Intermodal Container Transportation


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Intermodal Container Transportation

  1. 1. Intermodal Container Transportation C. Maheshwar Fleet Management Limited
  2. 2. Thousands of goods are carried in containers across the seas and land to various parts of the world. All of them do not reach their destination in the original form and quality. They end up like …..
  3. 3. This! Or This! Or This!
  4. 4. Or This! Or This! Or This! Or This!
  5. 5. VALUE OF CONTAINERISED CARGO <ul><li>The value of this lost cargo is anything from a few thousand dollars to millions of dollars per consignment. </li></ul><ul><li>In a typical 40 ft Dry Container, the value of the cargo is in the range of a few thousand dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>In a typical 40 ft Refrigerated Container, the value of the cargo can be as high as US$ 500,000. </li></ul><ul><li>THIS PRESENTATION IS A SMALL EFFORT TOWARDS BETTER UNDERSTANDING AND LOSS PREVENTION OF CONTAINERISED CARGO. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE ROADMAP <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of Container Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses during Container Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Multimodal Container Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Container Road Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Containerised Cargo Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Container-Cargo suitability </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Hints for Cargo Stuffing </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Containerization and Unitisation: Introduced in 1956. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently completed 50 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Event celebrated with great pomp and gusto. </li></ul><ul><li>Before After </li></ul>
  8. 8. Some small facts about the ‘Magic Box’ <ul><li>Cost of Transportation through containers is about 1/5 th to 1/7 th of Air Cargo freight. </li></ul><ul><li>About 22 million TEUs are in use today, increasing at 10% every year. </li></ul><ul><li>All the containers lined up would be 108,000 km long, which is equivalent to a third of the way to the moon, ten times the length of The Great Wall of China, and 2.7 times the Earth’s circumference at the Equator. </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks to Containerization, the cost of transportation from Asia to Europe of a DVD player is just about 0.8%, and of a typical TV set about 1.4% of the selling price to the customer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. MODES OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>One of the main advantages of Containerisation is the ability to be changed from one mode of transportation to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Highway (Road) Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Railway Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>The Container and the Cargo contained within should be able to withstand the stresses occurring during all these modes of Transportation and during transfer from one mode to another. </li></ul>
  10. 10. MODES OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>OCEAN TRANSPORTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever motion the ship is subjected to is also applicable to the Container and the Cargo Contained inside the Container. </li></ul><ul><li>6 Degrees of Freedom / 6 Basic Motions </li></ul><ul><li>DEGREE OF FREEDOM MEANS ABILITY TO MOVE OR ROTATE ABOUT AN AXIS </li></ul>
  11. 11. MODES OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>OCEAN TRANSPORTATION </li></ul><ul><li>3 Motions about Vessel’s Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling </li></ul><ul><li>Pitching </li></ul><ul><li>Yawing </li></ul><ul><li>3 Bodily Motions </li></ul><ul><li>Heaving </li></ul><ul><li>Swaying </li></ul><ul><li>Surging </li></ul>
  12. 12. MODES OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>OCEAN TRANSPORTATION Contd. </li></ul><ul><li>The resultant stresses due to a combination of any two or more of these 6 motions can be extremely complex for analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>All these motions of the Ship can be restricted to a certain extent by suitable changes in Hull Shape. </li></ul><ul><li>For a Container, the Stresses can be restricted by Better Stowing, Lashing Mechanisms, Stuffing Procedures etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. MODES OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>HIGHWAY (ROAD) TRANSPORTATION Stresses are caused by the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration and Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Road Vibration / Bridges etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Centrifugal Forces During Turns </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration from Chassis etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. MODES OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses are caused by the following </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration and Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Road Vibration / Bridges etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Centrifugal Forces During Turns </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration from Chassis etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Braking during Shunting </li></ul>
  15. 15. RESULTS OF STRESSES DURING VARIOUS TYPES OF TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>Shifting of Cargo - Fore and Aft, Left and Right </li></ul><ul><li>Settling of Cargo by Compression due to Vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to Cargo </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to Container Body </li></ul><ul><li>Spillage of Cargo </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Packing Material </li></ul><ul><li>Free Surface Effect for Liquid Cargoes </li></ul>
  16. 16. RESULTS OF STRESSES DURING VARIOUS TYPES OF TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>Pressure Increase for Vapour Cargoes </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Increase due to Friction caused by Cargo Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Improper Cooling of Refrigerated Cargoes </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, loss of containers overboard </li></ul>
  17. 17. Example -I <ul><li>What are the various stages in export of grapes from Nasik? </li></ul><ul><li>Road Transportation from Nasik to Mumbai. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Transportation from Mumbai to the destination port. </li></ul><ul><li>Onward Road or Rail Transportation from the Port to the ultimate destination. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Example-II <ul><li>What are the various stages of import of project equipment to a project site in Punjab? </li></ul><ul><li>Road or Rail Transportation from the factory to the loading port. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Transportation from the Loading Port to the Discharge Port in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Rail Transportation from the discharge port in India to the main stockyard in Punjab. </li></ul><ul><li>Road Transportation from the stockyard to the Project site. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Basic Requirements <ul><li>Strength of the Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Curves and Bends in the Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Height inside the tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Strength and Width of the bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Surface of the Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Training to the Drivers </li></ul>
  20. 20. CONTAINER ROAD ACCIDENTS <ul><li>Too many accidents have take place where the driver was negotiating turns at a speed beyond the limit. </li></ul>
  21. 21. CONTAINER ROAD ACCIDENTS <ul><li>There are cases where containers have come loose from the fittings on the chassis during curves because of centrifugal force and fell down from bridges killing innocent bystanders underneath. </li></ul>
  22. 22. CONTAINER ROAD ACCIDENTS <ul><li>Containers have been flung off the chassis due to sudden breaking. </li></ul><ul><li>There has been relatively lesser number of accidents during rail transportation of containers. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Claims of Containerised Cargo Losses
  24. 24. Damage to Containerised Cargo <ul><li>In addition to the damage to the containers, we also need to consider damage to the cargo itself. Often, the container may be undamaged from outside, but the cargo inside may be damaged. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Damage to Containerised Cargo <ul><li>This can occur because of </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Packing of the cargo </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Stowing of packages inside the container </li></ul><ul><li>Poor stowage of containers on the mode of transportation being used, more applicable to ocean transportation on ships </li></ul>
  26. 26. Damage to Containerised Cargo <ul><li>Use of Unsuitable container for the cargo </li></ul><ul><li>Poor condition of the container </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Handling of the container and cargo </li></ul>
  27. 27. WHAT CONTAINER IS SUITABLE FOR MY CARGO ? <ul><li>QUESTIONS TO ASK </li></ul><ul><li>Does my cargo need Refrigeration, Ventilation, Special Handling Equipments, Securing Devices etc.? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Volume and Weight of my cargo? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it Liquid/ Solid/ Vapour? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the physical and chemical properties of the Cargo? </li></ul>
  28. 28. WHAT CONTAINER IS SUITABLE FOR MY CARGO ? <ul><li>Is it Packed or is it Open? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it generate heat? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it sensitive to moisture? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it need power during Storage and Transit? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it need any Special Atmospheres? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it generate any fumes or gases? </li></ul>
  29. 29. WHAT CONTAINER IS SUITABLE FOR MY CARGO? <ul><li>Is it sensitive to Static Electricity? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the Loading/Transit/Destination Ports have necessary facilities to handle Containers? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it Dangerous/Hazardous Classified as per IMO? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the Container meet ISO / Class Specifications? </li></ul>
  30. 30. PACKAGING <ul><li>The Container itself is a big Metallic Package of Standard Dimensions which can protect the Cargo from External Elements. </li></ul><ul><li>So, Containerised Cargo Packaging need not be of very high standards and expensive. </li></ul>
  31. 31. PACKAGING <ul><li>Containerised Cargo Packaging must be good enough to ensure following: </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the Cargo from other Cargoes </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the Cargo from other Packages of the same cargo </li></ul><ul><li>Withstand the weight of Packages stored on top </li></ul><ul><li>Withstand Vibrations during Transit </li></ul><ul><li>Withstand Damage during Cargo Shifts, Moves etc. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Packing of Soft and Hard Cargoes
  33. 33. PACKAGING <ul><li>If the Cargo is destuffed and is expected to wait at Destination Point and left to Ambient Conditions (Wind/Rain/Sun), packages should be able to withstand these Conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Voyage Duration also determines the Quality of Packaging. </li></ul><ul><li>Top Tiers Cargo Load should be evenly Distributed using Intermediate Layers of Cardboard/Plywood/ Dunnage. </li></ul><ul><li>Packages should be able to withstand the various Climatic Changes expected during transit time. </li></ul>
  34. 34. PACKAGING <ul><li>REFRIGERATED CARGOES </li></ul><ul><li>Chilled Cargoes should be stored in Packages with holes to allow Air Circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen Cargoes can be stored in completely Enclosed or Sealed Packages. </li></ul><ul><li>CAUTION: Plastic is a good insulator. Refrigerated Cargoes in Plastic Packages do not allow air circulation and cargo cooling. Paper Packages, plastic nets to be used. </li></ul>
  35. 35. PACKAGING <ul><li>STACKING STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>Stacking Strength of Empty Packing = </li></ul><ul><li>Wt. of 1.5 Full Packing X No. of Packages Stacked in Height of Container - 1 </li></ul>
  36. 36. CONDENSATION / MOISTURE CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>Due to changes in Ambient Atmospheric Conditions, Condensation may occur on the surfaces inside the Container. </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo can get damaged because of Rust or Mould. </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo itself may generate some moisture. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure such different Cargoes are kept not in the same Container and seperated with suitable material like paper, sacking etc. </li></ul>
  38. 38. CONDENSATION / MOISTURE CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>Some Cargoes may need Ventilation with specified number of Air Changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation may be Natural or Forced. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable Ventilation Devices to be provided for such Containers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Cargoes may need maintenance of a certain amount of Humidity inside the Container throughout the duration of the voyage. Such Containers need Humidification Systems installed in place </li></ul>
  39. 39. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>CENTRE OF GRAVITY </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute the weight of the Cargo evenly over the entire length and width of the Container to take care of Centre of Gravity and avoid risk of tipping it while being lifted causing damage to cargo and Container. </li></ul><ul><li>Caution to be taken especially when loading units such as heavy machinery or cargo of relatively small sizes. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>Keep Centre of Gravity of the Cargo near to the Centre of Container to prevent imbalance and toppling during transport and handling. </li></ul><ul><li>Wherever possible, provide a marking of the approximate location of CG of the loaded Containers so that the loading/handling equipment chosen can compensate for the uneven CG. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Centre of Gravity
  42. 42. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>HEAVY AND LIGHT GOODS </li></ul><ul><li>Place heavy goods at the Bottom of the Container and lighter goods on top. </li></ul><ul><li>If unavoidable, place dunnage on the lighter goods before loading the heavier cargo. </li></ul><ul><li>It is preferred to install in-between floor in the Container to separate the heavier and the lighter goods. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>HEAVY AND LIGHT GOODS </li></ul><ul><li>Do not store heavy goods next to light goods. If unavoidable, take special precaution to prevent damage due to shifting of cargo. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Dunnage Boards between light and heavy loads to distribute the pressure caused by vessel movement. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>SPACES IN BETWEEN </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the space between cargo and container sides using suitable material like Dunnage planks, used tyres, empty cases/ cartons or disposable pallets. </li></ul><ul><li>Air cushions comprising of rubber bags available in various sizes when inflated by compressed air can be used again and again. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>BAGGED CARGO </li></ul><ul><li>Secure Cargo from all sides to prevent shifting - bottom, sides and front. </li></ul><ul><li>Bagged Cargo tends to shift more. Use Block Stowage or else, such cargo which has shifted puts pressure on the container walls and likely to burst out of the container when the doors are opened up which could be a potential hazard for the labourers. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>BAGGED CARGO </li></ul><ul><li>Wherever possible, secure the sacks to disposable pallets before storing them in the container. </li></ul><ul><li>Shrinkwrap paper bags. It not only prevents it from shifting but also protects it from damage due to use of hooks and from condensation. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>LIQUID CARGOES </li></ul><ul><li>Do not load a leaking package with liquid cargo into the Container. </li></ul><ul><li>Use double tier of dunnage under package of liquid cargo to reduce damage to package in case it develops leak during the journey. </li></ul><ul><li>Solids should be stored above liquids to avoid possibility of damage due to leakage. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>HAZARDOUS CARGO </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly label hazardous cargo containing Containers using IMO Code labels. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure could lead to accident and large third party claims. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Hints for Container Stuffing <ul><li>MISCELLANEOUS </li></ul><ul><li>Do not overload the Container beyond its Payload Capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account the Road Regulations for Containers and Chassis in the Countries through which the Container will pass during its voyage. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean and Seal Container Doors and Roof Covers properly using Seals and heavy gauge wire. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the right type of ISO Container Seals. </li></ul>
  50. 50. STUFFING OF CONTAINERS <ul><li>CUSTOMS SEALS </li></ul><ul><li>Customs Seal can be broken only by a Custom Officer. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the nearest Custom Officer if a Customs Seal is found broken accidentally or otherwise en route. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Conclusion <ul><li>Multimodal Transportation through Containers cannot be taken for granted. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of several individual elements which need to be taken care of. </li></ul><ul><li>Only then, the cargo will reach its destination without damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Any weak link in the chain could be a cause for damaged cargo. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
  53. 53. Acknowledgements <ul><li>International Institute of Container Lessors, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Container Manual by Shipping Corporation of India Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet Management Limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Container Handbook, GDV. </li></ul><ul><li>UK P & I Club. </li></ul>