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  1. 1. Timeline: ECHR 1953- The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms is entered into force with the goal of defending human rights and individual freedoms on the European Continent. Additionally, the Convention created the European Court of Human Rights to adjudicate violations of human rights in the EU. 1970- In order to foster increased cooperation and coordination on foreign policy, the European Political Cooperation (EPC) is established. The EPC aims to institute norms in the international community with regards to human rights protections. 1993- The Treaty of Maastricht renames and reorganizes the European Political Cooperation as the Common Foreign and Security Policy. The goal of this restructured policy is similar to that of the EPC: preserve human rights through intergovernmental mechanisms. 1993- Countries intending to join the EU need meet the so-called “Copenhagen criteria” outlined by the Copenhagen European Council. Included in these criteria is the idea that the formation of a stable democracy necessitates placing high importance on eliminating human rights abuses. 2009- The Lisbon Treaty outlines certain fundamental rights, which all citizens of the European Union are entitled to and all member states must protect.
  2. 2. Timeline: ILO 1919- Following World War I, the need for an international governmental organization with the ability to coordinate trade unionization is recognized as necessary to political and social stability throughout the world. This need is addressed through the creation of the ILO as an agency of the League of Nations. 1934- The United States famously declined membership in the League of Nations, but eventually becomes a part of the ILO during the Great Depression Era. In the midst of difficult economic conditions, the United States’ involvement in ILO is a signal to other countries that matters of labor rights demand global collaboration. 1969- After World War II, the ILO’s budget and membership grow rapidly, including the addition of more countries from the developing world. With this change in makeup comes a shift of focus as the ILO takes on social justice initiatives to promote peace. The ILO is awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize for its work reducing poverty and discrimination in the workplace. 1989- The ILO continues its transition from an organization initially centered around trade unions to an organization focused on social justice in the international economic sphere. Michel Hansenne of Belgium takes over the Director-General position at the ILO following the Cold War, making a strong push to retain and fortify this new emphasis. 1998- The ILO adopts the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work to ensure that all member states abide by certain core principles advocating freedom of association and collective bargaining, as well as the elimination of workplace discrimination, forced labor, and child labor.
  3. 3. Timeline: OAS 1948- Twenty-one nations from the Americas meet and sign the Charter of the Organization of American States (thus creating the OAS) and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, an international human rights document that predates the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1959- The OAS creates The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), an independent wing of the organization, which is tasked with investigating human rights abuses in the Americas. 1969- The American Convention on Human Rights is adopted by member states with the express purpose of unifying the Americas under a specified framework related to human rights. This framework includes fundamental determinations about the protection of individual and social liberties. 1979- The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is created to monitor compliance with the American Convention on Human Rights, which went into effect in 1978. The court functions not only as an adjudicatory body that hears and rules on cases of human rights violation, but also as an advisory body to member states. 2009- The OAS condemns the Honduran coup during which members of the military and supporters of Roberto Micheletti ousted President Manuel Zelaya. The OAS responds by suspending Honduras' membership after Zelaya is not reinstated.
  4. 4. Timeline: NATO 1949- European Treaty of Brussels to counter the Soviet Union is replaced by the North Atlantic Treaty, bringing in the United States, as well as several others. Created as a unified military command structure organization that would standardize terminology and technology among member states. 1991- Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact demands an ongoing reevaluation of the purpose and role of NATO. The initial result is a reduction of arms, formation of a rapid response organization, and rejoining of France. 1995- When Serbian air forces target civilians in violation of UN designated Bosnian safety zones, known as the Markale massacres, NATO responds in its first major foray into humanitarian intervention, running hundreds of sorties against Serbian targets and deploying artillery. The two massacres together were responsible for the deaths of over 100 civilians and many more wounded. 1999- 11 Nations of NATO respond to allegations of a campaign of ethnic cleansing called Operation Horseshoe by Serbian policemen and Yugoslavian Armed Forces. They launch an extensive bombing campaign, ultimately forcing a Yugoslav withdrawal from Kosovo and ending the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s. Post-2001- The War on Terror redirects NATO efforts towards security in Afghanistan and strategic readiness towards the Middle East and away from the question of humanitarian intervention. Furthermore, the International Convention on Intervention and State Sovereignty released a document outlining a "Responsibility to Protect" doctrine, which outlines the conditions for valid application of humanitarian intervention.