Sustainability: Learning from Cuba’s ‘Special Period’ DR. RACHEL GRANGER, COVENTRY UNIVERSITY 10 th  Regeneration Manageme...
Triple Helix <ul><li>Regeneration as: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Intervention to address need’ </li></ul><ul><li>Need to prepare ...
Triple Helix <ul><li>Effects of triple helix still underestimate globally </li></ul><ul><li>Developing World’s pursuit of ...
Peak Oil <ul><li>Geological limit to oil – irreversible arc of depletion...unprecedented crisis, which will wreak havoc </...
Why Cuba? <ul><li>Cuba entered a simulated period of peak oil after the collapse of Soviet Union, Feb 1990  </li></ul>
Cuba <ul><li>Politically Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Oil was abrupt... But no other examples </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba’s r...
Cuba <ul><li>Cuba: </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita Wealth $125 (157/178 countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development 0.855 ...
What happened? <ul><li>Wks 1-3 : Disruption to imports and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Within 1 month: cessation of supplie...
Transport <ul><li>Oil-reliant transport </li></ul><ul><li>70% decline in oil to 4m barrels PA </li></ul><ul><li>Personal t...
Transport <ul><li>Imported 1.2m bicycles </li></ul>
Transport <ul><li>Compulsory Car Share </li></ul><ul><li>Horse and cart in rural areas </li></ul>
Transport <ul><li>Introduced Camel Transporter or Truck Bus  (300+ passengers) </li></ul>
Spatial Planning <ul><li>RELOCALISATION </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal of urban activities  </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralisatio...
Food Security <ul><li>Boost food production </li></ul><ul><li>Promote self-sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>1993,Cuba turned ...
 
Food Security <ul><li>Organic Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Organic agriculture accounts for 90% agricultural production </li...
 
 
More social production <ul><li>Use of previously infertile and non-arable land e.g. derelict land, poor green areas, round...
 
Transposability <ul><li>More efficient use of land – edible landscapes, alotments </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplars – Vancouver’...
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Rmn cuba special period.

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  • AAG - Underground Networks and Spaces, April 2010 Dr Rachel Granger, Coventry University
  • Rmn cuba special period.

    1. 1. Sustainability: Learning from Cuba’s ‘Special Period’ DR. RACHEL GRANGER, COVENTRY UNIVERSITY 10 th Regeneration Management Network Conference Coventry, June 2010
    2. 2. Triple Helix <ul><li>Regeneration as: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Intervention to address need’ </li></ul><ul><li>Need to prepare for the Triple Helix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peal Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depletion of resources </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Triple Helix <ul><li>Effects of triple helix still underestimate globally </li></ul><ul><li>Developing World’s pursuit of modernisation and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Developed World’s priority for economic recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of inaction are colossal ... 20% GDP </li></ul>
    4. 4. Peak Oil <ul><li>Geological limit to oil – irreversible arc of depletion...unprecedented crisis, which will wreak havoc </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why Cuba? <ul><li>Cuba entered a simulated period of peak oil after the collapse of Soviet Union, Feb 1990 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Cuba <ul><li>Politically Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Oil was abrupt... But no other examples </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba’s response to ‘Special Period’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Cuba <ul><li>Cuba: </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita Wealth $125 (157/178 countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development 0.855 (48/157 countries) </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable wellbeing index 65.7 (7/143) (mental capital and life satisfaction as proportion of resources used) </li></ul><ul><li>UK :$2,176 ( 7/178 ), 0.947 ( 21/157 ), 0.43.3 ( 74/143 ) </li></ul><ul><li>USA: $14,204 ( 1/178 ), 0.95 ( 15/157 ), 30.7 ( 114/143 ) </li></ul>
    8. 8. What happened? <ul><li>Wks 1-3 : Disruption to imports and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Within 1 month: cessation of supplies of energy and food </li></ul><ul><li>Calorie intake fell by 30% </li></ul><ul><li>Cases of malnutrition  blindness, anaemia prevalent in pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba (75% pop) came to a standstill </li></ul><ul><li>Energy blackouts – 2-3 hrs electricity per day </li></ul>
    9. 9. Transport <ul><li>Oil-reliant transport </li></ul><ul><li>70% decline in oil to 4m barrels PA </li></ul><ul><li>Personal transport/commuting ceased </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport crippled by decline in oil supplies and increase in demand for transport </li></ul><ul><li>Workers couldn’t get to work </li></ul><ul><li>Offices couldn’t run without electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Food couldn’t be delivered </li></ul><ul><li>No front line services </li></ul>
    10. 10. Transport <ul><li>Imported 1.2m bicycles </li></ul>
    11. 11. Transport <ul><li>Compulsory Car Share </li></ul><ul><li>Horse and cart in rural areas </li></ul>
    12. 12. Transport <ul><li>Introduced Camel Transporter or Truck Bus (300+ passengers) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Spatial Planning <ul><li>RELOCALISATION </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersal of urban activities </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralisation of activities to outlying areas *** </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralisation of health and education </li></ul><ul><li>2 universities prior to 1990, now exist in 169 municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors in every community – 1 per 176 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Residents access amenities by walking and cycling </li></ul>
    14. 14. Food Security <ul><li>Boost food production </li></ul><ul><li>Promote self-sufficiency </li></ul><ul><li>1993,Cuba turned 60% state farms to worker-owned collectives </li></ul><ul><li>Surplus of harvest for personal use and/or sale (food production is maximised and no food is wasted) </li></ul><ul><li>1994, 121 new farmer markets opened </li></ul><ul><li>By 1998, 400,000 new jobs, surge in demand for agricultural jobs, increase agricultural wages </li></ul>
    15. 16. Food Security <ul><li>Organic Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Organic agriculture accounts for 90% agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>No access to international pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Use of oxen and manpower – less energy-intensive and reduces soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Use of interplanting – maximise production and land use </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul>
    16. 19. More social production <ul><li>Use of previously infertile and non-arable land e.g. derelict land, poor green areas, roundabouts </li></ul><ul><li>Rooftop gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Balconies </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced reliance on national food </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Havana produces 60% own food </li></ul><ul><li>Boosted social participation/collectivism </li></ul>
    17. 21. Transposability <ul><li>More efficient use of land – edible landscapes, alotments </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplars – Vancouver’s new Balcony Bylaw, use of old railway lines for allotments, edible landscaping </li></ul><ul><li>Polycentric, not monocentric spatial planning </li></ul><ul><li>Think about how regions function, how people commute </li></ul>

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