22. 22.   Grooves and depressions act as pathways for nerves and blood vessels Surface Structure ofSurface Structure of BonesBones
  23. 23.  Ossification (osteogenesis): formation of bone in the body  Bones grow longitudinally to develop lengthen and horizontally (wider and thicker) so they can efficiently support body weight and any other weight we support Bone Growth andBone Growth and Repair-OsteogenesisRepair-Osteogenesis
  24. 24.   Osteoprogenitor cells: nonspecialized cells found in periosteum, endosteum, and central canal of compact bones; can turn into other types of cells as needed Non-Specialized CellsNon-Specialized Cells
  25. 25.  Bone Growth andBone Growth and Repair-Cell TypesRepair-Cell Types
  26. 26.  Bone GrowthBone Growth and Repairand Repair Osteoblasts actually form bone and secrete a matrix of calcium and phosphate
  27. 27.  Bone Growth andBone Growth and RepairRepair Osteocytes mature bone cells that started as osteoblasts; osteoblasts surround themselves with matrix of calcium that helps them become mature osteocytes
  28. 28.   Osteoclasts: believed to originate from type of white blood cell called monocyte found in red bone marrow; job is to tear down bone material and help move calcium and phosphate into the blood Bone Growth andBone Growth and RepairRepair
  29. 29.  FOUR Cells of Bone Growth
  30. 30.  PA/Instructor Asks:PA/Instructor Asks: A. Osteoblasts B. Osteoclasts C. Osteogenitor D. Osteoporosis
  31. 31.   Bone development and growth begins in the womb through intramembranous and endochondral ossification Bone GrowthBone Growth and Repairand Repair
  32. 32.   Watch video “Skeletal System Bone Formation”  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIT8zIWmSiI Bone Growth andBone Growth and RepairRepair
  33. 33.  Figure 6-4 Endochondral ossification of long bone. • Begins before birth • Periosteum surrounds the “cartilage bone” • Cartilage breaks down and osteoblasts create spongy bone in primary ossification region
  34. 34.  Figure 6-4 Endochondral ossification of long bone. • Meanwhile other osteoblasts form compact bone under periosteum. • Osteoclasts then break down the spongy bone of diaphysis (shaft) to create medullary (middle) of bone
  35. 35.  Figure 6-4 Endochondral ossification of long bone. Epiphyseal plate is thin band of cartilage that forms between primary and secondary ossification centers
  36. 36.   Epiphyseal plate (growth plate)exists as long as bones need to lengthen and widen Bone Growth andBone Growth and RepairRepair
  37. 37.  PA/Instructor Asks:PA/Instructor Asks: A. Calcium B. Vitamin D C. Fluoride D. Caffeine *Read “Osteoporosis on Page 122
  38. 38.  Figure 6-5 A normal bone compared to an osteoporotic bone.
  39. 39.   Special form of dense connective tissue that can withstand fair amount of flexing, tension, and pressure CartilageCartilage
  40. 40.   Flexible part of nose and ears are cartilage CartilageCartilage
  41. 41.   Makes flexible connection between bones, as between breastbone and ribs, allowing chest to flex during deep breathing CartilageCartilage
  42. 42.   Acts as cushion between bones; articular cartilage located on ends of bones and acts as shock absorber, preventing ends from grinding together when you move CartilageCartilage
  43. 43.  Figure 6-6 Articular cartilage and synovial joint. At this location, a small sac, called bursa, secretes lubricant called synovial fluid Joints can wear out and become inflamed despite all this protection, resulting in arthritis or osteoarthritis
  44. 44.  Articulation/JointsArticulation/Joints When two or more bones join together they form a joint or articulation When two or more bones join together they form a joint or articulation
  45. 45.   Ligaments: tough, whitish bands that connect from bone to bone; can withstand heavy stress Joints and LigamentsJoints and Ligaments
  46. 46.   Tendons are cordlike structures that attach muscle to bone Joints and TendonsJoints and Tendons
  47. 47.  Types of JointsTypes of Joints
  48. 48.  Types of JointsTypes of Joints
  49. 49.  Figure 6-7 Types of Synovial joints. Hinge: movement in ONE direction; knee and elbow Ball & Socket: lots of movement; shoulder and hip Pivot: rotation only is possible; neck or radius/ulnar Ellipsoid joint: two areas of movement through same bone; wrist, knuckles
  50. 50.  Figure 6-7 Types of Synovial joints. Gliding: flat & platelike that slide black and forth; scapula, wrists and ankles Saddle: bone shaped like saddle sits over another like a horse; 1st metacarpal or thumb or the carpal bone
  51. 51.  Figure 6-8 Classification of joint movements. Hyperextension: joint forced to straighten beyond its normal limits Abduction: moving away from body's midline Adduction: moving toward midline of body Inversion: turning foot inward toward other foot Eversion: turning foot outward away from opposing foot
  52. 52.  Figure 6-8 Classification of joint movements. Supination: turning hand palm up Pronation: turning hand palm down Circumduction: combination of movements in the circular arm movement of a pitcher Protraction: movement of part forward Retraction: motion of drawing part backward Rotation: when bone "spins" on its axis
  53. 53.  Figure 6-8 Classification of joint movements. Flexion: bending a joint and decreasing angle between involved bones Extension: straightening a joint; angle between involved bones increases Plantar flexion: pointing toes down Dorsiflexion: bending foot up toward the leg
  54. 54.  Figure 6-9 The anterior and posterior human skeleton. Axial skeleton (80) •thorax, •spinal column, •hyoid bone, •bones of middle ear, •Skull Appendicular (126) •Arms • legs • hips •shoulder
  55. 55.  Figure 6-10 Bones of the skull. Protects and houses brain; has openings needed for sensory organs (eyes, nose, and ears) Contains mouth, common passageway for both respiratory and digestive systems Fibrous cartilage allows for some flexibility of bones surrounding the brain
  56. 56.  Figure 6-10 (continued) Bones of the skull.
  57. 57.  Figure 6-10 (continued) Bones of the skull.
  58. 58.  Figure 6-11 The bony thorax. The Bones of chest form thoracic "cage" that provides support and protection for heart, lungs, and great blood vessels
  59. 59.  Figure 6-11 The bony thorax. Cage is flexible due to cartilaginous connections that allow for movement during the process of breathing
  60. 60.   Sternum (breastbone) is location for performing chest compressions during CPR, compressing heart between sternum and bones of vertebrae The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax
  61. 61.  Figure 6-12 The spinal column. Also called vertebral column; super highway for information traveling to and from the central nervous system
  62. 62.  7 cervical vertebrae in neck area  12 thoracic vertebrae in upper back  5 lumbar vertebrae in lower back  5 sacral vertebrae midbuttock region  1 tailbone or coccyx is 3-5 small bones fused The Spinal ColumnThe Spinal Column
  63. 63.   At birth, vertebral column concave to front, like a fetal position (primary curvature)  Curvature changes as infant learns to hold its head up, as well as starts to walk, curving in opposite direction The Spinal ColumnThe Spinal Column
  64. 64.   From two years onward, vertebral column develops secondary curvature in neck, primary curvature in upper back, secondary curvature in lower back, primary curvature in midbuttocks and tailbone regions The Spinal ColumnThe Spinal Column
  65. 65.  Figure 6-13 Spinal disfigurements compared to healthy spinal curves.
  66. 66.  Figure 6-14 Bones of the upper and lower extremities. Appendicular region consists of arms and legs These areas perform most of the body movement, making them more vulnerable to sport- related injuries
  67. 67.  Figure 6-14 Bones of the upper and lower extremities. Pelvic girdle different for women than men Women have greater pubic angle, which facilitates childbirth, and broad girdle to support extra weight of child Pelvis consists of: ilium, ischium, pubis
  68. 68.   Fracture is any break in a bone  Types of fractures  Simple (closed): break without puncture to skin  Compound (open): fracture in which bone has been pushed through skin  Hairline: fine fracture that does not completely break or displace bone (looks like hair on x-ray) Pathology Connection: BonePathology Connection: Bone Fractures and HealingFractures and Healing
  69. 69.   Types of fractures  Greenstick: incomplete breaks, more common in children  Comminuted: when bone has been fragmented or splintered Pathology Connection: BonePathology Connection: Bone Fractures and HealingFractures and Healing
  70. 70.   Compound or open fractures are particularly nasty because deep tissue has potential to be exposed to bacteria once bone is set into place; chance for infection in addition to break is increased Pathology Connection: BonePathology Connection: Bone Fractures and HealingFractures and Healing
  71. 71.   Bones take several weeks to heal; can only heal normally if ends of bones are touching  If bones are not touching (poorly aligned), bone must be set (reduced)  Traction may be used to treat fractures of long bones Pathology Connection: BonePathology Connection: Bone Fractures and HealingFractures and Healing Watch video “Fracture Healing” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYNGyZrUXEk
  72. 72.   A somewhat frail 76-year-old female visits her physician's office for an annual check-up. Her social history shows she smokes a pack of cigarettes a day and is a heavy coffee drinker. Case StudyCase Study
  73. 73.   She has had several fractured bones in the last five years that required medical attention. During initial examination, measurements show that the patient has lost approximately an inch of height over the past year. She has also lost several pounds but states she still wears the same size clothes. Case StudyCase Study
  74. 74.   What possible bone disease do you think she is exhibiting?  Describe the bone changes in this condition on a macro and cellular level (page 122)  What treatments and/or lifestyle changes would you suggest? Case StudyCase Study

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