Poda suau (ENG)


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Document descriptiu de la nova escola de poda suau que suavitza la deterioració de la vinya

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Poda suau (ENG)

  1. 1. «SOFT PRUNING»FOR GROWINGAND PRODUCTIONThe method of Simonit& Sirch: theoreticalremarks and practicalguide for Guyot andspurred cordon A
  2. 2. contents«SOFT PRUNING» FOR GROWING AND 2PRODUCTIONThe reaSonS of the longeviTy 3in aid of The viTiculTure of The fuTure 3«SOFT PRUNING» AGAINST 4vINeYARD DeTeRIORATIONlife’S a vine 5vine phySiology and healTh 6The BirTh of a meThod 8DRY vINe PRUNING 10PeRFORmeD ONlY ON YOUNG WOODpruning pracTiceS 10The Simonit&Sirch Preparatori d’uva method 13reTrieving old vineyardS 18farm STaff Training 20scuola italiana di potatura della vite 2120 hour WinTer courSe 2212 hour Spring-Summer courSe 22SchoolS 23
  3. 3. The reasons of the longevity One fact is certain: when standing as it is over 300 years old and ability to withstand psychological before a 80-100 year-old vine one yields over 30 kg of grapes from strain. In the case of vines, in cannot help but feel surprised which a wine used for Mass is addition to specific conditions in and impressed. And these types produced, or again the Versoaln root growth, which should grow of encounters are becoming rarer vine, a long gone variety, located as extensively as possible, the and rarer in Europe, while it is in Alto Adige, Prissiano, that absence of grafts plays a key much more common to find very was over 350 years in age. In role together with shoot growth old vines, sometimes over 150 Campania, along the Amalfi coast and productivity balance to allow years of age, in the Near East in and in Irpinia, it is fairly common vines to withstand draughts, root the older grape-growing areas of to find Tintore, Aglianico or Sirica asphyxia and nutrient shortage Australia. Pre-phylloxera viticulture stocks that are over 250 years old. without consequences. As for counted with many examples of men, longevity does not happen 300-400 year-old vines (even 445 It is only fair to ask oneself where by chance but it is the result of years in one case of a vine in the such longevity comes from, and accurate choices made by the Novara area, mentioned around one is instinctively inclined to grape growers. From a survey of the Twenties, or the upper portion compare those vines with people the sites where these vines are of the Clos de Vougeot vineyard who live fit and well into their found in Italy, it turns out that the in Burgundy, whose vines, at the nineties of even hundreds. It is not common denominator to all those time of the French Revolution, possible to give one single answer; varieties is dry pruning. were 400-500 years of age). A vine in the case of humans longevity The method of Simonit & Sirch, two located in Reims’ Jesuits’ College depends on the gene pool, the vinedressers specialized in dry vine pruning: (France) is still remembered today, diet, lifestyle, affection, and the theoretical remarks and practical guide for Guyot and spurred cordon. «SOFT PRUNING» FOR GROWING In aid of the viticulture of the future AND PRODUCTION Why is it important to safeguard the integrity and vitality of old where the patriarchs of viticulture are still found combine not only grape growers, the Department of Vegetable Production of the vineyards? Not only for the quality high intra-varietal variability, but University of Milan. In particular, Swiss research recently confirmed of the method since, as far counterpart on an old downward of the wine they yield or the value also a variety based on other vines, within the scope of a project the superior quality of wine back as ten years ago; the two branch made with a permanent they hold in terms of culture and very rare ones sometimes, since in funded by Feudi di San Gregorio made with 40-50 year old vines summoned me to Friuli so that I high cordon. This pruning technique landscape, but also because the past it was fairly customary to in Sorbo Serpico (AV), Aglianico as compared to 7-8 year old could have a look at the vineyards may be applied to any form of they stand as a priceless pool create multi-variety vineyards. and other Campania vines older plants, especially with regard to where they were applying their training and allow to consistently of genes to be used to create than 200 years have already been red grape vines. Given the higher idea. immediately started to benefit the plant’s life. Since vines new clones, likely to be more It is not hard to understand that identified and described. balance of red grapes, they have ponder the pros and cons of it do not have the ability to grow resistant to diseases and viruses these vines have a rather fleeting a better ability to withstand the and in a short time came to the a healing callus on large cuts, than others. It is likely that these biologic material, since they may In Sardinia, the AKeA project effects of climate change and conclusion that this method could while younger branches do, such plants have unique features to die at any minute. In order not to («a kent’annos», Sardinian for a more specifically the prolonged prove very interesting for the future lesions are not only a gateway for their gene memory, in terms of squander their genetic value, it hundred years) is researching ultra lack of water. In light of the above of our grape growing. I started the fungi that cause Esca disease the transmission of the epigenetic would be crucial to survey these centenarian people to evaluate it is paramount and incumbent to promote this gobelet-inspired and eutipiosis, but they also cause code. The epigenetic code is the patriarchs and write a descriptive the relation of genes and the upon us to help vines to age well, groundbreaking technique among the gradual death of remarkable code that regulates the genes sheet and a DNA profile. With the expression of specific proteins that as was the goal of two Friulian Italian grape growers. trunk portions. As such they through biochemical processes help of grape growers, who are are found only in the very old. Once agronomists named Marco Simonit reduce the efficiency of the plant to without changing DNA sequences becoming more and more aware again the destinies of men and and Pierpaolo Sirch. As a matter of If we take two apparently distant transport solutes and metabolites. generation after generation, of these vines, the appropriate vines cross their paths. fact Marco Simonit and Pierpaolo examples, Sulcis gobelet and It so happens that very often such thus allowing for steady gene pruning techniques are applied to Sirch devised a pruning method Taurasi alberate, you may notice stretches of dead tissue are not expression without any mutations preserve the plant and to compile Attilio Scienza that is particularly well suited to the that pruning is never performed to visible from the outside and cause occurring which may cause an ex situ collection of the derived Department of Vegetable goal. The vines are managed by the trunk of older parts of the plant, the sudden death of plants during alterations in the plant’s behaviour, vines to evaluate their genetics Production always pruning young wood and but rather on two-year branches. the drier summer times; this event with both positive and negative and production. The project has University of Milan leading the plant to a happy old In the gobelet technique pruning is often regarded as a normal and consequences. In addition it should been operational for several years attilio.scienza@unimi.it age. I witnessed the development happens on the spur, in the Avellino unpredictable event. not be forgotten that the vineyards in bundle with important Italian2 3
  4. 4. A TECHNIQUE BASED ON AN ANCIENT TRADITION life’s a vine«SOFT PRUNING» AGAINST In nature, a vine can grow up and pre-ordained volume, spaceVINEYARD DETERIORATION to several metres given its acrotonous nature, that is, it tends and plant distance, from the training to the pruning method.By observing the pruning techniques employed by grape growers in old vineyards, the Simonit&Sirch to form its shoots from distal budsmethod, named after the two vinedressers that invented it, was devised to safeguard the physical (farther away from the point where The geometrical constrictionstructure of vines. Thus the vascular continuity of the plant is guaranteed and is free to exert its positive the branch intersects with the forces grape growers to do a way,influence on the balance, hence, the production quality of the plant. trunk) rather than from proximal with year after year, most of the 3 buds. Without pruning, then, the produced wood. No farmer in their foliage draws rapidly away from right mind would ever cut awayOver the last thirty years there shifted to Guyot; Sangiovese, in consolidated throughout the the trunk base (picture 4). 80-90% of the year’s growth onhappened a radical change in Tuscany, from a bending cane Country. an apple or pear tree to containviticulture with regard to vine system was moved to spurred Vineyards are currently too their development without causingtraining. All over Italy, though cordon. In Trentino, the traditional This fixed geometry system modified by men, that is, they a return in vegetative vigour. Treesin different ways and fashions, pergola trentina was partly increased the problems relating are too affected in their growth – and fruit and forest tree prunersthere was a shift from traditional replaced with Guyot. The same to vine acrotony. If the traditional by countless interventions by know it too well – have a tendency 4methods, with slightly different shift took place in Campania’s expanded forms allowed to men. Winter pruning is the most to restore what was taken awayapplications, to VSP Trellised tennecchia (see picture 3), in Sicily develop branches that grew mutilating technical intervention from them by an external cause. Pictures 3, 4. The non-pruned vineforms. More and more vineyards and Puglia, where tendone and distantly from the trunk because vines have to endure. From a This principle is often used to colonized, just like all vines do, aare being converted to Guyot or gobelet were replaced with the two the single plant had enough room climbing-like perennial plant, vine restore the vigour to weakened neighbouring tree. The abandoned and non-pruned vine shows foliagespurred cordon. The two systems forms of VSP Trellis. In Veneto, too, for them to develop, by shifting becomes a sort bush with limited trees by practically pollarding them. – predominant in the fruiting area –allow targeted vineyard thickening Sylvoz and Casarsa were often to very thick training forms the farther away from the trunk. shootto reduce plant average yield and converted to Guyot of Spurred available room for growth was buds growing pointincrease quality. In some cases the cordon (picture 1). drastically reduced (picture 2). spur spur 2°brunchhomologation of grape growing fruit end buds bud In the case of a vine, winter pruningtechniques brought about sensitive The traditional VSP Trellis forms, Thirty years after their first branch 1°brunch – a mutilating practice – is repeated budchanges in the landscape, e.g. the bending canes, the application, these forms are pollard horizontal trunk internode year after year (pictures 5 and 6). trunk vertical trunksimplifying it and reducing the distance between the stocks was causing problems all over the Frequent and repeated pruningtypical diversity of every territory at least 1.0 or 1.2 metres; in the Country with regard to vine Bourillon of branches near the trunk and roots(pictures 1 and 2). new Guyot the distance between acrotony containment. roots the vegetative spots force vines crown buds the stocks varied between 0.7 to continuously adapt to a newIn Friuli, for instance, Friulian Tocai to 0.9 metres and hardly ever a b c lymph circulation arrangement: theand Refosco, traditionally trained in exceed 1 metre. Thus, a single stream is otherwise rearranged anddouble bending canes, are being viticulture model has spread and Figure 1. Scheme of the most common trellis training systems. Guyot (a); stimulated in a different way every Spurred cordon (b), two-branch bud trellis. year. 1,20 m 1,20 m 5 0,80 m 0,80 m 0,80 m 1 2 Figure 2. Comparison between traditional “elastic” and “fixed geometry” systems. Above, the traditional “elastic” system: the distance between the 6Pictures 1, 2. By comparing a complex (1) and simplified stocks makes it possible for the plant to develop branches at the end of(2) viticulture system it is possible to measure the extent the trunk without losing its fruiting buds. Below, a rigid “fixed geometry” Pictures 5, 6. Evident pruning cutof the change caused to landscape by vineyard systems system: the reduced distance between the stocks prevents the excessive scars.These wounds are the result ofhomologation. development of branches and hence many fruiting buds are lost. too severe pruning.4 5
  5. 5. Vine physiology and health Picture 12. Example of general non homogeneous. Uneven shooting along the fruiting end, non-homogeneous production, different cluster morphology, uneven ripening of the clusters on the same plant, different shoot vigour along 9 the fruiting end. This vine probably 7 8 features a transversal section of the trunk with a reduced portion of healthy wood.Pictures 7, 8. Vines from the same Guyot-trained vineyard; same age andvariety. From the outside they look healthy. By observing the longitudinalsection of the three trunks it may be observed that extensive damage isaffecting the 2 trunks on the right. Pictures 9, 10. 10 Asymptomatic spurred cordon-trained vine trunk 12 Picture 13. Example of general homogeneous. Even shooting Small cut Large cut pruning scars (1-2 years old) (over 3 years of age) along the fruiting end, homogeneous production, even cluster morphology, homogeneous ripening of the clusters on the same plant, well- balanced vigour of the shoots along desiccation the fruiting end. This vine probably cones features a transversal section of the Dead wood Dead wood Dead wood trunk with whole and healthy wood. a b c 11Figure 3. The extent of internal desiccation is directly proportionate to its size. Pruning damages are will visible (a).Larger and deeper ones caused by an extensive wound (b). When a number of pruning wounds concentrate at thehead of the vine (c) there is a reduction in the portion of healthy wood with a convergence of desiccation cones andthe subsequent rearrangement of the vascular system towards the portions of live wood (c). 13Vines, just like any other living external state of the wood, for The same remark may apply to these are performed on, the faster In order to have an efficient This homogeneity is evidentbeing, age. Aging may be normal, instance, we may not come to plants of different ages trained with and deeper the above cones vascular system it is necessary to in terms of sprouting, fertility,physiologic, hence following the evaluate the integrity of the plant’s spurred cordon (pictures 9, 10): spread into live wood (figure 3a-b). form an internal vascular channel phenological phases, developmentcourse of time, and accelerated, vascular system. externally the three of them look network that is uninterrupted and lignification (figures 12 andwhen, besides time, other external “healthy”, while on the inside two The amount of affected wood by the desiccation cones. It is 13). This balance, both in the plantcauses are also involved. To name The three plants in picture 7and of them show necrosis at the spurs in the pruned area and the important not to have large pruning and more generally throughoutbut a few: irreversible pathogen 8, for instance, are of the same and a drastic reduction of the desiccation cone are proportionate cuts and rather resort to smaller the vineyard is always sought asaggression, particularly severe age, variety and from the same vascular system. to the size of the very cut. If cuts on young one or two year-old guarantee of quality production. Inviruses, more or less prolonged Guyot trained vineyard. In the over the years many different wood. This linear growth is typical the light of these remarks pruningstress, physiologic inefficiencies, vineyard they appeared to be The above analysis confirms what pruning cuts are performed , of the gobelet system, where – a key agronomical operation –indiscriminate pruning and much productive and externally different is extensively assumed in literature the vine responds by naturally pruning is always performed at the outlines as a “delicate” practicemore. in form and similar in looks, as about the main causes to internal abandoning a large portion of tip of the spur-carrying branches given the amount of damage it they did not show any particular deterioration, due to pruning scars its trunk. The scars concentrate (picture 14). may cause the plant if performed Often, when observing from the symptom of any diseases. Once that compromise the vascular on the head of the trunk and the inaccurately. outside a vine that doesn’t show we performed a longitudinal system. stream of lymph diverges rapidly An efficient transport system any particular symptoms, we section of the trunk we detected a due to the concentration of the translates to an external balance tend to regard it as a “healthy” remarkable difference in the “heath When a branch is severed, the desiccation cones. The efficiency of the plant. The vegetation and specimen. In truth any observation state” of the three plants. In two of vessels that feed it dry out and of the vascular system under such productive expression of plant of the external state of the plant them the portion of healthy wood form a desiccation cone that conditions is irreparably damaged with an undamaged vascular gives but a partial view of the not affected by vascular system spreads into live wood. The wider (figure 3c and picture 11). system is more uniform that that plant’s health. By analysing the damage is dramatically reduced. the cuts and the older the wood of a plant with an impaired one.6 7
  6. 6. 15 16 17 The birth of a method Pictures 15, 16. It is important to hold the pruners in the proper Once it is understood how pruners, led us to discover that pruning techniques that, by the Thus the “soft pruning” position in order not to remove the crown buds while cutting. important it is to perform winter their approach was basically way, are no longer taught. Simonit&Sirch method, named pruning carefully, the next step different by the method widely after the two vinedressers, was was to search the oldest vineyards accepted and applied in Italy. Finally, we came to the conclusion invented and you may find a Picture 17. A proper pruning cut and follow the adopted pruning that a new plant management description in the following article. performed without removing the techniques. In the process we The correct approach to winter method was to be researched to crown buds. visited countless vineyards all over pruning is mainly focused on preserve the permanent structure Europe and shared our views with preserving the plant’s physical whole. the oldest pruners, in an accurate structure; first of all it is key to reviewing how they carried out decrease the number of pruning pruning and the state of their wounds. Secondly, large pruning Help in the struggle against the esca disease plants’ health. Thus we noticed cuts should be avoided in favour of It is a known fact that almost all vine to infection for entire months) 7th International Workshop on that the older vineyards were smaller cuts to younger branches; wood diseases, including the esca reduced the likelihood of the esca Grapevine Trunk Diseases Santa Cruz,Picture 14. The gobelet system those trained in the most classic thus the goals of reducing the disease, are caused by fungi that find fungus making its way into the plant. Chile, 17-21 January 2010.provides for linear and steady growth gobelet fashion. Gobelet training is pruning surface and obtaining an their main gateway into the plants in If pruning does not include those From the 17 to 21 January 2010, inof the branches, which translates particularly long lived because it is uninterrupted vascular system will the pruning wounds. In the case of cuts that are most aggressive to Santa Cruz, Chile, the 7th Internationalto a linear stream of lymph into the eutipiosis, the period in which wounds the vascular system the chances Workshop on Grapevine Trunk always pruned on young wood and be met.four branches (left, black arrows). are exposed to potential high infection of infection are drastically reduced. Diseases will be organized by theThe gobelet is long lived because develops by forming branches from was carefully timed; the same was Preserving and maintaining an International Council on Grapevinepruning happens on young wood the main trunk (picture 14), since no Small-sized wounds, in particular done for the esca disease but in the “uninterrupted” vascular system Trunk diseases (www.icgtd.org),and develops by forming branches old and vital part of the plant is ever those on one or two-year-old latter case the moment in which the development, unhindered by an international research groupon the main trunk. done away with. Such system does wood, may easily be absorbed by likelihood of infection is at its highest interruptions caused by continuous comprised of researchers coming not cause any space constraint growing wood. This is easier to was also carefully researched, given pruning, may well produce better from all grape growing areas of and the plant is free to grown in the obtain by following a “clean” cut, the higher presence in the air and on resilience against infection and the world who deal with vine wood three dimensions. that does not remove the buds the plant in that particular moment, protection of the inner shoot. The diseases and, more specifically, the of fungi agent propagules. The content of this article is merely a viable esca disease. The previous workshop on the crown located at the very above information, if conscientiously indication, though hypothetical, that took place in Florence in 2008 and the The hardest part in our research base of one or two-year old wood managed, may allow to attempt some deserves being looked into, given that works presented in Florence and the was to transfer the gobelet training (pictures 15,16). In addition, these form of disease containment. only a combined set of measures, the following seminars were collected into technique to modern viticulture, methods and practices could ones mentioned here and others, may special tomes by the Phytopathologia represented, as highlighted before, reduce the onset of pathogen fungi This alone is not enough, though: lead us to defeating the esca disease. Mediterranea review (www.fupress. by rather intensive VSP Trellised esca disease prevention – the com/pm). into the wounds, this favouring struggle against this disease, for Laura Mugnai training methods, namely, Guyot the physical integrity of wood into the time being, is impossible – must Department of agricultural biotechnology informations at: www.icgtd.org and spurred cordon. the trunk to be preserved. It is also rest on other drastic measures. Vegetable pathology desk – University our understanding that the rare One of them could be “soft pruning” of Florence This process, over twenty years occurrence of an old vineyard that, thanks to the small size of the 14 spent observing, testing and in Italy could be due to poor wounds (which may remain resistant working hand in hand with old knowledge and familiarity with8 9
  7. 7. On Guyot and Spurred Cordon Dry vine pruning performed only on young wood The Simonit&Sirch Preparatori d’uva method, consists of a set of modular processes that, if implemented steadily over the years, allow for controlled plant growth by means of pruning only one or two year-old wood. The permanent structure of grapevine is comprised of the trunk and the root system. The efficiency and health of those organs is at the base of the correct physiology of the plant. Pruning 20 21 22 Practices Picture 20. Guyot-trained plant prepared for a return cut to be performed Picture 22. Guyot. Large pruning The most commonly used VSP the following year to shorten the stock. Picture 21. Guyot-trained plant that scars. The consequences into the Trellis types of grapevine training underwent a return cut to shorten the stock. trunk. over the last few years are two: Guyot and Spurred Cordon. Following we’ll examine the 18 traditional pruning methods and Pictures 18, 19. Guyot. Pollard. The thickening formed at the tip of the trunk and the progressive heightening There is, then, a decrease in the trunk, in a lower position the Simonit&Sirch Preparatori d’uva after a few years of traditional Guyot pruning. Progressive heightening of the of the trunk, which results in the blooming on the head; thus it gets than the head, to return to in method. pollard. Remarkable pruning wounds on the pollard (18). difficulty of bending the fruiting end more and more unlikely to obtain order to lower the new pollard and the ensuing loss of fruiting useful trunks for renewal. (pictures 20, 21). Thus frequent buds (picture 20). pollarding causes the trunk to I order to avoid aging and develop sizeable scars and As a consequence of continuous favouring plant rejuvenation the lose remarkable portions of wounds and scars forming on solution – taught in schools and wood; the lymph stream is thus the head year after year, there universities and suggested in compromised (pictures 22, 23). produces a progressive closure of literature – is the so-called “return the lymph flow needed to nourish cut” or “pollarding”. This technique the fruiting end and the spur. suggests to leave a spur, from a b 19 Figure 4. Classic Guyot (a) and pruning diagram (b). guyot Winter Guyot pruning consists of that sprung from the spur for the maintain the “head” 15-20 cm keeping a trunk for production, fruiting end and the other one as below the wire, that is at a useful also called fruiting end, and a lower the new spur (figure 4b). Thus year distance to make it easier to bend spur for renewal (figure 4a). The after year, at the end of the trunk the fruiting end and continuously following cuts are performed: the there will form a thickened part renewing this area of the plant so-called “past cut” to remove the called “pollard” that should keep without having to resort to large fruiting end produced the previous generating buds (pictures 18, 19). return cuts. Over the years, year, and the “present cut”, made though, we witnessed the growth Picture 23. Guyot. Large pruning scars. 23 by selecting one of the two trunks The goal of pruning should be to of branches starting from the head10 11
  8. 8. 24Picture 24. Loss of vegetative 27points following repeated cutsin time. Picture 27. Vine and vineyard homogeneity. Preparatori d’Uva - The Simonit&Sirch method. Simonit&Sirch Preparatori d’uva method The Simonit&Sirch Preparatori d’uva method consists of a set 25 26 of modular processes that, if implemented steadily over theFigure 5. Classic spurred cordon. Picture 25. Spurred cordon trained Picture 26. Spurred cordon-trained years, allow for controlled plant plant prepared for a return cut. plants that underwent a return cut to growth by means of pruning only a b lower the position of the spurs. one or two year-old wood. Figure 6. Controlled growth and continuity of the lymph vessels. On spurredspurred cordon This new approach, inspired by cordon (a) and Guyot (b).The spurred cordon training on the winemaking, farm, Guyot method (pictures 25, 26). the gobelet pruning method allowsmethod is comprised of a vertical environmental and genetic goals. These operations, if performed the plant to form into a growingtrunk that stretches horizontally repeatedly over the years, causes structure that will mark the training the branches of the gobelet (figure The method cannot do withoutwith the vegetative points arranged Traditional pruning teaches to keep many scars to form on the form (picture 27). 6a). timely and targeted greenat a distance of 15-30 cm (figure the spurs as close as possible horizontal cordon, which, as they pruning. During this phase it is5). to the cordon, thus avoiding the dry, make it difficult for the plant to In particular, in the case of the In the case of Guyot, having the paramount to leave only those formation of branches. Should this form new buds and favour the loss spurred cordon, a permanent bending wire as the upper limit, a buds that are instrumental to the The vegetative points are the happen, it is important to keep of vegetative points and a drop n trunk develops (main channel) structure must be developed that abovementioned growth. Thus the 2-branch-bud production centres a bud at the base of the branch productivity (picture 24). with several branches whose runs parallel to the bending wire number of dry pruning cuts is also where the spurs are located, and and, the following year, spur it number depends on the number that will take a characteristic “T” reduced. are renewed yearly for production when removing the same branch. This causes frequent explants of vegetative points (secondary shape given to the ramification purposes. The number of In summation, the same return of vineyards that are no longer collectors). These collectors grow of the trunk into two opposite vegetative points varies depending cuts are performed, just like in the productive though still young. upwards in a controlled way as in directions (figure 6b).12 13
  9. 9. 20-25 cm 20-25 cm 20-25 cm 20-25 cm a b c d e f g h i l m Figure 7. Simonit&Sirch Preparatori d’uva method for Guyot – Opening the horizontal channels for Guyot. The vine shoot after green pruning (a). At the end of the first year of vegetation (b). The two-budded spur (c). The shoot pruned at the bending wire (d). The vine after bud selection (e). Loop bending of the shoots (f). Shoots at the base of the fruiting end inserted at the same level (g). Beginning of two horizontal channel opening (h). Bud selection on the first year of vegetation (i). Consolidation and controlled growth of the two horizontal channels (l). Consolidation and controlled growth of the two horizontal channels (m). Pictures 28, 29 - Figure 8. Result after 20 years of application of this method. The good health of the trunk is visible in the longitudinal section. 28 29 Guyot pruning While structuring a plant, one of most vertical buds. During winter blooming, it is time to set the green a spur under the fruiting end, thus These buds are needed to begin Practically, two buds on the spur the key operations is the structure pruning, the most vertical shoot is pruning by leaving four buds that avoiding, during the following the development of two horizontal will be kept together with another of the trunk. The trunk makes usually selected to be spurred at start from the newly established pruning, to cut three-year-old channels. Only when we will have two at the base of the fruiting end. it possible to have continuity of one branch bud (figure 7a, b). trunk. The most important is the wood. As we’ll see, from now on two opposite shoots intersecting The number of buds to be left on vessels back and forth from the one located 20-25 cm below the there will be cuts only on wood of at the same level on the base of the fruiting end varies depending roots to the aerial part. During For the second year of vegetation bending wire (figure 7e). one or two years of age. the fruiting end (figure 7g), the on farm, environmental and this phase it is important to several buds will start from the Guyot will be arranged with one genetic goals (figure 7i). seek linearity, in order to avoid vine shoot and from the spur. With At pruning the final height of the branch-bud spur on one side and bottlenecks or obstacles that may green pruning it is possible to trunk is selected, by cutting the Opening the horizontal the fruiting end on the other (figure This operation, if repeated year hinder the efficient lymph flow. keep only two buds on the spur, main trunk (20-25 cm below the channels 7h). On the opposite case the loop after year, will allow the two thus guaranteeing continuity to bending wire) to turn it into the At the fourth year vegetation bending is to be continued on the channels to grow and consolidate Thus, it is very important to start the vascular system. During winter fruiting end. This trunk must be blooming, thanks to the “loop” first useful shoot without arranging in a controlled fashion (figure 7l). with a well planned method as pruning, after the shedding of carefully bent in order to have a bending, acrotony is reduced (that the spur. The growth of the horizontal early as on the first pruning. the leaves, there are two trunks. “loop” bend, that is, by bending is, blooming of the farthest buds channels, over time, will also For the first year of vine shoot Between them, we select the the trunk on the opposite side than from the intersection of the shoot At the beginning of the fifth year provide the alternative of switching vegetation there will be many most vertical that will be cut at the the growth direction (figure 7f). in the trunk) in the plant and the of vegetation there is the selection to bilateral Guyot (figure 8; picture different buds. With green pruning bending wire (figure 7c, d). During this phase it is necessary to likelihood of new buds forming of the buds to keep developing 28). it is possible to select the two At the third year of vegetation, after deliberately set the Guyot without from the basal buds is increased. the two horizontal channels.14 15
  10. 10. 20-25 cm 20-25 cm a b c d e f g h i l mFigure 9. Simonit&Sirch – Preparatori d’uva method for spurred cordonThe vine shoot after green pruning (a). At the end of the first year of vegetation (b). The two-budded spur (c). Theshoot pruned at the bending wire (d). The vine after bud selection (e). cordon setting (f). Arrangement of the secondarycollectors in the spurred cordon. Grapevine after green pruning (g). Setting the spurs (h). Grapevine with two budsfrom the spurs (i). Pruned grapevine (l). Consolidation and controlled growth of the secondary collectors (m). Pictures 30, 31 - Figure 10. Result after 20 years of application of this method. The good health of the trunk is visible in the longitudinal section. 30 31Spurred cordonpruningThe same principles highlighted for For the second year of vegetation start from the newly established more uniform blooming. shoots will be spurred at one spurs. With winter pruning the spurthe Guyot method apply for this several buds will start from the trunk. The most important is the During bending the aim is to branch bud, setting the position is renewed by pruning the shootparticular plant structuring. In this vine shoot and from the spur. With one located 20-25 cm below the position the first bud facing up for the future secondary collectors that is inserted in the more verticalcase it is also very important to green pruning it is possible to bending wire (figure 9e). towards the trainer in order not to (figure 9g, h). position (figure 9i, l).start with a well-planned approach keep only two buds on the spur, lose room in the arrangement of This operation, if repeated yearfrom the very first pruning. thus guaranteeing continuity to At pruning the final height of the the spurs-to-be (fgure 9f). As we’ll see, from now on pruning after year, will allow the two the vascular system. During winter trunk is selected, by cutting the will be performed exclusively on channels to grow and consolidateDuring the first year of vegetation pruning, after the shedding of main trunk (20-25 cm below the Secondary collectors one or two-year old wood. in a controlled fashion (figure 9m).the vine shoot will bear several the leaves, there are two trunks. bending wire) to turn it into the setting During the fifth year of vegetation,buds. With green pruning it is Between them, we select the fruiting end. This trunk must be At the beginning of the fourth green pruning is used to select The results obtained after twentypossible to select the two most most vertical that will be cut at the carefully bent in order to have a year of vegetation, the horizontal the buds that will continue the years applying our method, arevertical buds. During winter bending wire (figure 9c, d). “loop” bend, that is, by bending cordon bears the buds that shoot development of the secondary well visible in pictures 30, 31.pruning, the most vertical shoot is the trunk on the opposite side than from the upward facing gems, plus collectors, by removing the budsusually selected to be spurred at At the third year of vegetation, after the growth direction. As reminded one spare one on the trunk. on the old wood.one branch bud (figure 9a, b). blooming, it is time to set the green before loop bending has the effect Practically the method consists of pruning by leaving four buds that of reducing acrotony and obtaining With winter pruning the vertical keeping only two buds from the16 17
  11. 11. Retrieving old vineyards Revitalizing the vegetative points of the spurred cordon The method may be introduced in vineyards of any make it impossible for the plant to develop new buds, age, either Guyot or spurred cordon trained, pruned then the two-channel way is a viable solution. The main problem of traditionally with the “traditional” method. pruned spurred cordons is the Before the shift it is wise to assess the health In the case of spurred cordon vineyards, the first loss of vegetative points. This may condition of the plants in order to decide the course thing to do is to select the best spots to retrieve cause, as explained before, the of the operation. the vegetative points. If on those spots there is no repeated cuts and ensuing scars The vitality of the trunks but be ascertained in order to major necrosis, then the “secondary collector” is the found in the very spots that are expect the vegetative response in the “key” spots of method of choice. performed to prevent the spurs to every form of training. draw farther from the main cordon. If the “heads” on the Guyot and the vegetative points In Guyot vineyards the first step is to detect the on the spurred cordon are irreparably compromised Retrieving a spurred cordon means position of the “head” on the trunk. It there is no and beyond saving, the trunk shall have to be to restore the lost vegetative significant sign of necrosis on the head, which would redeveloped from the ground up. points (picture 35). The retrieval of the “secondary collectors” or vegetative points happens by 35 means of winter pruning that gets rid of all redundant shoots and a timely intervention to remove the buds on the trunk. The removal of redundant shoots, that is, those located outside of the arrangement of the horizontal cordon, allows for a balanced distribution of the plant’s efforts that are thus focused on the spurs left in place. It is important to remove the downward spurs. This work causes better and more uniform blossoming of the chosen vegetative points. Another important help to vegetative point consolidation is 36 provided by a timely intervention to remove the buds on the trunk, to focus the energy given 32 33 34 to the production of buds only in those spots defined during winter pruning. Repeated and Revitalizing the consecutive interventions of this Guyot pollard kind allow to restore the plant in In the majority of the critical restore vitality to this part of the decided to redevelop the trunk, it is the majority of cases (picture 36). situations it is possible to detect plant. crucial to train another base shoot the ideal position of the “head” right at the graft intersection. This If it should be decided to redevelop where to develop the two horizontal The role of loop bending is key on new shoot shall be trained as if it the trunk, it is crucial to train channels. It is very difficult, though, the fruit end because it improves were a new plant, while keeping the another base shoot right at the to immediately proceed to the blooming in this very point. The goal production of the plant that needs graft intersection (picture 37) retrieval, given that in this position is to stimulate the development to be replaced (pictures 32, 33). and then follow the development there are no useful buds or, in the of shoots in the correct position process of the spurred cordon as if most fortunate cases, there is one in order to select the spur and it were a young plant. single bud to be used as fruiting the fruiting end and start training 37 ends. Therefore, it is necessary to the two channels. If it should be18 19
  12. 12. Farm staff trainingWe do believe that in order to During pruning the students are respectful cut is not rocket scienceachieve a good result in terms constantly supervised in order to for all those who have enoughof quality work and efficacy, the correct any mistakes. The farm practical sense.method should be applied for directors are involved actively in theat least three years. The training tutoring phase with the purpose Staff training and the hours spentprogramme is comprised of a of becoming the reference in the working in the vineyard to reach atheoretical and practical course on future for the management of deep knowledge are an importantthe application of this method at the pruning according to the method. investment to reduce stockbeginning of every farming year to As complicated as it may seem, mortality and to prolong the livesall farm staff. performing a well thought and of our plants.Team PREPARATORI D’UVAMarco SimonitPierpaolo SirchLorenzo Manfreda 38 39Massimo GiudiciMarco Ostan Simonit&Sirch-Preparatori d’UvaRiccardo Turata The Italian School of Grapevine the Department of Food Science of Pruning is a project meant to Pollenzo (Bra, Cuneo) in Piedmont enhance the pruner profession and and the Enzo Morganti Foundation restore the dignity to an ancient c/o the San Felice Farm in art. Castelnuovo Berardenga – Chianti Classico (Siena). The train of thoughts that led us to In 2010 5 new branches of the establishing the first Italian School Italian School of Grapevine Pruning of Grapevine Pruning sprung from were opened. the will to restore the importance of a job that has been forgotten for The structure is organized in 4-day over 30 years. courses: the goal is to transfer The idea has also remarkable the key principles of winter and environmental value: the vineyard spring pruning. The participants landscape is respected and will receive theoretical training and tended to in its specific features, will participate in practical sessions far from the uniformity caused by in the vineyard, a priceless way to mechanized pruning that make all train the future pruners. Italian vineyards the same and do At the end of the course there will not respect traditional varieties, be a practical test. If successful, changing from one region to the the student will be given an next. attendance certificate issued by In addition the school is revisiting the School. a job and may create job opportunities for young workers in WHO IS THE SCHOOL FOR: the the eco-green industries. courses are open to all in the vine and grape supply chain (directors, Following the above ideas technicians, workers, etc.), to in 2009 we devised the first students and also to amateurs and grapevine pruning school, as an non-professionals. experiment, with courses held at20 21
  13. 13. 20 hour schools winter course CAMPANIA Feudi di San Gregorio farm (Sorbo Serpico - Av) lombardia Bellavista Farm (BS) Theory: introduction to grapevine physiology. Visual In bundle with Istituto Agrario “De Sanctis”, Avellino In bundle with Terre Moretti presentation of the pruning methods on Guyot and Spurred Cordon (production and training plants) PIEMONTE alto adige according to the Simonit&Sirch – Preparatori d’Uva University of Gastronomy Science of Pollenzo (Cn) Laimburg Sperimental Institute (BZ) method. With the support of the University of In bundle with Laimburg Sperimental Institute and Ex- Gastronomy Science of Pollenzo and Slow Food Alumni group Practice: practical aspects of soft pruning with reference to the two main training and production TOSCANA TRENTINO phases, on Guyot and spurred cordon plants San Felice Farm (Castelnuovo Berardenga - Si) Agriculture Institute of San Michele all’Adige (San according to the Simonit&Sirch – Preparatori d’Uva in bundle with the Enzo Morganti Foundation Michele all’Adige - TN) method. In bundle with the Agriculture Institute of San Michele FRIULI all’Adige and Edmund Mach Foundation Comune di Cormons (ud) In bundle with Udine University, department of val d’aosta Agriculture Regional Agriculture Institute (La Rochére - Ao) In bundle with Regional Agriculture Institute 40 INSTITUTIONAL PARTNERS Province of Udine 12 hour Chamber of Commerce of Udine spring-summer University of Udine course University of Milano University of Pollenzo Theory: Visual presentation of the bud selection Agriculture Department of Sicily Region methods on Guyot and Spurred Cordon (production Agriculture Institute of San Michele all’Adige and training plants) according to the Simonit&Sirch – Consortium for the Protection of the Trentino Wines Preparatori d’Uva method. CERVIM - Centre for Reseach, Studies and Enhancement of Mountain Grape growing Practice: practical aspects of gem selection with reference to the two main training and production phases, on Guyot and spurred cordon plants according to the Simonit&Sirch – Preparatori d’Uva method. 4122 23
  14. 14. PREPARATORI D’UVA Srlpreparatoriuva@preparatoriuva.it Via Papa Giovanni 62 33040 Corno di Rosazzo (Udine) - Italy T +39 0432 752417 F +39 0432 752425 www.simonitesirch.it26