<ul><li>Accent </li></ul><ul><li>Complement </li></ul><ul><li>Contradict </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Repea...
When Communicating Electronically... <ul><li>People Use Emoticons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>      </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key...
Meaning Principles <ul><li>Meanings are in People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t receive meaning, you construct it </li><...
Message Principles <ul><li>Messages are Packaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal and verbal are packaged together </li></u...
Messages Vary in Politeness  <ul><li>Desirable Trait Across Most Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences </li></ul><...
Messages and Netiquette <ul><li>Read the FAQs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Shout—ALL CAPS </li></ul><ul><li>Lurk Before Speakin...
Messages Vary… <ul><li>In Inclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excluding Talk –  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language & Topi...
Messages Vary in Directness <ul><li>Advantages of Indirect Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express Desire without Offending...
Assertive Communication <ul><li>Analyze Assertive Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse Assertive Communication </li></...
 
Language Symbolizes Reality <ul><li>Intensional Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labels First, Actual Second </li></ul></...
Language Expresses Both Facts and Inferences <ul><li>Fact-Inference Confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as though an infer...
Facts and Inferences <ul><li>Made Only After Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to What Has Been Observed </li></ul><ul...
Language Can… <ul><li>Express Denotation and Connotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denotation:  Dictionary/literal </li></ul><...
Language Can Criticize and Praise <ul><li>Offering Criticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Event not Personality </li></u...
Language Can Obscure Distinctions <ul><li>Indiscrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of stereotyping </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Language Can Obscure Distinctions <ul><li>Polarization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either/or fallacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm <ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication pattern that acknowledges and acc...
Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm <ul><li>Sexism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic He and...
Functions of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Impression Management </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body size, skin color, dress,...
Body Communication <ul><li>Body Gestures </li></ul>
Body Communication <ul><li>Body Appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress, skin color, hair color, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Facial Communication <ul><li>Signal Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Contemp...
Facial Communication <ul><li>Facial Management </li></ul><ul><li>Intensify:  exaggerate </li></ul><ul><li>Deintensify:  Co...
Eye Communication:  Eye Contact  <ul><li>Monitor Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ what do you think?”, signals attenti...
Eye Communication <ul><li>Eye Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Inatt...
Touch Communication <ul><li>Meanings of Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Paralanguage <ul><li>What is Paralanguage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul...
Functions of Silence <ul><li>Time to Think </li></ul><ul><li>Hurt Others </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Anxiety </li></ul><...
Spatial Messages Theories About Space <ul><li>Protection Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer zone around you, “your space”...
Spatial Messages Territoriality/Markers <ul><li>Primary Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your own: room, office, desk...
Artifactual Communication and  Olfactory Communication <ul><li>Space Decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Color Communication </li...
Temporal Communication <ul><li>Psychological Time </li></ul><ul><li>Past, Present, or Future Orientation </li></ul><ul><li...
Characteristics of Interpersonal Relationships <ul><li>Psychological Data </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal vs. Personal </li><...
<ul><li>Perceptual </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st  impression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you see, smell, etc...
Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Involvement <ul><li>Testing Ex) Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct: Ask...
Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Intimacy <ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul...
Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Intimacy <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fe...
Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Deterioration <ul><li>Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul...
<ul><li>Optional stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal Repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul></ul></...
Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Dissolution <ul><li>Interpersonal Separation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial separatio...
<ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Qualities Communicated First </li></ul></ul...
Relationship Development <ul><li>Uncertainty Reduction Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher uncertainty = lower intimacy </...
Attraction Theory <ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul...
Social Exchange vs. Equity Theories <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards </li...
Relationship Maintenance Behaviors <ul><li>Keep Relationship Intact </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Relationship at Present Stage <...
Communication for Maintaining Relationships <ul><li>Be Nice </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Be Open </li><...
Effects of Relationship Deterioration <ul><li>Loss of Benefits or Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Self-Esteem </li></ul>...
Communication in Deterioration <ul><li>Results in Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Relationship Repair <ul><li>Interpersonal Repair </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in Productiv...
Intrapersonal Repair <ul><li>Recognize Communication is Circular </li></ul><ul><li>Realize the Interactions are Punctuated...
Strategies for Disengagement and Dealing with a Break up <ul><li>Use Positive Tone to Preserve Relationship </li></ul><ul>...
Nature of Friendship <ul><li>Interpersonal Relationship  </li></ul><ul><li>Between Two People </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually P...
Friendship Types <ul><li>Friendships of Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lo...
Needs Friendships Serve <ul><li>Utility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve a purpose: study buddy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li...
Friendship and Communication <ul><li>Depth of Communication Increases </li></ul><ul><li>Breadth of Communication Increases...
Types of Friendships <ul><li>Initial Contact and Acquaintanceship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting, guarded (not open), viewe...
Love Types <ul><li>Eros - Beauty and Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Ludus - Entertainment and Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>St...
Love  <ul><li>Is a Combination of the Six Types </li></ul><ul><li>Changes Across Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Different for Di...
Love in Stages  <ul><li>1 st  - Eros,Mania and Ludis </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd  - Storge </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd  - Pragma </l...
Love and Communication  <ul><li>Exaggerate Beloved’s Virtues/Minimize Faults </li></ul><ul><li>Share Emotions and Experien...
Family Defined <ul><li>Definition is Complex and Changing </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Relationship (Two Principal Parties) <...
Characteristics of Families <ul><li>Defined Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Shar...
Family Types - Primary Relationships <ul><li>Traditionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share belief system/life philosophy, blend...
Family and Communication <ul><li>The Equality Pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal share in communication, open, honest...
Workplace Relationships <ul><li>Romantic Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often Frowned Upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
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Chapters 6 12

  1. 1. <ul><li>Accent </li></ul><ul><li>Complement </li></ul><ul><li>Contradict </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat </li></ul><ul><li>And Substitute For… </li></ul>… Verbal Communication Nonverbal Communication is Used to… Microsoft Image
  2. 2. When Communicating Electronically... <ul><li>People Use Emoticons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keyboard Nuances </li></ul><ul><li>Text substitutions </li></ul>:-) :-( * :- >- {} {{{***}}} ;-) <G>
  3. 3. Meaning Principles <ul><li>Meanings are in People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t receive meaning, you construct it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on your values, perception, experiences, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Meanings are More Than Words and Gestures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can only approximate what the other person means </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meanings are Unique </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No two people ever derive the exact same meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Meanings are Context-Based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some words have different meanings in different situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat/phat, cool/cool, hoe/ho, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  4. 4. Message Principles <ul><li>Messages are Packaged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal and verbal are packaged together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look for a match between the two, or re-evaluate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages are Rule-Governed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Norms about what is appropriate, grammar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Messages Vary in Abstraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General or abstract, some confusion can arise </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  5. 5. Messages Vary in Politeness <ul><li>Desirable Trait Across Most Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s speech is more polite than men’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strangers vs. intimates or friends </li></ul>
  6. 6. Messages and Netiquette <ul><li>Read the FAQs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Shout—ALL CAPS </li></ul><ul><li>Lurk Before Speaking or Contributing </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Contribute to Traffic Jams </li></ul><ul><li>Be Brief </li></ul><ul><li>No Commercial Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Treat Newbies Kindly </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Spam </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Flame </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Use Offensive Language </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  7. 7. Messages Vary… <ul><li>In Inclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excluding Talk – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language & Topics Not Shared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another language, hushed tone, stop talking upon entrance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusive Talk - Seeking Others’ Perspective, Providing Unfamiliar Details, Confirming Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Assertiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonassertiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of assertiveness in all or some communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You Win, I lose” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Care about self and not the other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I Win, You Lose” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act in best interest without infringing on the other person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I Win, You Win” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Messages Vary in Directness <ul><li>Advantages of Indirect Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express Desire without Offending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking Compliments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of Indirect Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-lose situations more likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Problems with Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender and Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men are more indirect when going against the masculine stereotype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cultures prefer indirect to direct language </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Assertive Communication <ul><li>Analyze Assertive Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse Assertive Communication </li></ul><ul><li>How to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State How it Affects You </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm Understanding </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Language Symbolizes Reality <ul><li>Intensional Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labels First, Actual Second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buy it for the label </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensional Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual First, Label Second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meet someone and then classify them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Identifiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boy, Girl, Gay, Lesbian, African American, White, Hispanic, Chicano, Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Blind Men and the Elephant </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  11. 12. Language Expresses Both Facts and Inferences <ul><li>Fact-Inference Confusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as though an inference is a factual statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) acting on what you think, not know </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts together factual conclusions to make an inference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) sales manager gets fired </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  12. 13. Facts and Inferences <ul><li>Made Only After Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to What Has Been Observed </li></ul><ul><li>Made Only by Observer </li></ul><ul><li>About Past or Present </li></ul><ul><li>Approach Certainty </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to Verifiable Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Made At Any Time </li></ul><ul><li>Go Beyond What is Observed </li></ul><ul><li>Made by Anyone </li></ul><ul><li>May Be About Past, Present, or Future </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in Probability </li></ul><ul><li>Not Subject to Verifiable Standards </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  13. 14. Language Can… <ul><li>Express Denotation and Connotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Denotation: Dictionary/literal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connotation: Snarl or Purr Words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criticize or Praise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing Honest Appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the Truth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider How You Phrase Negative Appraisal </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  14. 15. Language Can Criticize and Praise <ul><li>Offering Criticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Event not Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Criticism Positively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own Your Thoughts and Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be Clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Ordering Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the Context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giving Praise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use I-Messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Sure Affect Communicates Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name the Behavior You’re Praising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Culture Into Consideration </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Language Can Obscure Distinctions <ul><li>Indiscrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of stereotyping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on classes as opposed to individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate your own culture as better than other cultures </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  16. 17. Language Can Obscure Distinctions <ul><li>Polarization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either/or fallacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the world in extremes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Static Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain an evaluation despite changes in that person or thing </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm <ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication pattern that acknowledges and accepts a person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disconfirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication pattern that ignores a person’s presence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Talking with the Grief Stricken </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage them to share feelings, but don’t force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid forcing them to think of the bright side </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  18. 19. Language Can Confirm/Disconfirm <ul><li>Sexism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic He and His </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex-role Stereotyping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other “ism’s” that disconfirm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ageism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racist/Sexist/Heterosexist Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listening is influenced by the ‘isms’ too </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  19. 20. Functions of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Impression Management </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body size, skin color, dress, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Forming and Defining Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate closeness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signal dominance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Structuring Conversation and Social Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-taking cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signals truth or deception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revealing emotions through nonverbals </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  20. 21. Body Communication <ul><li>Body Gestures </li></ul>
  21. 22. Body Communication <ul><li>Body Appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress, skin color, hair color, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halloween costume  </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  22. 23. Facial Communication <ul><li>Signal Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Contempt </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul>
  23. 24. Facial Communication <ul><li>Facial Management </li></ul><ul><li>Intensify: exaggerate </li></ul><ul><li>Deintensify: Cover up feelings for benefit of others </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralize: Cover so others are not affected </li></ul><ul><li>Mask: Hide feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Simulate: Fake it </li></ul><ul><li>Facial Feedback Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions Influence Physiological Arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling and expressing increases arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influences what others think of you </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  24. 25. Eye Communication: Eye Contact <ul><li>Monitor Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ what do you think?”, signals attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secure Attention and Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing eye contact to get more attention/interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulate or Control Conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals turn-taking, initiates a new speaker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal Nature of Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive or negative, “gaydar” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal Status and Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual dominance, stare down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compensate for Distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can overcome distances, express closeness </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Eye Communication <ul><li>Eye Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Inattention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn attention away from public argument, PDA </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pupil Dilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens to the pupil of the eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest Level: enlarged pupil with higher interest level </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction: enlarged pupil with more attraction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  26. 27. Touch Communication <ul><li>Meanings of Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust, similarity, informality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deemphasizes emotions, lightens interaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors, thoughts, feelings of another </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritualistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greetings/departures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-Related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with a task </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch Avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid touch in certain circumstances/from people </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  27. 28. Paralanguage <ul><li>What is Paralanguage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People Perception and Paralanguage </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion and Paralanguage </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  28. 29. Functions of Silence <ul><li>Time to Think </li></ul><ul><li>Hurt Others </li></ul><ul><li>Response to Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate Emotional Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve Specific Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing to Say </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  29. 30. Spatial Messages Theories About Space <ul><li>Protection Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer zone around you, “your space” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater the intimacy, closer the distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Violations Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase/decrease distances with someone who you are not intimate with </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Spatial Messages Territoriality/Markers <ul><li>Primary Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your own: room, office, desk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t belong to you, but you occupy: table at the cafeteria, seat in class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open to all: restaurant, movie theater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Markers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reserves your place: drink at the bar, books on your desk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divide your territory from another’s: checkout separator, arm rests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear Markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate possession: trademarks, nameplates, monograms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Territorial Encroachment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher status people can invade the territory of a lower status person, but not vice versa </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  31. 32. Artifactual Communication and Olfactory Communication <ul><li>Space Decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Color Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing/Body Adornment </li></ul><ul><li>Attractants </li></ul><ul><li>Taste Enhancers </li></ul><ul><li>Memory Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Identification </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  32. 33. Temporal Communication <ul><li>Psychological Time </li></ul><ul><li>Past, Present, or Future Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Future Income Related to Future Time Orientation </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  33. 34. Characteristics of Interpersonal Relationships <ul><li>Psychological Data </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal vs. Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Group vs. Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Describe </li></ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Personally Established Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Social Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Established with Familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>Move from Social Categories to Individuals </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  34. 35. <ul><li>Perceptual </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st impression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you see, smell, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactional </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange superficial info </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 minutes: pursue or not </li></ul></ul></ul>Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Contact
  35. 36. Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Involvement <ul><li>Testing Ex) Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct: Ask questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect: joke about </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public presentation: drop label </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separation: take break </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third party: ask someone else </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensifying </li></ul>
  36. 37. Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Intimacy <ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Bonding </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>announce </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Intimacy <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer friends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less chance of relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less sociable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breadth vs. Depth </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Deterioration <ul><li>Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See future as more neg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Become unhappy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Deterioration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Withdraw, grow further apart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awkward silences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Optional stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal Repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share ideas with partner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation stage </li></ul></ul></ul>Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Repair
  40. 41. Stages in Interpersonal Relationships - Dissolution <ul><li>Interpersonal Separation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial separation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between the couple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social/Public Separation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce, become single </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Qualities Communicated First </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of People Available is Vast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t See the Person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible Deception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Become All Consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Face or Voice </li></ul></ul>Relationships and Technology: Online Relationships Microsoft Image
  42. 43. Relationship Development <ul><li>Uncertainty Reduction Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher uncertainty = lower intimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower uncertainty = higher intimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Penetration Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How a relationship progresses in depth and breadth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship Dialectics Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes relationship as existing within a series of opposites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship follows rules and is maintained when rules are followed </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  43. 44. Attraction Theory <ul><li>Attractiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mere exposure theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementarity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affinity Seeking Strategies </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  44. 45. Social Exchange vs. Equity Theories <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectations for Profits in Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison Level for Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profits from Another Relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ratio of Rewards and Costs Equal to Partner’s </li></ul><ul><li>Underbenefited = resent </li></ul><ul><li>Overbenefited = guilt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to affairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US vs. other countries </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  45. 46. Relationship Maintenance Behaviors <ul><li>Keep Relationship Intact </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Relationship at Present Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Relationship Satisfying </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some good, some not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Love each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sake of children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Afraid of being alone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stuck in non-motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong commitment to another </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Communication for Maintaining Relationships <ul><li>Be Nice </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Be Open </li></ul><ul><li>Give Assurances </li></ul><ul><li>Share Joint Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Be Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Improving Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Deterioration </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  47. 48. Effects of Relationship Deterioration <ul><li>Loss of Benefits or Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Not all Breakups are Bad </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  48. 49. Communication in Deterioration <ul><li>Results in Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in Self-Disclosure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive and Negative Messages </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Relationship Repair <ul><li>Interpersonal Repair </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in Productive Communication/Conflict Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Pose Possible Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Affirm Each Other </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul>
  50. 51. Intrapersonal Repair <ul><li>Recognize Communication is Circular </li></ul><ul><li>Realize the Interactions are Punctuated </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation and Response </li></ul><ul><li>Can Break Unproductive Circle </li></ul>
  51. 52. Strategies for Disengagement and Dealing with a Break up <ul><li>Use Positive Tone to Preserve Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Identity Management </li></ul><ul><li>Justification for Breakup </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral De-escalation </li></ul><ul><li>De-escalate to Reduce Exclusivity </li></ul><ul><li>Break the Loneliness-Depression Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Take Time Out </li></ul><ul><li>Bolster Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Remove or Avoid Uncomfortable Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Seek Support </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Repeating Negative Patterns </li></ul>
  52. 53. Nature of Friendship <ul><li>Interpersonal Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Between Two People </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually Productive </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Positive Regard </li></ul><ul><li>Closer Friends More Interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Matter of Choice </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  53. 54. Friendship Types <ul><li>Friendships of Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty, mutual affection, and generosity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Friendships of Receptivity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imbalance: Primary give/taker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Friendships of Association </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transient: co-workers/classmates </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  54. 55. Needs Friendships Serve <ul><li>Utility </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve a purpose: study buddy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Affirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize attributes: become better athlete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ego-Support </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build your ego: pay complements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces new ideas: colleague </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protect you or does no harm </li></ul></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  55. 56. Friendship and Communication <ul><li>Depth of Communication Increases </li></ul><ul><li>Breadth of Communication Increases </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Tension Around Revealing Information about Self </li></ul><ul><li>Regressions May Pull Friendship Back </li></ul>
  56. 57. Types of Friendships <ul><li>Initial Contact and Acquaintanceship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting, guarded (not open), viewed as temporary, politeness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Casual Friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyadic consciousness (we-ness), participate as a unit, more open/disclosure, communicate with confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Close and Intimate Friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusive unit, able to predict other’s behavior, exchange messages of affection, other oriented, equality </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  57. 58. Love Types <ul><li>Eros - Beauty and Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Ludus - Entertainment and Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Storge - Peaceful and Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Pragma - Practical and Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Mania - Elation and Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Agape - Compassionate and Selfless </li></ul>
  58. 59. Love <ul><li>Is a Combination of the Six Types </li></ul><ul><li>Changes Across Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Different for Different Personality Types </li></ul>
  59. 60. Love in Stages <ul><li>1 st - Eros,Mania and Ludis </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd - Storge </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd - Pragma </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  60. 61. Love and Communication <ul><li>Exaggerate Beloved’s Virtues/Minimize Faults </li></ul><ul><li>Share Emotions and Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Share Secrets </li></ul><ul><li>Create Personal Idioms </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in Significant Self-disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbally Communicate Love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More Eye Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer Periods of Silence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become More Aware of Physical Self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate Taboo Adaptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More and More Intimate Touch </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Family Defined <ul><li>Definition is Complex and Changing </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Relationship (Two Principal Parties) </li></ul><ul><li>Family Denotes Broader Constellation </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  62. 63. Characteristics of Families <ul><li>Defined Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Shared History and Future </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Living Space </li></ul><ul><li>Established Rules </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  63. 64. Family Types - Primary Relationships <ul><li>Traditionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share belief system/life philosophy, blending of individuals into a couple, mutual sharing, traditional sex roles, permanent, responsive communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual identity over relationship, responsive communication, conflict openly without fear, disclosures are extensive and high risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Separates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience dictates living together, little desire to be together, physical and psychological space, relatively traditional sex roles, see as individual, not we </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  64. 65. Family and Communication <ul><li>The Equality Pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal share in communication, open, honest, no power plays, equal decision making power, no leader/follower </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Balanced Split Patter </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equality relationship, but each has own domain of authority, conflict is non-threatening (each has area of expertise) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Unbalanced Split Pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One person dominates in more than half of communication, the less attractive/powerful partner gives in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Monopoly Pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One person has authority, lectures not communicates, arguments rare, except when authority is challenged </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 66. Workplace Relationships <ul><li>Romantic Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often Frowned Upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often Entail Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would Not Arise in Other Contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mentoring Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Train someone less experienced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal learning environment, benefits mentor and mentee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can help: get job, solve problems, offer new insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal or formal, people you know, strangers, try to make it mutually beneficial </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image

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