Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 12 Part Two


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Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Chap 12 Part Two

  1. 1. 12 The Cardiovascular System: Transport and Supply Part TWO
  2. 2. Cardiovascular System  Cardiovascular system transports nutrients and oxygen to cells in body while carbon dioxide and waste products of cells' metabolism are removed
  3. 3. Cardiovascular System  Pump that circulates the transport medium (blood) is the heart
  4. 4. System Overview  The circulatory The circulatory system uses the system uses the heart as a heart as a pump and pump and transports transports through blood through blood vessels to vessels to organs and the organs and the smallest smallest tissues and tissues and cell cell
  5. 5. Hematology-Study of Blood and Blood Disease  Blood Blood constitutes constitutes 7-9% of 7-9% of total body total body weight weight Blood is a Blood is a fluid form of fluid form of connective connective tissue tissue Four to six Four to six liters of blood liters of blood in human in human body body
  6. 6. Hematology 
  7. 7. Blood Plasma is Liquid Plasma is yellowish, straw-colored liquid that comprises about 55% of blood's volume 90% water; other 10% contains nutrients, salts, oxygen, hormones and other regulatory substances 
  8. 8. Blood Plasma is Liquid Plasma is yellowish, straw-colored liquid that comprises about 55% of blood's volume including: Fibrinogen, a substance needed for blood clotting, and globulins involve antibodies for protection from infection 
  9. 9. Blood with Plasma Proteins  Plasma proteins are important group of dissolved Plasma proteins are important group of dissolved substances that include albumin, which aids in substances that include albumin, which aids in keeping correct amount of water in blood keeping correct amount of water in blood
  10. 10. Blood-Formed Elements  Erythrocytes Erythrocytes Leukocytes Leukocytes Thrombocytes Thrombocytes
  11. 11. Figure 12-12 Composition of blood. 
  12. 12. Erythrocytes-RBCs  Red blood cells created by red bone marrow through process called erythropoiesis because they lack nucleus to reproduce themselves
  13. 13. Erythrocytes-RBCs  With the aid of ironcontaining red pigment called hemoglobin (“iron” and “protein”), RBCs transport oxygen from the lungs to the cells in the body and transport CO2
  14. 14. Figure 12-13 WBCs and their function  Polymorphonuclear •Neutrophils •Eosinophils •Basophils Mononuclear •Monocytes •Lymphocytes
  15. 15. Leukocytes-WBCs  Leukocytes are guardians from invasion and infection Neutrophils: most aggressive in cases where bacteria attempt to destroy tissue
  16. 16. Leukocytes-WBCs  Phagocytosis is process in which neutrophils surround and ingest invader and attempt to destroy it by utilizing lysosomes that release powerful enzymes As infection occurs, body produces higher than normal number of neutrophils
  17. 17. Leukocytes-WBCs  Eosinophils: utilized to combat parasitic invasions and variety of body irritants that lead to allergies Basophils: believed to be involved with allergic reactions and inflammation; important because they secrete chemical heparin, which helps to keep blood from clotting
  18. 18. Leukocytes-WBCs  Monocytes: found in higher than normal amounts when chronic infection occurs Destroy invaders through phagocytosis Even though they take longer to arrive on scene of infection than neutrophils, numbers are greater and they destroy more bacteria
  19. 19. Leukocytes-WBCs  Lymphocytes: protect us from infection by using process that produces antibodies that inhibit or directly attack invaders
  20. 20. Platelets  Smallest formed elements and are responsible for blood's ability to clot Platelets stick together and plug hole in blood vessel and can release substance called serotonin, which causes smooth muscle constriction and decreased blood flow
  21. 21. Blood Transfusion  Person needing blood transfusion cannot randomly select blood donor because of antigens, substance that stimulates immune system to produce antibodies
  22. 22. Blood Transfusion  An antigen can be a foreign protein introduced into the body through wounds, blood transfusions. If they are not “native” to the body and different from “self antigens” they stimulate a response
  23. 23. Agglutination antigens that caused Antibodies will react with them to form, and antigens stick together in little clumps, called agglutination
  24. 24. Agglutination  What is agglutination? What is agglutination? a reaction in which a reaction in which particles (as red blood particles (as red blood cells or bacteria) cells or bacteria) suspended in a liquid suspended in a liquid collect into clumps and collect into clumps and which occurs especially as which occurs especially as a serologic response to a a serologic response to a specific antibody specific antibody
  25. 25. Blood Types  Type A blood is very common; approximately 41% of American population has this type of blood "A" represents specific type of selfantigen found on cell membrane of red blood cell
  26. 26. Blood Types  • Type A has no antiA antibodies, but has anti-B antibodies • Type B has no antiB antibodies but has anti-A antibodies • Type AB has no anti-A or anti-B antibodies • Type 0 has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
  27. 27. Blood Transfusion  If the wrong blood type is given to a person, their antibodies would attack donated red blood cells and destroy them because they see cells as foreign material; antibodies cause agglutination, resulting in serious harm and even death
  28. 28. Blood Types  Special blood antigens were first found in blood of Rhesus monkeys, and labeled Rh factor
  29. 29. Blood Types  Found in 85% of Found in 85% of white and 88% of white and 88% of black population black population of United States of United States If individual has If individual has this antigen this antigen they are said to they are said to be Rh positive, be Rh positive, if not they are Rh if not they are Rh negative negative Rh negative Rh negative patients have patients have antibodies antibodies against Rh against Rh factor factor Rh positive Rh positive patients have patients have no antibodies no antibodies against Rh against Rh factor factor
  30. 30. Figure 12-14 Blood types and results of donor and recipient combinations. 
  31. 31. Blood Typing Slide  1. The slide shows agglutination when blood added to type A, so blood has antibodies for Type A 2.The slide shows agglutination when blood added to type B, so blood has antibodies for Type B 3.The slide shows no agglutination when blood added to Rh factor, so blood has no antibodies for Rh factor
  32. 32. Type O positive  Type O has both antibodies for Type A and B and so agglutinates with Type A and Type B blood Type O positive has no antibodies for Rh factor because it has the Rh antigen and so there was no agglutination
  33. 33. Hemolysis of Blood  Hemolysis is the destruction or dissolution of red blood cells, with subsequent release of hemoglobin. This occurs, for example, when blood recipients are given a blood type that agglutinates with their blood due to antibodies present in the recipient.
  34. 34. Blood Typing Worksheet  Complete Complete Worksheet on Worksheet on Blood Blood Types in class Types in class for credit for credit