Hadoop World 2011: LeveragIng Hadoop to Transform Raw Data to Rich Features at LinkedIn - Abhishek Gupta & Adil Aijaz, LinkedIn


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This presentation focuses on the design and evolution of the LinkedIn recommendations platform. It currently computes more than 100 billion personalized recommendations every week, powering an ever growing assortment of products, including Jobs You May be Interested In, Groups You May Like, News Relevance, and Ad Targeting. We will describe how we leverage Hadoop to transform raw data to rich features using knowledge aggregated from LinkedIn's 100 million member base, how we use Lucene to do real-time recommendations, and how we marshal Lucene on Hadoop to bridge offline analysis with user-facing services.

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  • - Ever since I studied Machine Learning and Data Mining at Stanford 3 years ago., I have been enamored by the idea that it is now possible to write programs that can sift through TBS of data to recommend useful things.- So here I am with my colleague AdilAijaz, for a talk on some of the lessons we learnt and challenges we faced in building large-scale recommender system.
  • At LinkedIn we believe in building platform, not verticals. Our talk is divided into 2 parts. In the first part of thistalk, I will talk about our motivation for building the recommendation platform, followed by a discussion on how we do recommendations.No analytics platform is complete without Hadoop. So, in he next part of our talk, Adil will talk about leveraging Hadoop for scaling our products. ‘Think Platform, Leverage Hadoop’ is our core message. Throughout our talk, we will provide examples that highlight how these two ideas have helped us ‘scale innovation’.
  • With north of 135 million members, we’re making great strides toward our mission of connecting the world’s professionals to make them more productive and successful. For us this not only means helping people to find their dream jobs, but also enabling them to be great at the jobs they’re already in.-With terabytes of data flowing through our systems, generated from member’s profile, their connections and their activity on LinkedIn, we have amassed rich and structured data of one of the most influential, affluent and highly-educated audience on the web. This huge semi-structured data is getting updated in real-time and growing at a tremendous pace, we are all very excited about the data opportunity at LinkedIn
  • For an average user, there is so much data, there is no way users can leverage all the data on their own. We need to put the right information, to the right user at the right time.With such rich data of members, jobs, groups, news, companies, schools, discussions and events. We do all kinds of recommendations in a relevant and engaging way.
  • We have products like ‘Job Recommendation’: here using profile data we suggest top top jobs that our member might be interested in. The idea is to let our users be aware of the possibilities out there for them.
  • ‘Talent Match’: When recruiters post jobs, we in real-time suggest top candidates for the job.
  • ‘News Recommendation’: Using articles shared per industry, we suggest top news that our users need to keep them updated with the latest happenings.
  • ‘Companies You May Want to Follow’: Using a combination of content matching and collaborative filtering, we recommend companies a user might be interested in keeping up-to date with.
  • ‘PYMK’: based on common attributes like connections, schools, companies and some activity based features, we suggest people that you may know outside of LinkedIn and may want to connect with at LinkedIn.
  • ‘Similar Profiles’: Finally our latest offering which we released a few months ago for recruiters, Similar Profiles. Given a candidate profile, we suggest top Similar candidates for hiring based on overall background, experience and skills.
  • We have recommendation solutions for everyone, for individuals, recruiters and advertisers In our view, recommendations are ubiquitous and they permeate the whole site.
  • Are recommendations really important?To put things in perspective, 50% of total job applications and job views by members are a direct result of recommendations. Interestingly, in the past year and half it has risen from 6% to 50%. This kind of contribution is observed across all our recommendation products and is growing by the day.
  • Let us start with an example of the kind of data we have. For a member, we have positions, education, Summary, Specialty, Experience and skills of the user from the profile itself. Then, from member’s activity we have data about members connections, the groups that the member has joined, the company that the member follows amongst others.
  • Before we can start leveraging data for recommendation, we first need to clean and canonicalize it.Lets take an example for matching member to jobs, In order to accurately match members to jobs, we need to understand that all the ways of listing these titles like ‘Software Engineer’, ‘Technical Yahoo’, ‘Member Technical Staff’ and ‘SDE’ mean the same entity i.e. ‘Software Engineers’. Solving this problem is itself a research topic broadly referred to as ‘Entity Resolution’.
  • As another example, How many variations do you think, we have for the company name ‘IBM’?When I joined LinkedIn, I was surprised to find that we had close to 8000+ user entered variations of the same company IBM.We apply machine learnt classifiers for the entity resolution using a host of features for company standardization. In summary, data canonicalization is the key to accurate matching and is one of the most challenging aspects of our recommendation platform.
  • Now, we will discuss our motivation behind building a common platform by way of 3 key example trade-offs that we’ve encountered. In LinkedIn ecosystem, one trade-off that we encountered is that of real-time Vs time independent recommendations. Lets look at ‘News Recommendation’, which finds relevant news for our users. Relevant news today might be old news tomorrow. Hence, News recommendation has to have a strong real-time component. On the other hand, we have another product called ‘Similar Profiles’. The motivation here is that if a hiring manager, already know the kind of person that he wants to hire. He could be like person in his team already or like one of his connections on LinkedIn, then using that as the source profile, we suggest top Similar Profiles for hiring. Since, ‘people don’t reinvent themselves everyday’. ‘People similar today are most likely similar today’. So, we can potentially do this computation completely offline with a more sophisticated model.These are the 2 extreme cases in terms of ‘freshness’: Most examples fall into an intermediate category. For E.g. new jobs gets posted by the hour and they expire when they get filled up. All jobs posted today don’t expire the same day. Hence, we cache job recommendation for members for some time as it is OK to not recommend the absolute latest jobs instantly to all members.In solving the completely real-time Vs completely offline problem, we could have gone down the route of creating separate solutions optimized for the use-case. In the short run, that would have been a quicker solution. But we went down the platform route because we realized that we would churn out more and more such verticals as LinkedIn grows. Now, as a result of which we have the same code that computes recommendations online as well as offline. Moreover, in the production system caching and an expiry policy allows us to keep recommendations fresh irrespective of how we compute the recommendations. Now, as a result for newer verticals. We can easily get ‘freshness’ of recommendations irrespective of whether we compute recommendations online or offline.
  • Another interesting trade-off, is choosing between content analysis and collaborative filtering.Historically speaking: ‘job posting has been a post-and-prey’ model. Where job posters post a job and pray that hopefully someone will apply for the job. But we at LinkedIn, believe in ‘post-and-produce’ so we go ahead and produce matches to the job poster in real-time right after the job gets posted. When someone posts a job, the job poster naturally expects the candidates to have a strong match between job and the profile. Hence, this type of recommendation is heavy on content analysis. On the other hand, we have a product called ‘Viewers of the profile also viewed ..’. When a member views more than 1 profile within a single session. We record it as a co-view. Then on aggregating these co-views for every member. We get the data for all profiles that get co-viewed, when someone visits any given profile. This is a classical collaborative filtering based recommendation much like Amaozon’s ‘people who viewed this item also viewed’Most other recommendations are hybrid. For e.g. for ‘SimilarJobs’ jobs that have high content overlap with each other are similar. Interestingly, jobs that get applied to or viewed by the same members are also Similar. So, Similar Jobs is a nice mix of content and collaborative filtering.Again, Because of a platform approach, we can re-use the content matching and the collaborative filtering components to come up with newer verticals without re-inventing the wheel.
  • Finally, the last key trade-off is of precision vs recall.On our homepage, we suggest jobs that are good fit for our users with the motivation for them to be more aware of the possibilities out there. In some sense, we are pushing recommendations to you, as opposed to you actively looking for them. Even if a single job recommendation looks bad to the user either because of a lower seniority of the job or because the recommendation is for the company that the user is not fond of, our users might feel less than pleased. Here, getting the absolute best 3 jobs even at the cost of aggressively filtering out a lot of jobs is acceptable.On the other hand, We have another recommendation product called ‘Similar Profiles’ for hiring managers who are actively looking for candidates. Here, if one finds a candidate we suggest other candidates like the original one in terms of overall experience, specialty, education background and a host of other features. Since, the hiring manager is actively looking so in this case they are more open to getting a few bad ones as long as they get a lot of good ones too. So in essence, recall is more important here.Again, because of a platform approach and because we can re-use features, filters and code-base across verticals. So, tuning the knob of more precision vs more recall is mostly a matter of figuring out 1. how complicated the matching model should be and 2. how aggressively we want to apply filters for all recommendation verticals. Hence, our core message ‘Think Platform’. Now, we will discuss in some detail how our recommendations work.
  • Lets see how we do recommendations by taking an example of ‘Similar Profiles’ that we just discussed. Given a member profile, the goal is to find other similar people for hiring. Lets try to find profiles similar to me.Here, we look at host of different features.Such as User provided features like ‘Title, Specialty, Education, experience amongst others’ Complex derived features like ‘Seniority’ and ‘Skills’, computed using machine learnt classifiers. Both these kinds of features help in precision, we also have features like ‘Related Titles’ and ‘Related Companies’ that help increase the recall. Intuitively, one might imagine that we use the following pair of features to compute Similar Profiles. In the next slide, we will discuss a more principled approach to figuring out pair of features to match against. Here in order to compute overall of similarity between me and Adil, we are first computing similarity between our specialties, our skills, our titles and other attribute.
  • With this we get a ‘Similarity score vector’ for how Similar Adil is to me, Similarly we can get such a vector for other profiles. Now we somehow need to combine the similarity score in the vector to a single number s.t. profiles that have higher similarity score across more dimensions get ranked higher, as similar profiles for me.Moreover, the fact that our skills match might matter more for hiring than whether our education matches. Hence, there should be relative importance of one feature over the others. Once we get the topK recommendations, we also apply application specific filtering with the goal of leveraging domain knowledge For example, it could be the case that for a ‘Data Engineer role’ you as a hiring manager are looking for a candidate like one of your team member but who is local. Whereas, for all you know the ideal ‘Data Engineer most similar to the one you are looking for in terms of skills might be working somewhere in INDIA’ .To ensure our recommendation quality keeps improving as more and more people use our products, we use explicit and implicit user feedback combined with crowd-sourcing, to construct high quality training and test sets for constructing the ‘Importance weight vector’. Moreover, classifier with L1 regularization helps prune out the weakly correlated features. We use this for figuring out which features to match profiles against.We just discussed an example. However, the same concepts apply to all the recommendation verticals.
  • And now the technologies that drives it all. The core our matching algorithm uses Lucene with our custom query implementation. We use Hadoop to scale our platform. It serves a variety of needs from computing Collaborative filtering features, building Lucene indices offline, doing quality analysis of recommendation and host of other exciting things that Adil will talk about in a bit. Lucene does not provide fast real-time indexing. To keep our indices up-to date, we use a real-time indexing library on top of Lucene called Zoie. We provide facets to our members for drilling down and exploring recommendation results. This is made possible by a Faceting Search library called Bobo. For storing features and for caching recommendation results, we use a key-value store Voldemort. For analyzing tracking and reporting data, we use a distributed messaging system called Kafka.Out of these Bobo, Zoie, Voldemort and Kafka are developed at LinkedIn and are open sourced. In fact, Kafka is an apache incubator project.Historically, we have used R for model training. We have recently started experimenting with Mahout for model training and are excited about it. All the above technologies, combined with great engineers powers LinkedIn’s Recommendation platform.Now Adil will talk about how we leverage Hadoop.
  • In the second half of our talk we will present case studies on how Hadoop has helped us scale innovation for our Recommendation Platform. We will use the ‘Similar Profiles’ vertical which was discussed earlier as the example for each case study. As a quick reminder, similar profiles recommends profiles that are similar to the one a user is interested in. Some of its biggest customers are hiring managers and recruiters. For each of the case studies, we will lay out the solutions we tried before turning to Hadoop, analyze the pros and cons of the approaches before and after Hadoop, and finally derive some lessons that are applicable to folks working on large scale recommendation systems.
  • When it comes to recommendations, relevance is the most important consideration. However, with over 120M members, and billions of recommendation computations, the latency of our recommendations becomes equally important. No mater how great our recommendations are, they wont be of utility to our members if we take too long to return recommendations. Among our many products, ‘Similar Profiles’ is a particularly challenging product to speed up. Our plain vanilla solution involved using a large number of features to mine the entire member index for the best matches. The latency of this solution was in the order of seconds. Clearly, no matter how relevant our recommendations were, with that type of latency, our members would not even wait for the results. So, something had to be done. We needed a solution that could pre-filter most of the irrelevant results while maintaining a high precision on the documents that survived the filter. One technique that meets these conditions is minhashing. On a very high level, minhashing involves running each document, in our case member profiles, through k hash functions to to construct a bit vector. One can play with ANDING/Oring of subsets of the bit vector, to get the right balance between recall and precision. As our second pass solution, we minhashed each document and stored the resulting bit array in the member index. At query time, we minhashed the query into a bit array, filtered out documents that did not have the exact same subsets of the bit array, and finally did advanced matching on documents that survived the filtration. This solution brought down the latency well below a second, however, minhashing did not give us the recall we had hoped for. This was a really disappointing result since we had spent significant engineering resources in productionalizing minhashing, yet it was all for nought. So, we went back to the drawing board and started thinking about how we can use Hadoop to solve this problem. The key breakthrough was when we realized that people do not reinvent themselves everyday. The folks I was similar to yesterday, are likely to be the same folks I am similar to today. This meant that we could serve ‘similar profiles’ recommendations from cache. When the cache would expire, we could compute fresh recommendations online and repopulate the cache. This meant that the user would almost always be served from cache. Great: but we still have to populate the cache somehow. This is where Hadoop comes into the picture. By opening an index shard per mapper, we can generate a portion of the recommendations in each mapper, and combine them into a final recommendation set in the reducers. With the distributed computation of Hadoop, we easily generate similar profiles for each member, and then copy over the results to online caches. So the three elements of:Offline batch computations on Hadoop copied to online caches.Aggressive online caching policyOnline computation when the cache expiresHave scaled our similar profiles recommendations while maintaining a high precision of recommendations.So, the key takeaway from this case study of scaling is that if one is facing the problem of:High latency computationHigh qpsAnd not so stringent freshness requirements Then one should leverage Hadoop and caching to scale the recommendation computation.
  • With our scaling problems solved, we rolled out Similar Profiles to our members. The reception was amazing. However, we felt that we could do even better by going beyond content based features alone. One such feature that we wanted to experiment with was collaborative filtering. More specifically, if a member browses multiple member profiles within a single session, aka coviews, it is quite likely that those member profiles are very similar to each other. How we blend collaborative filtering with existing content based recommendations is the subject of our second case study: “blending multiple recommendation algorithms”.Our basic blending solution is this: While constructing the query for content based similar profiles, we fetch collaborative filtering recommendations and their scores, and attach them to the query. In the scoring of content based recommendations, we can use the collaborative filtering score as a boost. An alternative approach is a bag of models approach with content and collaborative filtering serving as two of the models in the bag.In either solution, we need a way to keep collaborative filtering results fresh. If two member profiles were coviewed yesterday, we should be able to use that knowledge today.We first sketched out a completely online solution. This online solution involved keeping track of the state of each member session, accumulating all the profile views within that session. At the end of each session, we updated the counts of the various coview pairs. As you can appreciate, such a stateful solution can get very complicated very quickly. As an example, we have to worry about machine failures, multi data center coordination just to name two challenges. In essence such a solution could introduce more problems than it solves. So, we scratched this solution even before implementing it.We thought more about this problem and realized two important aspects: 1) Coview counts can be updated in batch mode. 2) We can tolerate delay in updating our collaborative filtering results. These two properties, batch computation and tolerance for delay in impacting the online world, led us to leverage Hadoop to solve this problem. Our production servers can produce tracking events everytime a member profile is viewed. These tracking events are copied over to hdfs where everyday, we use these tracking events to batch compute a fresh set of collaborative filtering recommendations. These recommendations are then copied to online key value stores where we use the blending approaches outlined earlier to blend collaborative filtering and content based recommendations.Compared to the purely online solution, the Hadoop solution is simpler in complexity, less error prone, but introduces a lag between the time two profiles are coviewed and the time that coview has an impact on similar profiles. For us, this solution works great. The other great thing about this solution is that it can be easily extended to blend social or globally popular recommendations in addition to collaborative filtering.The lesson we derive from this case study is that by leveraging Hadoop, we were able to experiment with collaborative filtering in similar profiles without significant investment in an online system to keep collaborative filtering results fresh. Once our proof of concept was successful, we could always go back and see if reducing the lag between a profile coview and its impact on similar profile by building an online system would be useful. If it is, we could invest in a non-Hadoop system. However, by leveraging Hadoop, we were able to defer that decision till the point when we had data to backup our assumptions.
  • A consistent feedback from hiring managers using Similar Profiles was that while the recommendations were highly relevant, often times the recommended members were not ready to take the next steps in their professional career. Such recommended members would thus respond negatively to a contact from the hiring manager, leading to a bad experience for the hiring manager. This feedback indicated a strong preference from our users that they would like a tradeoff between relevance of recommendations and the responsiveness of those recommendations. One can imagine a similar scenario playing out for a sales person looking for recommendations for potential clients.As our next case study, let’s take a look at how we approached solving this problem for our users. Let’s say we come up with an algorithm that assigns each LinkedIn member a ‘JobSeeker’ score which indicates how open is she to taking the next step in her career. As we said already, this feature would be very useful for ‘Similar Profiles’. However, the utility of this feature would be directly related to how many members have this score: aka coverage. The key challenge we faced was that since ‘Similar Profiles’ was already in production, we had to add this new feature while continuing to serve recommendations. We call this problem “grandfathering”.A naïve solution, could be to assign a ‘jobseeker’ score to a member next time she updates her profile. This approach will have minimal impact on the system serving traffic, however, we will not have all members tagged with such a score for a very long time, which impacts the utility of this feature for ‘Similar Profiles’.So, we scratch the naïve solution and look for a solution that will batch update all members with this score in all data centers while serving traffic.A second pass solution is to run a ‘batch’ feature extraction pipeline in parallel to the production feature extraction pipeline. This batch pipeline will query the db for all members and add a ‘job seeker score’ to every member. This solution ensures that we have an upper bound on the time it takes to grandfather all members with job seeker score. It will work great for small startups whose member base is in a few million range.However, the downside of this solution at LinkedIn scale is:It adds load on the production databases serving live traffic.To avoid the load, we end up throttling the batch solution which in turn makes the batch pipeline run for days or weeks. This slows down rate of batch update.Lastly, the two factors above combine to make grandfathering a ‘dreaded word’. You only end up grandfathering ‘once a quarter’ which is clearly not helpful in innovating faster.So, we clearly cannot use that solution either. However, one good aspect of this solution is the batch update which leads us into a Hadoop based solution.Using Hadoop, we take a snapshot of member profiles in production, move it to hdfs, grandfather members with a ‘job seeker score’ in a matter of hours, and copy this data back online. This way we can grandfather all members with a job seeker score in hours. The biggest advantage of using Hadoop here is that grandfathering is no longer a ‘dreaded word’. We can grandfather when ready instead of grandfather every quarter which speeds up innovation.So, in a nutshell, if one finds oneself slowed down due to constraints of updating features in the online world, consider batch updating the features offline using Hadoop and swapping them out online.
  • With the first few versions of similar profiles out the door, we began to simultaneously investigate a number of avenues for improvement. Some of us investigated different model families, say logistic regression vs SVM, others investigated new features with the existing model\\. In this case study, we will talk about how we decided which one of these experiments would actually improve the online relevance of similar profiles so we could double down on getting them out to production. We are not concerned with ‘how’ we come up with these new models. For all that matters, we hand tuned a common sense model. The question is how to decide whether or not to move that new model to production.Now, as a base solution, we can always move every model to production. We can A/B test the model with real traffic and see which models sink and which ones float. The simplicity of this approach is very attractive, however, there are some major flaws with it:For each models we have to push code to production. This takes up valuable development resources. There is an upper limit on the number of A/B tests one can run at the same time. This can be due to user experience concerns and/or revenue concerns.Since online tests need to run for days before enough data is accumulated to make a call, this approach slows down rate of progress.Ideally, we would like to try all our ideas offline, evaluate them, and only push to production the best ones. Hadoop proves critical in the evaluation step. Overtime, using implicit and explicit feedback combined with crowdsourcing, we have accumulated a huge gold test set for ‘similar profiles’. We rank the gold set with each model on Hadoop, and use standard ranking metrics to evaluate which one performs best.As you can guess, Hadoop provides a very good sandbox for our ideas. We are able to filter many of the craziest ideas, and double down on only those few that show promise. Plus, it allows us to have relatively large gold sets which gives us strong confidence in our evaluation results.
  • Now that we have learned a new model for ‘Similar Profiles’ that performs well in our offline evaluation framework, we need to test it online. An industry standard approach to this problem is known as A/B testing or bucket testing. Formally, AB testing involves partitioning real traffic between alternatives and then evaluating which alternative maximizes the desired objective. Typical desired objectives are CTR, revenue, or number of views.The key requirements of AB testing:1. Time to evaluate which bucket to send traffic to should ideally be < 1ms, at-worst a few ms.Let’s discuss how we would do A/B testing for our new model. For simple partitioning requirements, one can use a mod-based scheme. This is very fast and very simple and can satisfy most use cases. However, if one wishes to partition traffic based on profile and member activity criteria for e.g. “Send 10% of members who have greater than 100 connections AND who have logged in the last one week AND who are based in Europe” then doing this online is too expensive. Keep in mind that deciding which bucket to send traffic to should be very fast, ideally less than a millisecond. In worst case scenario a few milliseconds. I am not going to even attempt an online solution for this problem.So, we go straight to Hadoop. For complex criteria like this, we run over our entire member base on Hadoop every couple of hours, assigning them to the appropriate bucket for each test. The results of this computation are pushed online, where the problem of A/B testing reduces to given a member and a test, fetching which bucket to send the traffic to from cache.The take home message here is: If you need complex targeting and A/B testing, leverage Hadoop.
  • Our last case study involves the last step of a model deployment process: tracking and reporting. These two steps allow us to have an unbiased, data-driven way of saying whether or not a new model is successful in lifting our desired metrics: ctr or revenue or engagement or whatever else one is interested in. Our production servers generate tracking events every time a recommendation is impressed, clicked or rejected by the member. Before Hadoop, we used to have an online reporting tool that would listen to tracking events over a moving window of time, doing in-memory joins of different streams of events and reporting up-to-the minute performance of our models. The clear advantages of this approach were that we could see exactly how the model was performing online at this moment. However, there are a few downsides such asOne cannot look at greater than certain amount of time window in the past..As the number of tracking streams increases, it becomes harder and harder to join them online.To increase the time window, we will have to spend significant engineering resources in architecting a scalable reporting system which would be an overkill. Instead we placed our bet on Hadoop. All tracking events at LinkedIn are stored on HDFS. Add to this data Pig or plain Map-Reduce, we can do arbitrary k-way joins across billions of rows to come up with reports that can look as far in the past as we want to.The advantages of this approach are quite clear. Complex joins are easy to compute and reporting is flexible on time windows. However, we cannot have up-to-the minute reports since we copy over tracking events in batch to hdfs. If we ever need that level of reporting, we can always use our online solution.We can say without any hesitation that Hadoop has now become an integral part of the whole life-cycle of our workflow starting from prototyping a new idea to eventually tracking the impact of that idea.
  • By thinking about platform and not verticals, we are able to to come with newer verticals at a fast pace. By leveraging Hadoop, we were able to continuously improve the quality and scale the computations.Hence, these 2 ideas helped us ‘scale innocation’ at Linkedin.
  • To conclude, we want to say that the data opportunity at LinkedIn is HUGE and so come work with us at LinkedIn!
  • Hadoop World 2011: LeveragIng Hadoop to Transform Raw Data to Rich Features at LinkedIn - Abhishek Gupta & Adil Aijaz, LinkedIn

    1. 1. Recommendations @ LinkedIn<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Think Platform<br />Leverage Hadoop<br />2<br />
    3. 3. The world’s largest professional networkOver 50% of members are now international<br />135M+<br />75%<br />*<br />Fortune 100 Companies use LinkedIn to hire<br />**<br />>2M<br />Company Pages<br />**<br />~2/sec<br />New Members joining<br />*as of Nov 4, 2011**as of June 30, 2011<br />3<br />
    4. 4. 4<br />Recommendations Opportunity<br />
    5. 5. 5<br />
    6. 6. 6<br />
    7. 7. 7<br />
    8. 8. 8<br />
    9. 9. 9<br />
    10. 10. 10<br />
    11. 11. The Recommendations Opportunity<br />Pandora Search for People<br />Groups browse maps<br />Events You<br />May Be<br />Interested In<br />11<br />
    12. 12. 50%<br />12<br />
    13. 13. 13<br />Positions<br />Education<br />Summary<br />Experience<br />Skills<br />
    14. 14. Are all titles the same?<br /><ul><li>Software Engineer
    15. 15. Technical Yahoo
    16. 16. Member Technical Staff
    17. 17. Software Development Engineer
    18. 18. SDE</li></li></ul><li>Are all companies the same?<br />‘IBM’ has 8000+ variations<br /><ul><li>ibm – ireland
    19. 19. ibm research
    20. 20. T J Watson Labs
    21. 21. International Bus. Machines</li></li></ul><li>Recommendation Trade-offsThe need for a common platform<br />Real Time<br /> Time Independent<br />16<br />
    22. 22. Recommendation Trade-offsThe need for a common platform<br />Content Analysis<br />Collaborative<br />17<br />
    23. 23. Recommendation Trade-offsThe need for a common platform<br />Precision <br />Recall<br />18<br />
    24. 24. Specialty -> Specialty<br /> Skills-> Skills<br />Seniority<br />Skills<br />Title<br />Specialty<br />Education<br />Experience<br />Location<br />Industry<br /> Title -> Title<br />Matching<br />0.58<br />Seniority -> Seniority<br />Related Titles<br />Related Companies<br />Related Industries<br />0.94<br />Binary<br />Exact match<br />Exact match in bucket<br />Summary -> Summary<br />0.26<br />Title -> Related Title<br />0.18<br />Education -> Education<br />Soft Match<br /> v1 = tf * idf<br />CosΘ =v1*v2<br />|v1|*|v2|<br />0.98<br />.<br />.<br />.<br />0.16<br />Seniority<br />Skills<br />Title<br />Specialty<br />Education<br />Experience<br />Location<br />Industry<br />0.40<br />Related Titles<br />Related Companies<br />Related Industries<br />
    25. 25. Importance <br />weight vector<br />(Skills-> Skills)<br />Feedback<br />0.70<br />Normalization, <br />Scoring <br />& Ranking<br />Filtering<br />Location<br />Company<br />Industry<br />Similarity <br />score vector<br />(Skills-> Skills)<br />0.94<br />
    26. 26. Technologies<br />
    27. 27. 22<br />Hadoop Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Scaling
    28. 28. Blending Recommendation Algorithms
    29. 29. Grandfathering
    30. 30. Model Selection
    31. 31. A/B Testing
    32. 32. Tracking and Reporting</li></li></ul><li>23<br />Scaling<br />Billions of Recommendations<br />Latency > 1 sec<br />Minhashing<br />Latency < 1 sec<br />Recall = Low<br />Latency < 1 sec<br />Recall = High<br />23<br />
    33. 33. 24<br />Hadoop Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Scaling ✔
    34. 34. Blending Recommendation Algorithms
    35. 35. Grandfathering
    36. 36. Model Selection
    37. 37. A/B Testing
    38. 38. Tracking and Reporting</li></li></ul><li>Blending Recommendation Algorithms<br />Co-View <br />Impact Latency ~ Minutes <br />Complexity = High<br />Co-View <br />Impact Latency ~ Hours<br /> Complexity = Low<br />25<br />
    39. 39. 26<br />Hadoop Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Scaling ✔
    40. 40. Blending Recommendation Algorithms ✔
    41. 41. Grandfathering
    42. 42. Model Selection
    43. 43. A/B Testing
    44. 44. Tracking and Reporting</li></li></ul><li>27<br />Grandfathering<br />Adding and Changing Features<br />Next Profile Edit<br />No Time Guarantees<br />Minimal Disruption<br />Parallel Feature<br />Extraction Pipeline<br />Time ~ Week<br />Significant Systems Work<br />Time ~ Hour<br />Minimal Disruption<br />Grandfather When Ready<br />
    45. 45. 28<br />Hadoop Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Scaling ✔
    46. 46. Blending Recommendation Algorithms ✔
    47. 47. Grandfathering ✔
    48. 48. Model Selection
    49. 49. A/B Testing
    50. 50. Tracking and Reporting</li></li></ul><li>29<br />Model Selection<br />Decision Trees<br /><ul><li>Features
    51. 51. Models
    52. 52. Parameters</li></ul>SVM<br />SVM<br />Logistic<br />Regression<br />`<br />Content,<br />Collaborative<br /> L1+L2<br />Regularization<br />29<br />29<br />
    53. 53. 30<br />Hadoop Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Scaling ✔
    54. 54. Blending Recommendation Algorithms ✔
    55. 55. Grandfathering ✔
    56. 56. Model Selection ✔
    57. 57. A/B Testing
    58. 58. Tracking and Reporting</li></li></ul><li>31<br />A/B Testing<br />Is Option A Better Than Option B? Let’s Test<br />New <br />Model<br />`<br />A<br />10%<br />Traffic<br />Old<br />Model<br />90%<br />B<br />Send 10% of members who have more than 100 connections AND <br />who have logged in the past one week, AND who are based in Europe<br />31<br />31<br />
    59. 59. 32<br />Hadoop Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Scaling ✔
    60. 60. Blending Recommendation Algorithms ✔
    61. 61. Grandfathering ✔
    62. 62. Model Selection ✔
    63. 63. A/B Testing ✔
    64. 64. Tracking and Reporting</li></li></ul><li>33<br />Tracking and Reporting<br />K-way joins across billions of rows<br />Up to the minute reporting<br />Nearsightedness<br />K-way join complexity<br />Lacks up to the<br /> minute reporting<br />Simple k-way joins<br />
    65. 65. 34<br />Think Platform<br />Leverage Hadoop<br />
    66. 66. 35<br />Come work with us at LinkedIn<br />You<br />Applied Research<br />Engineer<br />LinkedIn<br />35<br />