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Network OfferingsThe administrator starts off with deciding the network offerings they want to provide throughout their entire cloud offering. Network Offerings group together a set of network services such as firewall, dhcp, dns, etc.Network Offerings allow specific network service providers to be specified.Network Offerings can be tagged to specifically choose the underlying network.Network Offerings have the following states: Disabled, Enabled, Inactive. All Network Offerings are created in the Disabled state. Once a network offering has been configured to the correct stateCertain Network Offerings are for used by the system only. This means end users cannot see them.Network Offerings can be updated to enable/disable services and providers. Once that is done, it is up to the administrator to reprogram all of the networks that are based on that network offering.Network Offerings tags cannot be updated. However, the tags on the physical networks can be updated and deleted.CloudStack is deployed with three default network offerings for the end users, virtual network offering and shared network offering without security group and a shared network offering with security group.
* Security Groups “providers” are the hypervisors (only XenServer and KVM)
NOTE: When selecting Project or Account Scope the Service Offering “Isolated Network without Source NAT” will be available.When selecting a Domain Scope, Administrators can decide if Network will be available for the domain only and its sub-domains.
For latest information: http://docs.cloud.com/Knowledge_Base/Domain_Router_Security
CloudStack Networking Chiradeep Vittal May 2 2012
Feature overview• Orchestration of L2 – L7 network services – IPAM, DNS, Gateway, Firewall, NAT, LB, VPN, etc• Mix-and-match services and providers• Out-of-the-box integration with automated deployment of virtual routers – Highly available network services using CloudStack HA and VRRP• Orchestrate external providers such as hardware firewalls and load balancers – Devices can provide multiple services – Admin API to configure external devices – Plugin-based extensions for network behavior and admin API extensions• Multiple multi-tenancy [network isolation] options• Integrated traffic accounting• Access control• Software Defined Networking too
Basic vs Advanced Networking• Segmentation based on feature set and ease-of- deployment• Both are feature-rich• Basic implements true AWS-style L3-isolation – Tenants do not get contiguous IP addresses or subnets – Network segmentation based on Security Groups – Tremendous scale (tens of thousands)• Advanced Zone offers full L3 subnets – VLANs are default implementation (4K limit) – More features (source NAT, PF, VPN)
CloudStack Terminology• Guest network – The tenant network to which instances are attached• Storage network – The physical network which connects the hypervisor to primary storage• Management network – Control Plane traffic between CloudStack management server and hypervisor clusters• Public network – “Outside” the cloud *usually Internet+ – Shared public VLANs trunked down to all hypervisors• All traffic can be multiplexed on to the same underlying physical network using VLANs – Usually Management network is untagged – Storage network usually on separate nic (or bond)• Admin informs CloudStack how to map these network types to the underlying physical network – Configure traffic labels on the hypervisor – Configure traffic labels on Admin UI
PHYSICAL NETWORK IN A ZONE Core (L3) Network Pod 1 Pod 2 Pod N Cloudstack Access Switch(es) Server Cloudstack Servers … CLUSTER 1 Hypervisor 1VM Traffic … Hypervisor 8Control Plane TrafficStorage Traffic Storage 2 Storage 1Public Traffic … CLUSTER 4 Hypervisor N Hypervisor N+1 Storage k
L2 Features• Choice of network isolation – Physical, VLAN, L3 (anti-spoof), Overlay[GRE] – Physical isolation through network labels [limited to # of nics or bonds]• Multi-nic – Deploy instance in multiple networks – Control default route• Access control – Shared networks, project networks – Dedicated VLANs offer MPLS integration• Anti-spoofing for L3-isolated networks• QoS [max rate]• Traffic monitoring• Broadcast & multicast suppression in L3-isolated networks• Hot-plug / detach of nics [upcoming]
L3 Features• IPAM [DHCP], Public IP address management – VR acts as DHCP server – Can request multiple public IPs per tenant• Gateway (default gateway) – Redundant VR (using VRRP) – Inter-subnet routing [upcoming] – Static routing control [upcoming]• Remote Access VPN – L2TP over IPSec using PSK – Virtual Router only• Firewall based on source cidr• Static NAT [1:1] – Including “Elastic IP” in Basic Zone• Source NAT – Per-network, or interface NAT• Public Traffic usage – Monitoring on the Virtual Router / External network device – Integration with sFlow collectors• Site-to-Site VPN [upcoming] – IPSec VPN based on VR• L3 ACLs [upcoming]
L4 Features• Security groups for L3-isolation – “Basic Zone” in docs – Default AWS-style networking – Scales much better than VLANs• Stateful firewall for TCP, UDP and ICMP• Port forwarding *“Advanced Zone”+ – Conserve public Ips
L7 features• Loadbalancer – VR has HAProxy built in – External Loadbalancer support • Netscaler (MPX/SDX/VPX) • F5 BigIP • Can dedicate an LB appliance to an account or share it among tenants – Loadbalancer supported with L3-isolation as well – Stickiness support – SSL support [future] – Health Checks [future]• User-data & meta-data – Fetched from virtual router• Password change server
Physical Network Operations Users Admin and Cloud API CloudStack Mgmt Server Cluster Router MySQL Load Balancer Availability Zone L3 Core Switch Access LayerSwitches Secondary Servers … … … … … Storage Pod 1 Pod 2 Pod 3 Pod N
Layer 3 cloud networking Web DB Web VM VM VM Web DB Security Security Group Group Web Web DB VM VM VM… … … Web Web VM VM
Guest Networks with L3 isolationPublic Public IP Guest GuestInternet address 1 VM address 184.108.40.206 1 10.1.0.2 10.1.0.1 Guest 220.127.116.11 Pod 1 L2 Guest 18.104.22.168 Switch 2 VM address 22.214.171.124 1 10.1.0.3 Guest Guest 1 VM address L3 Core Pod 2 L2 Switch 10.1.8.1 … 2 10.1.0.4 Switch Guest Guest Load 10.1.16. 2 VM address Pod 3 L2 Balancer 1 2 10.1.16.12 Switch Guest Guest 2 VM address 3 10.1.16.21 … Guest 1 VM Guest address 3 10.1.16.47 Guest Guest 1 VM address 4 10.1.16.85
Virtual Networks (L2 isolation) Core (L3) Network Pod K Pod M Pod N Access Switch(es) V Hypervisor V V Hypervisor R … CLUSTER 1 Hypervisor 1 RVM Traffic … Hypervisor 8Public Traffic … CLUSTER 4 V V Hypervisor N V Tenant VM Hypervisor N+1 V R Tenant Virtual Router
Guest virtual layer-2 network Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 Public Public IP Guest Gateway Guest Network address 1 VM address address 126.96.36.199 1 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.2 188.8.131.52 Guest 1 Guest Guest Public Virtual 1 VM address Internet Router 2 10.1.1.3 NAT Guest Guest DHCP 1 VM address Load 3 10.1.1.4 Balancing VPN Guest Guest 1 VM address 4 10.1.1.5 Guest Virtual Network Public IP 10.1.1.0/24 address Gateway Guest Guest 184.108.40.206 address 2 VM address 220.127.116.11 10.1.1.1 1 10.1.1.2 Guest 2 Guest Guest Virtual 2 VM address Router 2 10.1.1.3 NAT Guest Guest DHCP 2 VM address Load 3 10.1.1.4 Balancing VPN
Layer-2 Guest Virtual Network CS Virtual Router provides Network Services External Devices provide Network Services Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.1/8 Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.1/8 VLAN 100 VLAN 100Public PublicNetwork/Intern Network/Internet Guest et Guest Public IP Private IP 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.1 VM 1 10.1.1.111 VM 1 Gateway 18.104.22.168 JuniperPublic IP 1 SRX address22.214.171.124 CS Firewall 10.1.1.1 Guest Guest Virtual 10.1.1.3 VM 2 10.1.1.3 VM 2 Router Public IP Private IP DHCP, DNS 65.37.141. NetScaler 10.1.1.112 NAT Guest 112 Load Guest Load Balancing 10.1.1.4 VM 3 Blancer VM 3 10.1.1.4 VPN Guest Guest 10.1.1.5 VM 4 10.1.1.5 VM 4 CS DHCP, Virtual Router DNS
Other TopologiesNo services [Static Ips] Dedicated VLAN with DHCP and DNS User can request specific IP[s] for NIC Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 VLAN 100 VLAN 100 Guest Guest VM 1 10.1.1.1 VM 1 10.1.1.1 Gateway address 10.1.1.1 Guest Guest 10.1.1.3 VM 2 Gateway 10.1.1.3 VM 2 address 10.1.1.1 Guest Guest Core switch 10.1.1.4 VM 3 VM 3 10.1.1.4 Guest Core switch Guest 10.1.1.5 VM 4 10.1.1.5 VM 4 CS DHCP, Virtual Router DNS User-data
Other topologiesMPLS Shared VLAN with DHCP and DNS Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 Guest Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 VLAN 100 VLAN 100MPLS VLAN 100 Guest Guest VM 1 10.1.1.1 VM 1 10.1.1.100 Gateway address 10.1.1.1 Guest Guest 10.1.1.200 VM 2 Gateway 10.1.1.3 VM 2 address 10.1.1.1 Guest Guest Core switch 10.1.1.101 VM 3 VM 3 10.1.1.4 Guest Core switch Guest 10.1.1.11 VM 4 10.1.1.5 VM 4 5 CS CS DHCP, Virtual DHCP, Virtual Router Router DNS DNS User-data User-data
Multi-tier network Multi-tier network Virtual Network Virtual Network Virtual Network 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.3.0/24 10.1.1.0/24 VLAN 1001 VLAN 141Public VLAN 100Network/Intern App VM 10.1.2.31 1 10.1.3.21et Web VMPublic IP Private IP 10.1.1.1 1 10.1.2.216126.96.36.199 Juniper 10.1.1.1111 SRX App VM Firewall 10.1.2.24 10.1.3.45 Web VM 2 10.1.1.3 2 10.1.2.18 Public IP Private IP 65.37.141. Netscaler 10.1.1.112 112 Load Web VM Balancer 10.1.1.4 3 10.1.2.38 10.1.3.24 DB VM 1 Web VM 10.1.1.5 4 10.1.2.39 CS DHCP, CS DHCP, Virtual Virtual DNS CS DHCP, DNS, Router Virtual Router User- User- DNS Router data data, User- Source data Public IP -NAT, 188.8.131.52
Bring-your-own Service Public VLAN(s) VR Guest VLANCustomerinstalls staticroute to pointto his routing Yourvm VM VM VM Routing VM Monitoring VLAN (shared)
Bring-your-own Service[site-to-site-vpn] Public VLAN(s) VR Guest VLANCustomerinstalls staticroute(manually/au Yourtomated VM VM VM Routingconfig) to VMpoint to hisrouting vm.Routing VMprovides Site- Shared Public VLANto-site VPN(configureddirectly onrouting VM,not byCloudStack)
Multi-tier unified [vision] Internet IPSec or SSL site-to-site VPN CS Virtual Router / Customer Loadbalancer Other Premises Monitoring VLANVirtual Router Services App VM• IPAM 10.1.2.31 1• DNS 10.1.1.1 Web VM 1• LB [intra]• S-2-S VPN App VM 10.1.2.24• Static Routes Web VM 2• ACLs 10.1.1.3 2• NAT, PF• FW [ingress & egress] Web VM• BGP 10.1.1.4 3 10.1.3.24 DB VM 1 Web VM 10.1.1.5 4 Virtual Network Virtual Network Virtual Network 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.3.0/24 VLAN 100 VLAN 1001 VLAN 141
Multi-tier unified with SDN[vision] Internet IPSec or SSL site-to-site VPN CS Loadbalancer Virtual Router / Customer Other Premises Virtual Appliance Monitoring VLANVirtual Router Services App VM• IPAM 10.1.2.31 1• DNS 10.1.1.1 Web VM 1• LB [intra]• S-2-S VPN App VM 10.1.2.24• Static Routes Web VM 2• ACLs 10.1.1.3 2• NAT, PF• FW [ingress & egress] Web VM• BGP 10.1.1.4 3 10.1.3.24 DB VM 1 Web VM 10.1.1.5 4 Overlay Overlay Overlay Network Network Network 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.2.0/24 10.1.3.0/24
Network Offerings• Cloud provider defines the feature set for guest networks• Toggle features or service levels – Security groups on/off – Load balancer on/off – Load balancer software/hardware – VPN, firewall, port forwarding• User chooses network offering when creating network• Enables upgrade between network offerings• Default offerings built-in – For classic CloudStack networking
Service OfferingsSpecify Resource Levels Configure Properties Define Scope Compute Disk Network Name Name Name CPU Cores Custom Disk Size Network Rate CPU (MHz) Disk Size (GB) Redundant VR Storage Tag FirewallMemory (MB) Load balancer Host Tag Enable HA Public Public CPU Cap Public
CloudStack Network Service Providers• A Network Service Provider is hardware or virtual appliance that makes a network service possible in CloudStack ; for example, a Citrix NetScaler appliance can be installed in the cloud to provide Load-Balancing services.• Administrators can have multiple instances of the same service provider in a network; for example, more than one Citrix NetScaler or Juniper SRX device can be added to CloudStack• CloudStack supports the following Network Providers: – CloudStack Virtual Router (default) – Citrix NetScaler SDX, VPX and MPX models – Juniper SRX – F5 BigIP
Adding an Additional Network Offerings Network Network Offering Offering Order Status control
Network Service Providers Matrix• Network offerings is basically a definition of what Network Services are available when this offering is used. The available Network Services are: VPN, DHCP, DNS, Firewall, Load Balancer, User Data, Source NAT, Static NAT, Port Forwarding and Security Groups*Feature Virtual Router Citrix Juniper SRX F5 BigIP NetScalerRemote Access VPN YES N/A N/A N/AFirewall YES N/A YES N/ASource NAT YES N/A YES N/AStatic NAT YES YES YES N/ALoad Balancing YES YES N/A YESPort Forwarding YES N/A YES N/AElastic IP N/A YES N/A N/AElastic LB N/A YES N/A N/ADHCP/DNS/User Data YES N/A N/A N/A
CloudStack User APIs [sample]• Networks (L2) – createNetwork [requires network offering id], – deleteNetwork (A), listNetworks, – restartNetwork (A): restarts all devices (if allowed) supporting the network and re-applies configuration – updateNetwork: update network offering and restart network
Adding a Shared Guest Network• Only Administrators can add a Shared Guest Network for an Advanced zone
Editing Guest NetworksWhen editing a guest networkusers can change the networkoffering. They can either upgradeto a “premium” network offering(for example offering that useshardware Load-balancer) ordowngrade to a “cheaper”network.
Restarting and Cleaning Up a Guest Network• Restarting the network will simply resend all the LB, Firewall and Port-Forwarding rules to the network provider• Restarting the Network with “Clean up”: • restarting network elements - virtual routers, DHCP servers • If virtual router is used, it will be destroyed and recreated • Reapplying all public IPs to the network provider • Reapplying load-Balancing/Port- Forwarding/Firewall rules
Deleting a Guest Network• An Isolated Guest Network can only be deleted if no VMs are using these network (e.g. Completely destroyed and expunged)• Deleting a Network will Destroy the Virtual Router (if used) and will release the Public IPs back to the IP Pool
Extending CloudStack Networking 2. prepare (Network, Nic, DeployDestination, VmInfo) 1. prepare (part of start vm) Network Network Element PluggableService Manager Needs to be added as of 5/2/2012 Device Configuration MyDnsDeviceSer Admin API (CRUD) DnsService vice 3. addDnsRecord(ip, fqdn)Demonstrates one way to MyDnsDeviceMa MySQL MyDnsElementinform an external DNS nagerserver when an instancestarts. AgentManag 4.Enqueue AddDnsRecord er QueueClasses shaded blue form aplugin / service bundle tointegrate an external DNS MyDnsDeviceResserver. Clients of the ourceinstance can then use DNSnames to access the 5.API call to Dns Deviceinstance.
CloudStack Virtual Router (Virtual Router)• The Virtual Router will be deployed once (when the first instance is deployed in a Zone) when a Shared Network is used providing DHCP and DNS services for the Zone’s Instances (IPs will be allocated from the Public IP Range entered in CloudStack)• When Advanced is used the Router will be deployed Per- Account (and Per Unique Isolated Guest Network)• Virtual Router can serve and isolate VMs even if deployed on a different Hypervisor
CloudStack Virtual Router• The Virtual Router will have 3 NICs: – Eth0 will be connected to the Isolated Guest Network (for Advanced VLAN). It will have the first IP in the CIDR (for example10.1.1.1) and it will be the DNS, DHCP and Gateway for the Instances in the Private Guest Network. – Eth1 resides on local-link network (only for KVM and XenServer) or the Management Network (on VMware) and is used by CloudStack to configure the virtual router. On VMware it will use an IPs from the Management Network IP Range (e.g. Pod Private Range) – Eth2 resides on the Public Network and assigned with a Public IP from the range entered in CloudStack (users can ‘Acquire New IPs’ if needed)• In the default Isolated Mode - Source NAT is automatically configured on the virtual router to forward outbound traffic for all guest VMs and block all incoming traffic (users can manage incoming rules from UI)
Virtual Router Information (applies to all Sys. VMs)• Debian 6.0 ("Squeeze"), 2.6.32 kernel with the latest security patches from the Debian security APT repository. No extraneous accounts• 32-bit for enhanced performance on Xen/VMWare• Only essential software packages are installed. Services such as, printing, ftp, telnet, X, kudzu, dns, sendmail are not installed.• SSHd only listens on the private/link-local interface. SSH port has been changed to a non- standard port. SSH logins only using keys (keys are generated at install time and are unique for every customer)• pvops kernel with Xen paravirt drivers + KVM virtio drivers + VMware tools for optimum performance on all hypervisors. Xen tools inclusion allows performance monitoring• Template is built from scratch and is not polluted with any old logs or history• Latest versions of haproxy, iptables, ipsec, apache from debian repository ensures improved security and speed• Latest version of jre from Oracle ensures improved security and speed