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The Integumentary
System: The
Protective Covering
Chapter 8

IntegumentaryIntegumentary
Integumentary
system shelters
body from the
environment
Integumentary
system shelters
body fr...

IntegumentaryIntegumentary
Skin forms
protective barrier,
shielding body
from elements and
pathogens, as well
as perform...

Skin’s AccessoriesSkin’s Accessories
Skin is essential to
well-being, helps to
regulate body
temperature, and
contains m...

Skin-Vital FunctionsSkin-Vital Functions
Skin keeps
the body
from drying
out and is a
natural
sunscreen
Skin keeps
the b...

The PA/Instructor Asks
What skin rash is caused by a viral illness and is a
reaction to the body’s immune system trying ...

Figure 8-1
The three layers of the skin.
Largest organ, weighing approximately 20 pounds and covering
area about 20.83 s...

First Layer-EpidermisFirst Layer-Epidermis
Layer of skin we see
on outside; made up
of several smaller
layers of stratif...

First Layer-EpidermisFirst Layer-Epidermis
Avascular and contains
NO NERVE CELLS
Avascular and contains
NO NERVE CELLS
C...

First Layer-EpidermisFirst Layer-Epidermis
Outermost layer is layer of dead cells, called
stratum corneum, which are fla...

First Layer-EpidermisFirst Layer-Epidermis
The body sloughs off
500 million cells every
day, or about one and
a half pou...

Melanocytes in EpidermisMelanocytes in Epidermis
Specialized cells
(melanocytes) located
deep in epidermis;
responsible ...

Melanocytes in EpidermisMelanocytes in Epidermis
Variations of skin color
result of amount of
melanin produced and
how i...

The PA/Instructor Asks
A person who is an albino (very little pigment in their
skin) is at risk for two conditions: Skin...

Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis
Layer below, or
inferior to,
epidermis is
thicker dermis
layer (corium)
Layer bel...

Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis

Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis

Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis
Small dermal papillae
project from surface
and anchor this layer
to epidermal lay...

Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis
Fingerprints and toe prints arise from
this layer
Nerve fibers allow you to sense...

Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis

The PA/Instructor Asks
What other factor, besides aging, leads to change in the
skin’s firmness and decreases its abilit...

Part of the Dermis-Part of the Dermis-
Sweat GlandsSweat Glands
Two main types of
sudoriferous or sweat
glands:
Apocrine...

Part of the Dermis-Part of the Dermis-
Sweat GlandsSweat Glands
Eccrine glands are
found in greater
numbers on palms,
fe...

Part of Dermis-Part of Dermis-
Sweat GlandsSweat Glands

Part of the Dermis-Part of the Dermis-
Sweat & Oil GlandsSweat & Oil Glands

Part of the Dermis-Part of the Dermis-
Sebaceous GlandsSebaceous Glands

Figure 8-2
Sweat and sebaceous glands.
Sebaceous glands
usually found in
hair covered areas
and deposit sebum
on hair sh...

Figure 8-2
Sweat and sebaceous glands.
Sebaceous glands
also found on non
hair covered areas
such as eyelids,
penis, lab...

Meibomiam Glands
Specialized form of
sebaceous gland that
secrete sebum into
tears that coat the eye,
slowing evaporation

Subcutaneous FasciaSubcutaneous Fascia

How Skin HealsHow Skin Heals
Watch video “Wound
Healing- Integumentary
System”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYL6vg89uds

HOW SKIN HEALS
If skin punctured and
wound damages blood
vessels, 1) wound fills
with blood
Blood contains
substances th...

HOW SKIN HEALS
2) Top part of clot
exposed to air
hardens to form a
scab (nature's
bandage) forming
barrier and
preventi...

HOW SKIN HEALS
Next, 3) inflammatory
response occurs, with
migration of white blood
cells (WBCs) to damaged
area to dest...

Inflammatory Phase

HOW SKIN HEALS
At same time, 4) cells
(fibroblasts) come in and
begin pulling edges of
wound together
5)Basal layer of e...

How Skin HealsHow Skin Heals

How Skin HealsHow Skin Heals
Ideally wound starts
to heal from inside
out; aids in
preventing
pathogens from
becoming tr...

Figure 8-7
Wound repair.

The PA/Instructor Asks
What factor, in addition to decrease in blood
flow, contributes to problems with wound
healing in...

Figure 8-8
Keloids
Keloid is a “scar
gone wild” due
to an
overproduction
of connective
tissue
Keloid is a “scar
gone wil...

Accessory to Skin-NailsAccessory to Skin-Nails
Specialized
epithelial
cells
originating
from nail root
form nails
Specia...

Accessory to Skin-NailsAccessory to Skin-Nails
As cells grow
out and over
nail bed, they
become
keratinized
forming
subs...

Accessory to Skin-NailsAccessory to Skin-Nails
Cuticle is fold of tissue
that covers nail root
Cuticle is fold of tissue...

The PA/Instructor Asks
How long do you pinch the fingernail of a patient before
you release and check for return of the ...

Figure 8-11
Clinician performing capillary
refill assessment.

Figure 8-10
Structures of the fingernail.
Pink color of nail comes from vascularization of
tissue under nails
White half...

Skin Accesory-HairSkin Accesory-Hair

Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair
Helps to regulate
body temperature
and functions as
sensor to help detect
things ...

Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair
Eyelashes protect your eyes
from foreign objects, and hair
in the nose filters ou...

Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair

Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair

Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair

Figure 8-12Figure 8-12
Diagram of a hair follicle.Diagram of a hair follicle.
Factoid:Flat hair
shafts produce curly
hai...

The PA/Instructor Asks
What determines the color of your
hair? What is alopecia?
Page 185 Clinical Application

Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature
RegulationRegulation
Vasodilation: body's attempt to get as much “hot”
blood ex...

Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature
RegulationRegulation
Vasodilation: body's attempt to get as much “hot”
blood ex...

Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature
RegulationRegulation
Sweat glands
excrete water,
nitrogenous
wastes and
sodium ...

Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature
RegulationRegulation
As long as you stay
hydrated and are
able to produce
sweat...

Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature
RegulationRegulation
Muscles in skin called
arrector pili attached to
hairs; wh...

Figure 8-14Figure 8-14
Integumentary regulation ofIntegumentary regulation of
body temperature.body temperature.
Regulat...

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

Figure 8-15Figure 8-15
Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.

 S: A 27-year-old female presents to her doctor's office with
complaints of red, itching, and oozing skin on arms and
l...

 O: Physical exam and history reveal a well-
nourished, white female who is otherwise in good
health, has NKA (no known...

 Based on the case study information, what do you
think the diagnosis is?
 What caused the vesicles to begin to form a...

DermatologyDermatology
Tic Tac ToeTic Tac Toe
• Also known as shingles
• Dormant, adult version of chickenpox
• Blisters...

Dermatology
Tic Tac Toe
• These are noncancerous skin growths on the soles of your feet caused by
the human papillomavir...

Dermatology
Tic Tac Toe
• Inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue with redness, heat,
swelling and pain (4 char...

Dermatology
Tic Tac Toe
• Inflammation in a LOCALIZED encapsulated lesion. One lesion is called a boil
but this collecti...

Dermatology
Tic Tac Toe
• A metabolic condition, allergies, drug or endocrine disorders are
possible causative agents.
•...

Dermatology
Tic Tac Toe
• Red ring shaped patches (mimicking a worm), with red
inflamed skin, cracked and weeping areas ...

Dermatology
Tic Tac Toe
• Occurs in melanocytes, from excessive sun exposure
• May appear as a brown or black irregular ...

Dermatology
Tic Tac Toe
• Unknown agent(s) causing benign overgrowth of epithelial cells.
• This looks like a well defin...

EXAMEXAM
Chapters 4,5 and 8Chapters 4,5 and 8
Exam will be on
Oct 17 at 9:30 am
•Multiple Choice
•Fill in the Blanks
•Sh...
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Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 8

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Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 8

  1. 1. The Integumentary System: The Protective Covering Chapter 8
  2. 2.  IntegumentaryIntegumentary Integumentary system shelters body from the environment Integumentary system shelters body from the environment
  3. 3.  IntegumentaryIntegumentary Skin forms protective barrier, shielding body from elements and pathogens, as well as performing several other vital functions Skin forms protective barrier, shielding body from elements and pathogens, as well as performing several other vital functions
  4. 4.  Skin’s AccessoriesSkin’s Accessories Skin is essential to well-being, helps to regulate body temperature, and contains many accessory components such as nail, hair, and glands Skin is essential to well-being, helps to regulate body temperature, and contains many accessory components such as nail, hair, and glands
  5. 5.  Skin-Vital FunctionsSkin-Vital Functions Skin keeps the body from drying out and is a natural sunscreen Skin keeps the body from drying out and is a natural sunscreen
  6. 6.  The PA/Instructor Asks What skin rash is caused by a viral illness and is a reaction to the body’s immune system trying to stop the virus? A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. Tinea cruris Cellulitis Dermatitis Measles
  7. 7.  Figure 8-1 The three layers of the skin. Largest organ, weighing approximately 20 pounds and covering area about 20.83 square feet on an adult
  8. 8.  First Layer-EpidermisFirst Layer-Epidermis Layer of skin we see on outside; made up of several smaller layers of stratified squamous epithelium Do you remember what shape and arrangement this is? Layer of skin we see on outside; made up of several smaller layers of stratified squamous epithelium Do you remember what shape and arrangement this is?
  9. 9.  First Layer-EpidermisFirst Layer-Epidermis Avascular and contains NO NERVE CELLS Avascular and contains NO NERVE CELLS Cells on surface are constantly shedding, being replaced with new cells that grow and arise from the stratum basale EVERY 2 to 4 weeks Cells on surface are constantly shedding, being replaced with new cells that grow and arise from the stratum basale EVERY 2 to 4 weeks
  10. 10.  First Layer-EpidermisFirst Layer-Epidermis Outermost layer is layer of dead cells, called stratum corneum, which are flat, scaly, keratinized epithelial cells
  11. 11.  First Layer-EpidermisFirst Layer-Epidermis The body sloughs off 500 million cells every day, or about one and a half pounds of dead skin a year, allowing for rapid repair in case of injuries The body sloughs off 500 million cells every day, or about one and a half pounds of dead skin a year, allowing for rapid repair in case of injuries
  12. 12.  Melanocytes in EpidermisMelanocytes in Epidermis Specialized cells (melanocytes) located deep in epidermis; responsible for skin color Melanocytes produce melanin; actual substance that affects skin color in different people Specialized cells (melanocytes) located deep in epidermis; responsible for skin color Melanocytes produce melanin; actual substance that affects skin color in different people
  13. 13.  Melanocytes in EpidermisMelanocytes in Epidermis Variations of skin color result of amount of melanin produced and how it is distributed Carotene: gives yellowish hue to skin Albinism: little pigment in skin, hair, eyes Variations of skin color result of amount of melanin produced and how it is distributed Carotene: gives yellowish hue to skin Albinism: little pigment in skin, hair, eyes
  14. 14.  The PA/Instructor Asks A person who is an albino (very little pigment in their skin) is at risk for two conditions: Skin cancer and A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. Photosensitivity Loss of Hair Dermatitis Acne
  15. 15.  Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis Layer below, or inferior to, epidermis is thicker dermis layer (corium) Layer below, or inferior to, epidermis is thicker dermis layer (corium)
  16. 16.  Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis
  17. 17.  Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis
  18. 18.  Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis Small dermal papillae project from surface and anchor this layer to epidermal layer- *page 174 diagram Small dermal papillae project from surface and anchor this layer to epidermal layer- *page 174 diagram
  19. 19.  Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis Fingerprints and toe prints arise from this layer Nerve fibers allow you to sense what is happening in your environment Fingerprints and toe prints arise from this layer Nerve fibers allow you to sense what is happening in your environment
  20. 20.  Second Layer-DermisSecond Layer-Dermis
  21. 21.  The PA/Instructor Asks What other factor, besides aging, leads to change in the skin’s firmness and decreases its ability to recoil to its normal state when stretched? A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. Bathing Too much oil Sun Exposure Acne
  22. 22.  Part of the Dermis-Part of the Dermis- Sweat GlandsSweat Glands Two main types of sudoriferous or sweat glands: Apocrine sweat glands secrete at hair follicles in groin, anal region, and armpits; become active around puberty and are believed to act as sexual attractants Two main types of sudoriferous or sweat glands: Apocrine sweat glands secrete at hair follicles in groin, anal region, and armpits; become active around puberty and are believed to act as sexual attractants
  23. 23.  Part of the Dermis-Part of the Dermis- Sweat GlandsSweat Glands Eccrine glands are found in greater numbers on palms, feet, forehead, and upper lip; important in regulation of body temperature Eccrine glands are found in greater numbers on palms, feet, forehead, and upper lip; important in regulation of body temperature
  24. 24.  Part of Dermis-Part of Dermis- Sweat GlandsSweat Glands
  25. 25.  Part of the Dermis-Part of the Dermis- Sweat & Oil GlandsSweat & Oil Glands
  26. 26.  Part of the Dermis-Part of the Dermis- Sebaceous GlandsSebaceous Glands
  27. 27.  Figure 8-2 Sweat and sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands usually found in hair covered areas and deposit sebum on hair shaft where it is brought to the surface
  28. 28.  Figure 8-2 Sweat and sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands also found on non hair covered areas such as eyelids, penis, labia minora and nipples in ducts that end at the sweat gland
  29. 29.  Meibomiam Glands Specialized form of sebaceous gland that secrete sebum into tears that coat the eye, slowing evaporation
  30. 30.  Subcutaneous FasciaSubcutaneous Fascia
  31. 31.  How Skin HealsHow Skin Heals Watch video “Wound Healing- Integumentary System” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IYL6vg89uds
  32. 32.  HOW SKIN HEALS If skin punctured and wound damages blood vessels, 1) wound fills with blood Blood contains substances that cause clotting If skin punctured and wound damages blood vessels, 1) wound fills with blood Blood contains substances that cause clotting
  33. 33.  HOW SKIN HEALS 2) Top part of clot exposed to air hardens to form a scab (nature's bandage) forming barrier and preventing pathogens from entering 2) Top part of clot exposed to air hardens to form a scab (nature's bandage) forming barrier and preventing pathogens from entering
  34. 34.  HOW SKIN HEALS Next, 3) inflammatory response occurs, with migration of white blood cells (WBCs) to damaged area to destroy any pathogens that may have entered Next, 3) inflammatory response occurs, with migration of white blood cells (WBCs) to damaged area to destroy any pathogens that may have entered
  35. 35.  Inflammatory Phase
  36. 36.  HOW SKIN HEALS At same time, 4) cells (fibroblasts) come in and begin pulling edges of wound together 5)Basal layer of epidermis begins to hyperproduce new cells for repair of wound At same time, 4) cells (fibroblasts) come in and begin pulling edges of wound together 5)Basal layer of epidermis begins to hyperproduce new cells for repair of wound
  37. 37.  How Skin HealsHow Skin Heals
  38. 38.  How Skin HealsHow Skin Heals Ideally wound starts to heal from inside out; aids in preventing pathogens from becoming trapped between healed surface and deeper layers of skin, where they could develop into a major pocket of infection Ideally wound starts to heal from inside out; aids in preventing pathogens from becoming trapped between healed surface and deeper layers of skin, where they could develop into a major pocket of infection
  39. 39.  Figure 8-7 Wound repair.
  40. 40.  The PA/Instructor Asks What factor, in addition to decrease in blood flow, contributes to problems with wound healing in diabetic patients? A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. Decreased clotting Increased bleeding Decreased WBC activity Poor scab formation
  41. 41.  Figure 8-8 Keloids Keloid is a “scar gone wild” due to an overproduction of connective tissue Keloid is a “scar gone wild” due to an overproduction of connective tissue Formation more prominent in African Americans Formation more prominent in African Americans Treatment is steroid injection or cryotherapyTreatment is steroid injection or cryotherapy
  42. 42.  Accessory to Skin-NailsAccessory to Skin-Nails Specialized epithelial cells originating from nail root form nails Specialized epithelial cells originating from nail root form nails
  43. 43.  Accessory to Skin-NailsAccessory to Skin-Nails As cells grow out and over nail bed, they become keratinized forming substance similar to horns on a bull As cells grow out and over nail bed, they become keratinized forming substance similar to horns on a bull
  44. 44.  Accessory to Skin-NailsAccessory to Skin-Nails Cuticle is fold of tissue that covers nail root Cuticle is fold of tissue that covers nail root Portion that we see is called nail body Portion that we see is called nail body Nails normally grow 1 mm every week Nails normally grow 1 mm every week
  45. 45.  The PA/Instructor Asks How long do you pinch the fingernail of a patient before you release and check for return of the normal “pink” color? How long does it normally take to return (i.e. the capillary refill time)? What is the name of the condition that consists of reduced blood flow in patients with diabetes abbreviated PVD? What else can decrease blood flow? Page 185 Clinical Application
  46. 46.  Figure 8-11 Clinician performing capillary refill assessment.
  47. 47.  Figure 8-10 Structures of the fingernail. Pink color of nail comes from vascularization of tissue under nails White half-moon shaped area (lunula) is result of thicker layer of cells at base Pink color of nail comes from vascularization of tissue under nails White half-moon shaped area (lunula) is result of thicker layer of cells at base
  48. 48.  Skin Accesory-HairSkin Accesory-Hair
  49. 49.  Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair Helps to regulate body temperature and functions as sensor to help detect things on skin, such as bugs or cobwebs Helps to regulate body temperature and functions as sensor to help detect things on skin, such as bugs or cobwebs
  50. 50.  Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair Eyelashes protect your eyes from foreign objects, and hair in the nose filters out particulate matter Eyelashes protect your eyes from foreign objects, and hair in the nose filters out particulate matter
  51. 51.  Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair
  52. 52.  Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair
  53. 53.  Skin Accessory-HairSkin Accessory-Hair
  54. 54.  Figure 8-12Figure 8-12 Diagram of a hair follicle.Diagram of a hair follicle. Factoid:Flat hair shafts produce curly hair, while round hair shafts produce straight hair Factoid:Flat hair shafts produce curly hair, while round hair shafts produce straight hair
  55. 55.  The PA/Instructor Asks What determines the color of your hair? What is alopecia? Page 185 Clinical Application
  56. 56.  Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature RegulationRegulation Vasodilation: body's attempt to get as much “hot” blood exposed to cooler environment Vasoconstriction: forces blood away from skin and back toward core of body where heat is Vasodilation: body's attempt to get as much “hot” blood exposed to cooler environment Vasoconstriction: forces blood away from skin and back toward core of body where heat is Change in size of blood vessels Change in size of blood vessels
  57. 57.  Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature RegulationRegulation Vasodilation: body's attempt to get as much “hot” blood exposed to cooler environment Vasoconstriction: forces blood away from skin and back toward core of body where heat is Vasodilation: body's attempt to get as much “hot” blood exposed to cooler environment Vasoconstriction: forces blood away from skin and back toward core of body where heat is A child’s lips are blue when they are cold getting out of a pool due to vasoconstriction A child’s lips are blue when they are cold getting out of a pool due to vasoconstriction
  58. 58.  Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature RegulationRegulation Sweat glands excrete water, nitrogenous wastes and sodium chloride (salt) to skin’s surface
  59. 59.  Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature RegulationRegulation As long as you stay hydrated and are able to produce sweat; thirst indicates body has reached level of dehydration
  60. 60.  Skin and TemperatureSkin and Temperature RegulationRegulation Muscles in skin called arrector pili attached to hairs; when those muscles contract, make your hairs stand erect (gooseflesh or goose bumps) when you are chilled Muscles in skin called arrector pili attached to hairs; when those muscles contract, make your hairs stand erect (gooseflesh or goose bumps) when you are chilled
  61. 61.  Figure 8-14Figure 8-14 Integumentary regulation ofIntegumentary regulation of body temperature.body temperature. Regulating temperature through vasoconstriction and vasodilitation Regulating temperature through vasoconstriction and vasodilitation *Page 189
  62. 62.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  63. 63.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  64. 64.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  65. 65.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  66. 66.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  67. 67.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  68. 68.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  69. 69.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  70. 70.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  71. 71.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  72. 72.  Figure 8-15Figure 8-15 Various types of skin lesions.Various types of skin lesions.
  73. 73.   S: A 27-year-old female presents to her doctor's office with complaints of red, itching, and oozing skin on arms and legs for the past two days. The patient states that she returned from a primitive camping and hiking vacation in Virginia two days ago. Case Study-SOAP NoteCase Study-SOAP Note
  74. 74.   O: Physical exam and history reveal a well- nourished, white female who is otherwise in good health, has NKA (no known allergies).  Vital Signs: T: 98 P: 87 R: 12 BP: 110/60  EENT; pupils are normal and reactive, ENT negative  Lungs: normal breath sounds  Skin: liquid-filled vesicles, and scabbing on inside of right arm and top of her sock lines to the bottom of her shorts, and new vesicles have formed around her eyes. Case Study-SOAP NoteCase Study-SOAP Note
  75. 75.   Based on the case study information, what do you think the diagnosis is?  What caused the vesicles to begin to form around her eyes? Case Study-SOAP NoteCase Study-SOAP Note
  76. 76.  DermatologyDermatology Tic Tac ToeTic Tac Toe • Also known as shingles • Dormant, adult version of chickenpox • Blisters/rashes found on trunk in midline fashion, following course of sensory nerve • Extremely painful lesions producing sharp, stabbing sensations; may last from 10 days to several weeks • Result of stress, disease, trauma, aging process
  77. 77.  Dermatology Tic Tac Toe • These are noncancerous skin growths on the soles of your feet caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which enters your body through tiny cuts, breaks or other vulnerable sites on the skin of your feet. • They often develop beneath pressure points in your feet, such as the heels or balls of your feet. This pressure also may cause one to grow inward beneath a hard, thick layer of skin (callus).
  78. 78.  Dermatology Tic Tac Toe • Inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue with redness, heat, swelling and pain (4 characteristics of inflammation) • This often develops in patients with diabetes or compromised healing capacity. Usually caused by strep and staph bacteria. SERIOUS infection in patients with MRSA (methicillin resistant staph aureas)
  79. 79.  Dermatology Tic Tac Toe • Inflammation in a LOCALIZED encapsulated lesion. One lesion is called a boil but this collection of abscesses under the skin have another name. Lesions can grow and fill with pus, until they become painful and burst. • Can start as an infection of the hair follicle and are usually caused by Staph aureus bacteria. Individuals with weakened immune systems, adolescents and young adults are more susceptible to these than younger children or older adults.
  80. 80.  Dermatology Tic Tac Toe • A metabolic condition, allergies, drug or endocrine disorders are possible causative agents. • Inflammation of hair follicles/sebaceous glands especially on the face, neck, chest, upper back/shoulders. Can form blackheads, cysts, nodules, pustules and pimples.
  81. 81.  Dermatology Tic Tac Toe • Red ring shaped patches (mimicking a worm), with red inflamed skin, cracked and weeping areas with itch, discoloration. • Caused by a fungus; It can be spread on towels, clothing, or sports equipment. Personal hygiene is important in preventing the spread of ringworm. Dogs and cats can pass it to people through direct contact.
  82. 82.  Dermatology Tic Tac Toe • Occurs in melanocytes, from excessive sun exposure • May appear as a brown or black irregular patch that appears suddenly . A color or size change in a pre-existing mole or wart may also indicate a melanoma. These metastasize to other areas quickly
  83. 83.  Dermatology Tic Tac Toe • Unknown agent(s) causing benign overgrowth of epithelial cells. • This looks like a well defined warty-scaled lesion that can present in a variety of colors from yellow to brown and can be removed with scraping (curettage) or freezing
  84. 84.  EXAMEXAM Chapters 4,5 and 8Chapters 4,5 and 8 Exam will be on Oct 17 at 9:30 am •Multiple Choice •Fill in the Blanks •Short Essays (taken directly from the Short Essays at end of Chap 4 and 5) •Diagram of skin

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