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41 typesofchemicalbonds


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4.1 Types of Chemical Bonds

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41 typesofchemicalbonds

  1. 1. Types of Chemical Bonds Chapter 4.1
  2. 2. Lewis Theory of Bonding • Atoms and ions are stable if they have a full valence shell of electrons (noble gas configuration) • Electrons are most stable when they are paired • Atoms form chemical bonds to achieve a full valence shell of electrons. This may be achieved in two ways: 1. An exchange of electrons between metal and non-metal atoms 2. Sharing of electrons between non- metal atoms
  3. 3. Lewis Diagrams • A simplified version of a Bohr-Rutherford diagram • The chemical symbol represents the nucleus and core electrons • Dots around the symbol represent the valence electrons
  4. 4. Ionic Bonding • An ionic bond is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions • Ionic bonds are found in ionic compounds (ex: NaCl, Al2O3, etc.) • Ionic bonds involve electron transfer (one atom loses electrons and another atom gains them • An ionic bond usually occurs between a metal and a non-metal • Atoms held together by ionic bonds usually have a very high difference in electronegativity
  5. 5. Ionic Bonding
  6. 6. Crystal Lattice Structure • In an ionic compound, ions will arrange themselves in a crystal lattice to maximize attractions between opposite charges and minimize repulsions between like charges
  7. 7. Covalent Bonding • A covalent bond is a chemical bond in which atoms share bonding electrons • Covalent bonds are found in molecular elements (ex: H2, Cl2, O3) and molecular compounds (ex: H2O, CO2 C3H8) • A covalent bond usually occurs between two non- metals • There are two types of covalent bonds: 1. Non-polar covalent 2. Polar Covalent
  8. 8. Covalent Bonding
  9. 9. The Octet Rule • Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are isoelectronic with a noble gas (have the same number of electrons as a noble gas) • The octet rule is the observation that many atoms tend to form the most stable substances when they are surrounded by eight electrons in their valence shell NOTE: Hydrogen is an exception. It follows the duet rule where it shares only one electron to reach an outer shell of two electrons
  10. 10. Lewis Structures • A Lewis Structure is a diagram that shows the arrangement of electrons and covalent bonds in a molecule or polyatomic ion
  11. 11. Practice • Draw the Lewis structure for sulfur trioxide
  12. 12. Practice • Draw the Lewis structure for the chlorate ion
  13. 13. Exceptions to the Octet Rule • Hydrogen always obeys the duet rule • Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Halogens often obey the octet rule • In all other atoms you may see exceptions to the octet rule
  14. 14. Underfilled Octets • Example: Boron trifluoride
  15. 15. Overfilled Octets • Example: Sulfur hexafluoride
  16. 16. Practice • Draw the Lewis structure for BrF5
  17. 17. Coordinate Covalent Bonding • A coordinate covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the electrons involved in bonding are from one atom
  18. 18. HOMEWORK Required Reading: p. 192-205 (remember to supplement your notes!) Questions: p. 200 #1-2 p. 204 #1-2 p. 205 #1-7