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  1. 1. POWER Arthro, Bones, Skin, Hair Chanita Villegas – Chua, M.D., FPOGS, FPSUOG, FMFM, MSCE
  2. 2. What is osteoarthritis? <ul><li>Arthritis - inflammation of the joints </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>D egenerative joint disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most common type of arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown of cartilage in joints </li></ul>
  3. 3. Facts about Osteoarthritis <ul><li>US, >20M people </li></ul><ul><li>By 2030, 20% of Americans-- about 70M will be at risk </li></ul><ul><li>> 50% of the population ≥ 65yo would show x-ray evidence in at least one joint </li></ul><ul><li><45yo, men > women; after age 45, it is more common in women </li></ul>
  4. 4. What causes osteoarthritis? <ul><li>Exact cause is unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Imbalance between the production of new collagen & proteoglycans, & breakdown of aging molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Chondrocytes don’t produce enough new collagen & proteoglycans to replace what has been lost </li></ul>
  5. 5. What causes osteoarthritis? <ul><li>Imbalance – joint cartilage become stiff & lose its elasticity, making it more susceptible to damage </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage wear away, decreasing its shock-absorbing ability, tendons & ligaments stretch, causing pain </li></ul><ul><li>Bones rub against bones </li></ul>
  6. 6. What causes osteoarthritis? <ul><li>Combination of Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including being overweight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the aging process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>joint injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stresses on the joints from certain jobs and sports activities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What areas are affected? Neck Ends of Fingers Lower back Hips Knees Thumbs
  8. 8. OA Symptoms <ul><li>Joint pain & limited movement </li></ul><ul><li>Affects joints & not internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis– 2 nd most common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>begins at a younger age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causes swelling & redness in joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may make people feel sick, tired, & (uncommonly) feverish </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>firm, rubbery material that covers the ends of bones in normal joints </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shock Absorber&quot; - reduce friction in the joints & because of its ability to change shape when compressed </li></ul>What is cartilage?
  10. 10. chondrocyte collagen Components of Cartilage proteoglycans synovial fluid (joint fluid)
  11. 11. Components of Cartilage <ul><li>Collagen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>key component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a fibrous protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building block of skin, tendon, bone, and other connective tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides strength & houses the other components </li></ul></ul>collagen
  12. 12. Components of Cartilage <ul><li>Proteoglycans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins and sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strands of proteoglycans and collagen weave together and form a mesh-like tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows cartilage to flex & absorb physical shock </li></ul></ul>proteoglycans
  13. 13. Components of Cartilage <ul><li>Chondrocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produce new collagen and proteoglycans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>release enzymes that help break down & dispose of aging collagen and proteoglycans </li></ul></ul>chondrocyte
  14. 14. Components of Cartilage <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprises >70% of cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;shock absorber“, lubricates & nourishes cartilage comprises >70% of cartilage </li></ul></ul>Joint Fluid
  15. 17. COMPONENTS <ul><li>chondroitin </li></ul><ul><li>collagen </li></ul><ul><li>Elemental boron </li></ul><ul><li>glucosamine </li></ul><ul><li>Methylsufonylmethane (MSM) </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic Trace Minerals </li></ul>
  16. 18. Chondroitin Sulphate <ul><ul><li>major constituent of cartilage, providing structure, holding water and nutrients, & allowing other molecules to move through cartilage – an impt. property, as there is no blood supply to cartilage </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Chondroitin Sulphate <ul><li>In OA, loss of chondroitin sulphate as the cartilage erodes </li></ul><ul><li>has been shown, in numerous double-blind trials, to relieve symptoms and possibly slow the progression of, or reverse, OA </li></ul>
  18. 20. Chondroitin Sulphate <ul><ul><li>Research indicates that this may promote healing of bone, which is consistent with the fact that the majority of glycosaminoglycans found in bone consist of chondroitin sulphate </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. BORON <ul><li>plant sources include alfalfa, lettuce, peas, cabbage, apples, dates, prunes, raisins, almonds & hazelnuts </li></ul><ul><li>keep teeth strong and healthy </li></ul><ul><li>keeps cell walls strong so that proper transfer of nutrients can occur throughout the body </li></ul>
  20. 22. BORON <ul><li>has the ability to improve brain function, memory, and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>functions as an activating agent, that is, it triggers a variety of functions in the body that are necessary for life </li></ul><ul><li>Raises testosterone levels in men and helps to build muscle </li></ul>
  21. 23. BORON <ul><ul><li>helps to convert Vit. D to an active state & Estrogen, in turn, increases calcium absorption, so the ability of boron to affect estrogen levels strengthens its ability to protect bones from disease and fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involved in processes that build and repair joints </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. BORON <ul><li>helps to regulate levels of other essential minerals, including calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus which are essential for bone health thus preventing osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>protect already brittle bones from fractures by helping to replace calcium </li></ul>
  23. 25. BORON <ul><li>can help patients with depression, decreased ability to handle stress, arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, joint problems, hormonal balance, muscle pain or weakness, memory problems, tooth decay, receding gums </li></ul>
  24. 26. Methylsulfunylmethane (MSM) <ul><li>Plant sources – legumes, cabbage, brussel sprouts, garlic and onions are also beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>1930’s, Sulphur is an essential nutrient for joint tissue </li></ul><ul><li>In arthritis this mineral is deficient, restoration of sulphur levels will bring about significant benefit </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial cystitis </li></ul><ul><li>Snoring </li></ul>Other Uses of MSM
  26. 28. Glucosamine <ul><li>occurs naturally in the body and is found in synovial fluid </li></ul><ul><li>basic building block for proteoglycan, one of the important compounds of synovial cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>for the formation of lubricants & protective agents for the joints </li></ul>
  27. 29. Glucosamine <ul><li>Promotes the incorporation of sulphur into cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>exclusively researched and used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) </li></ul><ul><li>noted for its role as a symptom- and structure-modifying supplement in the treatment of OA </li></ul>
  28. 30. Collagen <ul><li>essential to our bodies’ natural range of movements </li></ul><ul><li>vital for the underlying structure of muscles, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, and bones </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis or bone-related pain report increased function and decreased pain </li></ul>
  29. 31. Collagen <ul><li>for weak nails and brittle hair </li></ul><ul><li>to ward off sagging skin and wrinkles must be used in combination with Vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>in arthritis should be used with glucosamine, chondroitin, MSM </li></ul>
  30. 32. Role of TRACE MINERALS <ul><li>Magnesium – necessary for calcium’s proper incorporation into bone, by preventing a buildup of calcium into the soft tissues & joints </li></ul><ul><li>.... Most people, though, consume too much calcium and not enough magnesium“ (Burton Goldberg Group, Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide, Future Medicine Publishing, Inc. WA, p. 533) </li></ul>
  31. 33. Role of TRACE MINERALS <ul><li>Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most abundant heteropolysaccharides in the body, highly viscous with low compressibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ideal for a lubricating fluid in the joints and shock absorbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their rigidity provides structural integrity to cells and provides passageways between cells, allowing for cell migration </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Role of TRACE MINERALS <ul><li>Intracellular Mg is predominantly complexed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organic molecules ( eg , adenosine triphosphatase) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cell and nuclear membrane – assoc. proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA and RNA </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Role of TRACE MINERALS <ul><li>Intracellular Mg is predominantly complexed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes (responsible for different processes responsible for joint and bone health & stability) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins (e.g. proteoglycans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citrates </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Foods to avoid <ul><li>Elimination/rotation diet - recommended, since allergy foods are implicated in osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Foods to be avoided: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dairy products, margarine, refined foods, meat, citrus fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine, alcohol & tobacco </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. Foods to avoid <ul><li>Nightshade foods (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, & peppers) are alkaloids that can increase inflammation & inhibit collagen repair </li></ul><ul><li>they also contain a toxic substance called solanine that triggers reactions in people, and should be avoided </li></ul>
  36. 38. Foods to avoid <ul><ul><li>Avoid saturated fats & trans fatty acids, follow a low-fat diet, but one that is proportionately rich in good fatty acids </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. JOINT PAINS
  38. 40. <ul><li>“ Fueling your body with the sources of minerals and nutrients is essential to help maintain vibrant health!” </li></ul>
  39. 41. Good Day!