Ibm cloud computing certification exam 000 280 and 000-032 q&a full set


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It’s a compilation of IBM example test page and multiple simulation tests. All materials are publicly available. It’s just a compilation of different sources.
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Content: Preparation Material (page1~page52)+ 54 Answered Questions (Quite useful cheatsheet, page52~page84)

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Ibm cloud computing certification exam 000 280 and 000-032 q&a full set

  1. 1. It’s a compilation of IBM example test page and multiplesimulation tests. All materials are publicly available. It’s just acompilation of different sources. Compiled & Edited by No rights are reserved.Content: Preparation Material (page1~page52)+ 54 AnsweredQuestions (Quite useful cheatsheet, page52~page84)How to use the preparation material? Ctrl+FPreparation Material:Test 000-280: IBM Cloud Computing Infrastructure Architect V1Section 1 - Cloud Computing Design Principles Given an audience familiar with the cloud computing, define the cloud computing paradigmand cloud deployment models so that various types of cloud deployment models have beenexplained. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Cloud computing is a new paradigm for both service delivery and consumption. Thisparadigm is characterized by rapid service provisioning, service elasticity, usage-based billing, andubiquitous service access. A private cloud is owned by an enterprise and operates within the corporate firewall.Services on the private cloud can only be accessed by approved users. Private Cloud -Premise: Client (Implemented by Service Provider) -Managed: Client -Infrastructure: Dedicated -Access: Internal Enterprise Network -Payment: Traditional Private Managed Cloud -Premise: Client (Implemented by Service Provider) -Managed: Service Provider
  2. 2. -Infrastructure: Dedicated -Access: Internal Enterprise Network -Payment: Traditional Private Hosted Cloud -Premise: Service Provider -Managed: Service Provider -Infrastructure: Dedicated -Access: VPN Network, Public Internet -Payment: Hybrid - Traditional and/or Pay-as-you-Go A public cloud is owned and operated by a service provider. Services on the public cloudare made available to users over a network, usually the internet. Public Cloud -Premise: IBM -Managed: IBM -Infrastructure: Shared -Access: Public Internet -Payment: Pay-as-you-Go A hybrid cloud consists of both private and public cloud components. Some services in ahybrid cloud are owned and operated by the enterprise, while others are provide over a network bya service provider. Shared-Private Hosted Cloud -Premise: Service Provider -Managed: Service Provider -Infrastructure: Shared (by "member" clients) -Access: VPN Network, Public Internet -Payment: Pay-as-you-Go Private, public, and hybrid clouds have key differences. Private clouds provide enterprises with a greater degree of control in theconstruction and delivery of cloud services at the cost of owning and operating the infrastructure. Public clouds allow enterprises to consume services without owning and operatinginfrastructure, while sacrificing some control over the construction and delivery of services. Hybrid clouds use a connectivity backbone to allow enterprises to consume bothpublic and private cloud services according to their needs. Given the attributes of Cloud computing, explain how the service delivery model of cloudcomputing differentiates from standard IT service delivery models, so that the new cloud servicemodel and its attributes have been defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Standardized, consumable, Web-based deliverable services
  3. 3. A cloud computing platform combines the modular components of a service-orientedarchitecture and an Internet protocol-based convergence of networks and devices within ahigh-performance pool of virtualized computer hardware and software resources. Elastic scaling (Elasticity and Scalability) Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned toquickly scale up and rapidly released to quickly scale down. To the consumer, the capabilitiesavailable for rent often appear to be infinite and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Flexible pricing Capabilities are charged by using a metered, fee-for-service, or advertising based billingmodel to promote optimization of resource use. Examples are measuring the storage, bandwidth,and computing resources consumed and charging for the number of active user accounts permonth. Clouds within an organization accrue cost between business units and may or may not useactual currency. Metering and billing capability Delivered at a granular level of billing and metering, this workload standardization canhelp measure, monitor and lower the cost of your services while easing complexity of your ITinfrastructure. Given the knowledge of the IBM Common Cloud Computing Management PlatformReference Architecture (CCMP-RA), explain the three segments represented to delivery common,reusable assets, so that the building blocks of a cloud computing solution have been defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: What is the IBM Common Cloud Management Platform Reference Architecture(CCMP-RA)? It is a cross-IBM effort for an RA enabling cloud economics by optimizing resource andlabor utilization, and delivering the foundational cloud management infrastructure for both privateand public clouds. Which three segments make up the IBM Common Cloud Management PlatformReference Architecture (CCMP-RA)? The CCMP-RA is structured into three segments, Cloud service consumer, Cloudservice provider, and Cloud service developer, all designed to deliver common, reusable assets. What are the two components of the IBM Common Cloud Management PlatformReference Architecture (CCMP-RA)? Business Support Services (BSS): Business-level functionality for management ofCloud Services -Service offering catalog
  4. 4. -Usage metering and accounting Operational Support Services (OSS): Operational-level functionality formanagement of Cloud Services -Service request management -Provisioning -Monitoring and event management -Image life-cycle management Given the knowledge of the IBMs Cloud strategy, explain IBMs business strategy aroundCloud computing and the core differentiators, so that IBMs solution strategy for supporting cloudenvironment has been defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: IBM solution strategy for Cloud computing is to actively participate in three majoraddressable market segments: Components Supply -Virtualized servers and storage -Cloud software products (Tivoli, Lotus, Rational, etc) Infrastructure Services: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service(PaaS) -Computing on Demand -Smart Business Services Business Services: Software as a Service (SaaS) and Business Process as a Service(BPaaS) -LotusLive, Information Protection Services, Expense reporting IBM core differentiators for Cloud are: (NOTE: define on a technical level) Workload optimization Deployment choices Integrated Service Management IBMs key workloads for Cloud Analytics Collaboration Development and Test Desktop and Devices Infrastructure Compute Infrastructure Storage Business Services IBMs Cloud portfolio includes the phases across the cloud life-cycle. Plan - Develop cloud strategies. Build - Build cloud delivery capabilities.
  5. 5. Deliver - Provide cloud services. -From the IBM Cloud. -Define and deliver a cloud computing proof of concept or pilot for a specificworkload. Given an understanding of cloud computing, explain the different types of cloud services, sothat their definition and differences are clearly understood. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Define SaaS. SaaS is a type of cloud service where the service provider supplies all the infrastructurealong with the software product. Users interact with the service by using a Web-based front-end.This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the customers own computers.Examples of SaaS include IBMs LotusLive, Google Docs, Gmail, etc. Define PaaS. PaaS is a type of cloud service that supplies the software and product development toolshosted by the provider on their hardware infrastructure. Users can create applications by using thisplatform and the APIs provided or with a graphical user interface for development. Examples ofPaaS include from, Google App Engine, Microsoft Windows Azure,etc. Define IaaS. IaaS is a type of cloud service that provides access to basic building blocks as services.These building blocks can be combined or layered to build the infrastructure needed for runningthe applications. Examples of IaaS include IBM Business Development and Test Cloud, AmazonWeb Services (AWS) and Rackspace. Define BPaaS. BPaas is a type of cloud service that provides business services via Web-centricinterfaces on multi-tenant and shared infrastructures without the need to manage or control theunderlying resources. Examples of BPaaS include payroll processing, HR, etc. Given an audience familiar with the cloud deployment model, outline the challenges ofintegration in a cloud environment so as to understand how IBM solutions can be used to addresstraditional hurdles in cloud integration. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Consistent access management policies in an integrated cloud environment are critical toreducing costs and avoiding security flaws. IBM Tivoli Access Management solutions allow youto enforce consistent access management policies across cloud environments to reduce both risksand costs.
  6. 6. Connecting applications across cloud environments can require extensive custom codingand present security challenges to the enterprise. Cast Iron solutions from IBM WebSphere enableusers to connect applications and their data in integrated cloud environments in a highly securemanner without requiring custom user coding. In an integrated cloud environment, creating secure access mechanisms betweenenterprise endpoints and public cloud endpoints is important to maintain flexibility withoutsacrificing security. The Secure Cloud Connector found in certain WebSphere DataPowerAppliance models provides for identity verification of public cloud endpoints, and it securelytransmits encrypted data between enterprise endpoints and public cloud endpoints in an integratedcloud environment. Given a set of infrastructure considerations when setting up a cloud environment, describethe importance of security, automation, network, storage management, and virtualization in acloud environment, so that the infrastructure considerations of cloud computing have defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Security: Assess the risks associated with data integrity and security in the cloudenvironment. Regulatory compliance through audits and data location considerations in terms ofprivacy laws and jurisdictions. Protect sensitive data through access control and encryption to separate data in amulti-tenant environment. Backup and recovery of data in the cloud environment. Automation: Provides standardization in deployment and management of IT services. Provides the ability to maintain or improve quality and cost of IT services. Provides a management stack that is easier to handle and provides for smootherworkload migration. Provides the ability to reduce costly manual interventions and skill requirements,and reduces errors caused by them. Network and storage management: Network hardware supporting various networks used in the cloud environment. Network management components used to administer the network. Components for monitoring the health of the network. Management and access to storage on the cloud. Virtualization: Computing resources (application servers. physical servers, databases, storages,services) are dynamically and automatically provisioned as demand varies. Underutilized physical servers are consolidated into a smaller number of more fullyutilized physical servers. Sharing, manageability and isolation of computing resources. Significant cost savings via server consolidations and optimal resource utilizations.
  7. 7. Advanced virtualization - Virtualization with standardization and automation arenecessary to provide increased flexibility while lowering costs. Rapid provisioning of resources - With easy access to an easy-to-use servicerequest catalog that hides the complexity of the underlying infrastructure, the end user is able toselect and access standardized, pre-configured and pretested solutions, services and resourcesreducing the time and IT resources necessary to deliver. How do you design for failure? Cloud computing is fully enabled by virtualization technology (hypervisors) andvirtual appliances. A virtual appliance is an application that is bundled with all the componentsthat it is required to run, along with a streamlined operating system. In a cloud computingenvironment, a virtual appliance can be instantly provisioned and decommissioned as needed,without complex configuration of the operating environment. This flexibility is the key advantage to cloud computing, and what distinguishes itfrom other forms of grid or utility computing and SaaS. The ability to launch new instances of anapplication with minimal labor and expense allows application providers to: -Scale up and down rapidly. -Recover from a failure. -Bring up development or test instances. -Roll out new versions to the customer base. -Efficiently load test an application. Given a set of service delivery considerations when setting up a cloud environment, describethe importance of security, automation, network, storage management, and virtualization in acloud environment, so that the service delivery infrastructure considerations of cloud computinghave defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Service Delivery - OSS component of cloud infrastructure planning and architecture perthe IBM Common Cloud Management Platform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA) Platform, Operating system and workload image provisioning Monitoring and event management for SLAs within a cloud, including instrumented andmonitored functions IT asset and license management relationship to capacity and performance managementfor cloud architecture Virtualization planning, design, architecture and management for service levelattainment and maintenance Core components of Service Managed Virtualization and Clouds -Locating and Requesting Services: Secure user centric self-service portal /Automation engine / and Service catalog -Deploying Cloud Services: Automated provisioning / and Image management -Managed Cloud Services: Monitoring / Security and Metering Cloud specific security architecture, planning, industry security frameworks and
  8. 8. operational support characteristics, including data handling Cloud specific storage and network architecture, planning, industry frameworks andoperational support characteristics Given a list of cloud characteristics, define their impact on service delivery models and howthey differ from traditional the IT model so that a clear mapping of the characteristics to servicedelivery model has been produced. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Rapid service delivery: Services can be accessed nearly instantly allowing businesses to more quickly build, test,and deploy solutions. Rapid service delivery can drastically shorten their lead time for deliveringnew solutions, thereby decreasing solution development costs and increasing revenue potential. Resource consolidation: The virtualization of resources like servers and storage enables users to increase assetutilization by driving higher density. In turn, this decreases resource requirements, decreasesmanagement costs, and decreases overall operating costs. Elastic scaling: Elastic scaling means that businesses can scale up and scale down IT services based oncurrent demand and business goals. As opposed to designing systems for peak load which resultsin unused resources, elastic scaling means businesses use what they are required to meet theirbusiness goals and no more. Considerations for Scaleable Architecture, which include not just theprovisioning of resources on a platform basis to meet the service needs and agreements but alsothe cross platform migration of applications or workloads to maintain and/or enhance theprofitability of running client workloads on a cloud. Self-service: Self-service access to IT services removes traditional obstacles associated with serviceacquisition. The decrease in service acquisition time can decrease the overall delivery time for aproduct or solution. Usage-based billing: Cloud consumers pay only for the services that they actually use. This means consumerscan more closely align IT expenditures with business goals, and consumers do not pay forresources that they are not actively using. Ubiquity: By delivering services through the Internet and other networks, consumers can moreeasily gain access to cloud services. Businesses can use the cloud delivery platform to increasetheir delivery channels both internally and externally. This increase can increase revenue
  9. 9. opportunity and decrease internal operating costs.Section 2 - Planning for a Cloud Environment Given a list of common infrastructure and environmental components, identify their use incloud environments, so as to understand how to evaluate a customers current infrastructure andenvironment in order to facilitate the adoption of cloud. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Servers: Depending on the cloud model being adopted (i.e. public vs. private),customer-owned servers may no longer be required or they may be repurposed for the cloud.Users considering adopting public cloud services will not use their own servers as part of theircloud. Customers considering building a private cloud may use existing servers, along withvirtualization technology, to build up the cloud infrastructure. Storage: As with servers, consumer-owned storage infrastructure is not a requirement whenusing the public cloud. For the private cloud, users will contribute storage to the overall solutionand can choose from a number of different types based on their need. Storage types like NFS, NAS, SAN, and more may be part of the users cloudinfrastructure. Storage virtualization may be used in the cloud infrastructure. Network: Regardless of whether a user is pursing a public or private cloud, their networkinginfrastructure could be part of the solution. Many public clouds allow for the creation of virtualprivate networks that securely communicate with the user-owned network. For users buildingprivate clouds, their networking infrastructure provides the connectivity backbone for the solution. Applications: Applications must be closely analyzed prior to moving to a cloud-basedenvironment. For many cloud environments, applications must be able to run in virtualizedcontainers. Applications should be loosely-coupled so that their components can independentlyscale in elastic cloud environments. Data: Data migration, connectivity, and storage strategies must be considered whenmoving to the cloud. When moving to a cloud, some data may be migrated to the new environment. Ifmoving data to a public cloud, all regulatory and legal concerns should be examined prior tomigration. Data connectivity patterns may require changes. For instance, if applications run ina public cloud but data is stored privately (cloud or otherwise), secure access channels are requiredto be established between the application and data. Many new data storage options have become popular in the cloud. This includes
  10. 10. key-value stores, non-relational object stores, distributed memory-based stores, and more.According to data structure and data access patterns, new cloud-based storage options may bemore appropriate and efficient. Automation: Automation plays a critical role in realizing the full value of cloud computing.Customers existing automation systems should be examined to determine if it is possible to usethem in conjunction with the new cloud computing environment. Standardization: Migrating to cloud computing necessitates a certain degree of standardization forthe services a customer uses to deliver via the cloud. Existing standardization practices should beexamined to determine if they are sufficient, or if additional standardization techniques arerequired for the move to cloud computing. Virtualization: Virtualization plays a key role in many cloud computing environments. Existingvirtualization technologies used by the customer should be identified and evaluated to determine ifthey will integrate with the new cloud computing environment. If the cloud migration means newvirtualization technologies will be used, existing infrastructure and applications should be testedwith this technology. Given a clients desire to move their environment to a cloud computing model, review theclients current IT operational model, so that an understanding of the required functional changesare clearly identified. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Understand the clients IT Operational model as it exists today and their approach todesign, build and run and how it is required to transform to a cloud operational model. Identify if the client understands and has implemented shared services in their current ITOperational model, and leverage this capability for the transformation to a cloud operationalmodel. Understand clients level of convergence and/or separation between server, network andstorage components in order to evaluate their readiness for Cloud transformation. Hardware Layer: Understand the infrastructure component level mean time betweenfailures (MTBF) metrics as they pertain to and are managed for a cloud operational model. OS Layer: Understand OS level image rationalization and standardization etc. Application Stack Layer: Understand application image standardization and applicationdeployment methods, align workload related infrastructure requirements such as latency,collocation, data structures, transaction timing/security and version control; stateless vs. stateful. Interconnection Layer: Understand the data structure, data sharing, and networkmultipoint implementation (latency, security, transaction etc.) SLA. Availability/Redundancy/Continuity Layer: Re-architect for workload delivery, movingthe architecture from individual server availability. Given the understanding of cloud capabilities, define the workloads characteristics of public
  11. 11. and private cloud implementations. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Why define workload characteristics? Workload characteristics drive the rate and degree of standardization. Complextransaction and information management processes will likely present challenges and risks ofmigration to standardized services. Understanding the workload is critical to help determine which workload andservices make sense to move first and to which type of cloud, public, private or hybrid. Items to review with moving workloads to a cloud environment: Regulatory requirements or constraints Criticality or SLAs Security concerns Highly customized applications Software that is not yet virtualized (third-party software) Licensing issues Complex processes and transactions Interoperability between systems Portability of components Integration of components Workload or application characteristics for consideration: Loosely-coupled -Computation and data are separate. Model scales well, but requires new failure and consistency approaches. Tightly-coupled -May not be able to separate application from HW components. Decoupled -Private cloud computing, public cloud computing, or both, security must becomeadaptive to support a model where workloads are decoupled from the physical hardwareunderneath and dynamically allocated to a fabric of computing resources. -The decoupling and abstraction of the entire IT stack and movement to private andpublic cloud-computing models means that workloads and information will no longer be tied tospecific devices, fixed IP or MAC addresses, breaking static security policies based on physicalattributes. To enable faster and more-accurate assessments of whether a given action should beallowed or denied, more real-time context information must also be incorporated at the time asecurity decision is made. Transactional DB -Data driven + small computation on small data Require support for massive multi-tenancy.
  12. 12. Content-Centric -Computation is required to be close to data + large computation on large data. Data and Storage Integration -Evolution of distributed file systems Enabled through evolution of distributed file systems Java Application Servers -Extending to highly distributed environments What are asynchronous systems architectures? -To tolerate failure, applications must operate as a part of a group, while not beingtoo tightly-coupled to their peers. Each piece of the application should be able to continue toexecute despite the loss of other functions. Asynchronous interfaces are an ideal mechanism tohelp application components tolerate failures or momentary unavailability of other components. Workloads that can take advantage of public clouds: Test systems and environments Single virtual appliance workloads Pre-production systems and environments Mature packaged offerings, like e-mail and collaboration Software development environments Batch processing jobs with limited security requirements Isolated workloads where latency between components is not an issue Storage solutions (including storage as a service) Backup solutions (including backup and restore as a service) Data-intensive workloads if the provider has a cloud storage offering linked to thecloud compute offering Workloads more appropriate for private clouds: Employee information or other sensitive data typically restricted to the enterprise Workloads composed of multiple, co-dependent services High throughput online transaction processing Workloads based on third-party software that does not have a virtualization orcloud-aware licensing strategy Workloads requiring customization Given a user interested in setting up a cloud environment, describe key requirements andconsiderations so as to produce a comprehensive plan for setting up a cloud environment. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Identify the required hardware and operating system components for the cloud. Select hardware componentry and operating systems based on price point,performance levels, and virtualization technology integration.
  13. 13. Procure server virtualization technologies that will be used as the foundation for thecloud environment. Select server virtualization technology based on several factors, includingcompatibility with existing hardware, costs, performance, and capabilities. Based on user needs in terms of performance, volume, and access patterns, install theappropriate storage infrastructure. The storage infrastructure used must be compatible with the server virtualizationtechnology in use. Apply storage virtualization techniques where appropriate to increase density anddecrease costs. Configure the network infrastructure to support the services that will be delivered in thecloud environment. The network infrastructure must be compatible with the server virtualizationtechnology in use. Utilize network virtualization techniques such as Virtual Local Area Networks(VLANs) and virtual switches to decrease the overall costs of the network infrastructure. Analyze the concurrent number of active endpoints to determine if techniques suchas Network Address Translation (NAT), network masquerading, and private IP addresses areappropriate. Put in place a service management tool to manage the various elements of the cloud. Service management tooling should provide an inventory of the elements (server,storage, network, virtual machines, etc.) of the cloud. Service management tooling should enable provisioning and de-provisioningservices to the cloud. Service management tooling should include service request managementcapabilities. Service management tooling should enable the definition and enforcement ofSLAs. Service management tooling should provide insight into cloud resource utilization. Carefully analyze customer applications and workloads targeted for the cloud. Map the interaction points between applications and the cloud infrastructure tounderstand dependencies and communication patterns. Assess the application or workload and its affinity for a cloud environment byconsidering the applications characteristics such as its degree of loose coupling and dependencieson external components. Given the objective of architecting a cloud computing solution, identify the networkrequirements to support the infrastructure, applications, and services. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Private, Public, and Intra-Cloud networking Balance of security with performance
  14. 14. -Network hops (latency) between application and platform servers, and client -Encryption overheads with VPNs (IPSec, SSL) -Non-encrypted connections Connections to Public clouds -Network QOS with various ISPs -SLAs to ensure network availability and bandwidth Intra-Cloud Connections -Bandwidth of trunk links between Data Centers -Architecting middleware and application location to minimize data movement Network Hardware Physical ethernet and fibre channel networks -Bandwidth -Switches and routers -Port Groups and VLAN tagging Firewall rules to allow or deny access to network devices and protocols Virtual Hardware -Virtual network adapters and switches - fully utilize HW and reduce costs. Management Networks Virtual server management networks: -Used to provision, configure, administer, monitor, migrate, and delete the virtualservers. Hardware management networks: -Used to manage the physical infrastructure (Blades, blade chassis, switches,storage, Power Distribution Units). Customer Networks Provides access to virtual servers and customer applications. SANs: Provides access to centralized, shared storage. VLANs: Used to secure server and data access via network isolation. Network Management/monitoring components: Used to administer the network andmonitor the health of the network. Server-side considerations Outbound / Inbound requirements TCP/IP configuration on various platforms, VIOS / XEN / VMware / Linux / AIX /Windows etc. Given an understanding of cloud computing, explain the considerations for softwaremigration, so that the software migration strategy is clearly understood.
  15. 15. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Application Readiness: Migrating legacy applications based on old technologies to acloud-based infrastructure will not bring the right benefits. Some of the questions to be consideredare -> Is the application web-based? Will it benefit from a multi-tenant architecture? Can it scaleout? Does it really need elasticity? Data Ownership and Access: The application, the hardware, the operating system andeverything else can potentially be owned by the cloud service provider. But the data is what theintellectual property is predicated upon and one should be able take ownership of the data ashe/she sees fit. The cloud subscription gives access to the functionality of the application orfunction that one can use. If that access is removed, can one still access the data, so he/she canretain ownership? Data Volumes: Cloud is great for off-site elastic computing, where extra resources canbe applied in the form of more compute power or more storage. However as the storage capabilitygrows, migrating terabytes of data across a WAN can be a problem. Integration: Applications running in the Cloud will require integration with applicationsrunning on-premise and other applications in the Cloud. A robust integration platform is requiredto be available to facilitate this. SOA and BPM providers play a critical role in minimizingintegration challenges. Management and Monitoring: The application architecture should have provisions toprovide good control to administrators on various management aspects. Compliance: Cloud computing services for applications and data which are subject tocompliance require a high degree of transparency on the part of service providers. One is requiredto carefully review the contracts and service-level agreements to understand how the Cloudservice meets specific compliance requirements. Cost Analysis: The business case for Cloud application migration is required to take thetarget Cloud platform into consideration. The migration and overhead costs vary widely based onthe target Cloud platform and thus will skew the estimated cost savings. Cost analysis helps decidewhether to go ahead with moving a particular application to the Cloud or not from a TCO/ROIperspective. Cost should include capital expenditure, operational expenditure, and overhead costsinvolved in migration. Migration: Defining a migration strategy involves understanding the different migrationoptions available, establishing business priorities, and evolving a strategy that offers a fine balancebetween costs and meeting business priorities. Basically, enterprises have two core options with acloud infrastructure - private or public. Against these, they have the following migration paths toconsider - Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS) or Platform as a Service(PaaS). The choice is driven by priorities such as elasticity, business model, security, migrationcosts, etc. It is not uncommon for a large enterprise to leverage a hybrid approach in any of themigration options and paths. Transition: Actual process of migration, helps service providers realize the target IaaSarchitecture as a detailed design, covering the network, server, SAN, tools, processes, and peoplerequired for an operational model. It is underpinned by existing core competencies in network,compute, storage, tools, and process improvement and expertise in delivering advanced,virtualized data centers.
  16. 16. Section 3 - Architecting a Cloud Environment Given knowledge of a cloud environment, define the IBM Virtualization Managementsolutions available for a cloud environment, so that virtualization capabilities within a cloudenvironment have been defined and resources are easily allocated depending on the workloaddemands to realize the operational cost benefits. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Benchmark the clients environment to understand the implementation of their currentvirtualization and provisioning solutions and management capabilities. Understand the unique infrastructure and virtualization complexities around cloudcomputing, including service provisioning, in order to attain more effective resource utilizationparameters. Describe the IT network and SAN changes, new requirements and functionalconvergence relating to cloud computing. Understand the problem determination and isolation complexities relating to thevirtualization, workload management and provisioning infrastructure due to interdependencies,interrelationships and interactions. (PD/PSI) Describe the differences and unique attributes of cloud computing as pertains toworkload over provisioning vs. over committing. Cloud systems are complex and integrated and require integrated management facilitiesto deal with systematic impact to services, which differ greatly from legacy IT downtime andservice outage issues. Least common denominator issue in cloud computing, the smallest broken componentand/or downtime will bring the entire service down. IBM Cloud management facilities are integrated to escalate service outage issues whichhave a ripple effect on the entire system, furthermore the integration of management facilitiessimplifies the problem isolation and resolution processes. Given knowledge about cloud computing and virtualization, describe the supported IBMhypervisors in the context of the IBM Virtualization Management solutions, so that you are able torecommend the appropriate hypervisor for a cloud computing solution. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Understand characteristics of the workloads in the cloud infrastructure. Understand the business goals that are trying to be achieved by going to cloud. Understand how systems and tools help deliver on those metrics. Identify hypervisors that are supported in those environments. Given a private cloud environment and an audience knowledgeable of WebSphere solutions,
  17. 17. identify pertinent WebSphere solutions so as to understand their use in creating, building, andoperating a private cloud environment. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: IBM Hypervisor Edition products, such as the WebSphere Application ServerHypervisor Edition, provide IBM middleware technologies in a virtualized package. Packages a complete middleware software stack into a single virtual image. Optimized to run on hypervisor technology such as VMware, PowerVM, andz/VM. Explain how the IBM WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance allows you to build, deploy,and manage middleware environments in a private cloud. Integrates with hypervisor technology and network components to create a sharedvirtualized infrastructure. Use IBM Hypervisor Edition products to build middleware patterns to be deployedto the private cloud. Deploy middleware patterns to the private cloud in a resource-aware manner. Apply fixes and upgrades to environments deployed to the private cloud. Track user usage and cloud resource usage in the private cloud. Track software license usage in the private cloud. Explain how the WebSphere Virtual Enterprise delivers cloud capabilities formiddleware applications. Create application SLAs that define required qualities of service for yourapplications. Utilize dynamic application request routing to meet SLAs and ensure that the mostimportant applications get the most resources. Create and enforce application health policies that proactively identify and addresserror conditions in your application runtime. Dynamically and selectively update deployed applications without incurringdowntime or degrading user experience. Given the understanding of cloud environments, describe what IBM solutions for monitoringand alerts. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Benefits provided by Monitoring Collecting historic data to assist with planning future data center resource needsand to optimize virtualized resource placement; Capturing real-time data to quickly react to unexpected resource needs; Measuring adherence to performance SLAs; Proactively generating alerts and detail data to quickly detect and solve applicationproblems; Reporting resource usage data by application, necessary for allocating costs
  18. 18. appropriately. Components to Monitor Applications and Database Services and transactions -SLAs -Availability -End user response time Server -CPU, memory, and storage -Virtualization, hypervisors Storage -Capacity and performance Network -Components -routers and switches, network traffic, SNMP, DNS, DHCP, LDAP -Performance issues and security Data Center -Energy Management Common Monitoring metrics Throughput - How quickly the service responds. Reliability - How often the service is available. Load balancing - When elasticity kicks in. (New VMs are booted or terminated, forexample.) Durability - How likely the data is to be lost. Elasticity - The ability for a given resource to grow infinitely, with limits (themaximum amount of storage or bandwidth, for example) clearly stated. Linearity - How a system performs as the load increases. Agility - How quickly the provider responds as the consumers resource load scalesup and down. Automation - What percentage of requests to the provider are handled without anyhuman interaction. Customer service response times - How quickly the provider responds to a servicerequest. This refers to the human interactions required when something goes wrong with theon-demand, self-service aspects of the cloud. What is the purpose of event management? Report and automate the response to changes in the infrastructure from monitoring. Report and automate the availability of the infrastructure. Monitoring options Monitoring tools and agents can be included in SW or HW solutions for private
  19. 19. clouds. Integrated to existing monitoring tools. Real-time service visibility, dashboards and intelligence from Cloud SolutionProvider Cloud based monitoring services for public clouds Agent or agent less monitoring Given an understanding of cloud computing, explain the different IBM provisioning solutions,so that the IBM provisioning strategy for a cloud environment is clearly understood. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Provisioning is the most import aspect of a cloud environment which providesautomation of the Service Catalog functions. IBM provides the following 3 solutions for provisioning in a cloud environment. Tivoli Service Automation Manager (TSAM): It is a software solution optimized toaccelerate Cloud deployments with an approach to service-aware automation. To achieve this itleverages both Tivolis Process Automation Engine (TPAE) and IBMs CCMDB for clearlydefined insights into physical and virtual infrastructure interdependencies from a configuration,asset and service management perspective. It also includes capabilities from Tivoli ProvisioningManager (TPM) for actively provisioning new VMs and the Tivoli Service Request Manager(TSRM) for self-provisioning through service catalog requests. IBM Service Delivery Manager (ISDM): It is a tightly integrated servicemanagement solution that combines the necessary software components to implement cloudcomputing. Its delivered as a pre-integrated software stack deployed as a set of virtual images thatautomate IT service deployment, and provide resource monitoring, cost management, andprovisioning services via cloud. Products within the software stack include TSAM, IBM TivoliMonitoring (ITM), Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager (TUAM), and Tivoli SystemAutomation (TSA), which is designed to control and optimize the performance of systemsresources such as file utilization, processes, and IP addresses in clustered or Cloud environments. IBM CloudBurst: CloudBurst is a purpose-built solution designed to optimizebusiness workloads with minimal customization. It includes the entire software stack delivered bythe ISDM, as well as hardware including pre-configured servers, storage and networking.CloudBurst is designed for fast deployment and fast time to value and supports a common userinterface, common reporting, security, and other services across the Cloud environment. Itintegrates with existing systems, network and storage hardware, and comes as a single blade in aBladeCenter H chassis with redundant Ethernet and Fibre Channel switch modules. CloudBurstalso supports energy utilization and management, backup and recovery, metering and accounting. An architect should reference the following table to decide which provisioning solutionbest meets the need of the organization. TSAM ISDM CloudBurst Feature/FunctionStand-alone Software Offering X XSelf-Service Portal for reservation of computing X X X
  20. 20. Storage & Networking resourcesRapid deployment of services in service catalog X X XAutomated provisioning and de-provisioning of X X Xresources"lights-out" automated operation X X XPre-packaged automation templates andworkflos for most common resource types such X Xas Vmware virtual images and LPARSReal-time monitoring of physical and virtual X XresourcesEnergy management to reduce cost X XIntegrated usage and chargeback capabilities X Xthrough TUAMReusable image library for rapid deployment X XVirtualization management X XIncluded quickstart implementation services XReady to go solution including XHardware,software and Services Given the objective of architecting a cloud computing solution, identify the securityrequirements to protect unauthorized access to infrastructure, applications, and services. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Assessment of the business and IT security risks; identify vulnerabilities and gaps in keysecurity controls; create policy design and definitions for secure controls; and offer a prioritizedlist of recommendations against business goals for security best-practice improvements to helpmitigate business risks. Loss of governance - Because the organization may not have direct control of theinfrastructure, trust in the provider and its own ability to provide proper security is paramount. Compliance risk - The cloud provider impacts the organizations ability to complywith regulations, privacy expectations and industry standards, because data and systems may existoutside the organizations direct control. Isolation failure - Multi-tenancy and resource sharing are defining characteristics ofthe cloud. It is entirely possible for competing companies to be using the same cloud services, ineffect running their workloads shoulder-to-shoulder. Keeping memory, storage and network accessseparate is essential. Data protection - The ubiquitous nature of data in the cloud raises unprecedentedidentity and access management threats. Because the organization relinquishes direct control overdata, it relies on the provider to keep that data secure and, when it is deleted, ensure that it ispermanently destroyed.
  21. 21. Management interface and role-based access - Cloud applications are accessed andmanaged through the Internet, and involve deep and extensive control. The risk associated with asecurity breach is therefore increased and proper access authorization must be carefullyconsidered. Assess your cloud security readiness with robust service offerings. Identity and access management Data protection Auditing and monitoring Legal, regulatory and privacy requirements Access controls for sensitive data Greater visibility and monitoring of access Protection of data at rest and in transit Adherence to regulations Improved security management to increase efficiency and reduce costs. Security and Resiliency defined as in the IBM Common Cloud ManagementPlatform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA) Command & Control / Security Policy Management / Software, System & ServiceAssurance Data Policy Enforcement / Identity Lifecycle Management / Threat & VulnerabilityManagement Audit & Compliance Management / Access Management & Security Entitlement /Security Extension to IT Service Management Availability & Continuity Management Given the objective of architecting a cloud computing solution, identify the requirements andconsiderations to provide storage capacity, and data protection and recovery to support theinfrastructure, applications, and services. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Data and storage management in the Cloud are critical: To provide a reliable, on-demand service experience. To reduce costs and enable scalability. To mitigate risks. The keys to effective cloud storage management include: Data protection and recovery Data security and life-cycle management Storage utilization and optimization Storage resource management Automate data management policies through three distinct processes: Migration, Archival and Expiration. Data migration within the Cloud can help you get control of, and efficientlymanage, data growth and its associated storage costs by providing automated space management.It provides the following key features:
  22. 22. -Storage pool virtualization that helps maximize utilization of the managed storageresources; -Restore management capabilities that are optimized based on the location of thedata; -Migration that is transparent to the users and to applications; -Migrations that are scheduled to minimize network traffic during peak hours; -Automatic migrations that occur outside the backup window; -Threshold limit settings that can eliminate "out of disk space" messages.Section 4 - Management of the Cloud Environment Given the objective of architecting a cloud computing solution, describe and discuss thedesign of IBM Service Management as per the IBM Common Cloud Management PlatformReference Architecture (CCMP-RA). With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Business Support Services (BSS) Offering management / Customer management / Pricing and Rating Order management / Entitlement management / Subscriber management General accounting / Invoicing and Billing / Peering and Settlement Contracts and Agreements / Opportunity to order / Service offering catalog Metering, Analytics and Reporting Operational Support Services (OSS) Service delivery catalog Service templates / Service automation management Service request management / Change and configuration management / Imagelife-cycle management Provisioning / Incident and problem management / IT service level management Monitoring and event management / IT asset and license management / Capacityand performance management Virtualization management Core components of Service Managed Virtualization and Clouds Locating and Requesting Services -Self-service portal / Automation engine / and Service catalog Deploying Cloud Services -Automated provisioning / and Image management Managed Cloud Services -Monitoring / Security and Metering
  23. 23. Service Management Capabilities Process and Technology Automation across Business Services -Align assets and resources to business priorities: How are resources beingdeployed to meet business demand. -Automate Service Operations: Are activities efficiently executed when deliveringbusiness services. Visibility across Applications, Data and underlying Infrastructures -Map service dependencies to infrastructure: How are resources connected toprovide business services. -Monitor infrastructure resources: How are infrastructure events affecting services. -Understand user service experience: How are services meeting business user needs,How are services meeting business agility needs. Service Management Control aligned to Business Priorities -Provide business aligned dashboards: What is the health of my business andservices that support it. -Provide Security and Compliance solutions: How secure and compliant are mybusiness services. -Fulfill Service Requests: How effectively are requests for services being managed. -Continuous Service and Application portfolio management: Which services orapplication should be the focus of new solutions, transformation, improvement, cost cutting,consolidation or retirement. Given the understanding of cloud environments, describe what IBM solutions providereporting and analytics capabilities for a cloud environment, so that the IBM Cloud Computingreporting tools available from IBM have been explained. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Usage and Metering reporting requirements: Understand costs, track, allocate and invoice by department, user and manyadditional criteria. Collect, analyze and bill based on usage and costs of shared assets. Deliver detailed information and reports about the intricate use of shared resources. Available Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager (TUAM) reports in IBM ServiceDelivery Manager (ISDM): Configuration Report - RCFGX001.rptdesign -Contains information about report configuration. Client Report - RCLTX001.rptdesign -Lists all clients registered in the TUAM database. Invoice - RINVC007.rptdesign
  24. 24. -Displays the key accounting information, such as the number of server hours,memory hours and CPU hours, multiplied by the defined rate per each account code. Run Total Invoice - RIVTC001.rptdesign -Displays the number of server hours, memory hours and CPU hours, consumed inthe whole infrastructure. Rate Report - RRATX001.rptdesign -Lists the rates as defined in the TUAM database. Tivoli Monitoring reporting Historical Data -Use historical data collection and reporting to gather useful metrics about yourmanaged network. You can also use historical data with the chart baselining tools for predictiveanalysis and in situation modeling for key performance indicators. Situations for Event Monitoring -Situations are definitions of conditions to test, such as slow transaction rates orinvalid logon attempts. Use situations to raise alerts of certain conditions and to trigger singleaction commands or automated workflows. Automating Actions and Responses -The Tivoli Enterprise Portal has functionality that enables you to design your ownTake Action commands, Launch Application definitions, and Policy definitions, then store themfor use by other users. A policy, rather than being run by the user, runs automatically when areferenced situation event is opened. Custom Queries -In views that display monitored data, attribute values from agents are retrieved byqueries to the Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Server. -You can edit the queries that are used in the predefined workspaces provided byyour monitoring products, or create new queries to populate new views. In addition, you canretrieve data from any JDBC- or ODBC-compliant database to display in a chart or table bywriting an SQL SELECT statement. These custom queries are created in the Query editor. Define the Tivoli Common Reporting Tool. The Tivoli Common Reporting tool is a reporting feature available to users ofTivoli products and provides a consistent approach to viewing and administering reports. Tivoliproducts can provide report packages designed for use with Tivoli Common Reporting, withreports that use a consistent look and feel. Tivoli Common Reporting consists of several components: -A data store for storing and organizing report designs, reports, and supportingresources. The data store is a location within the Tivoli Common Reporting infrastructure where
  25. 25. all report-related files and reports are managed and maintained. -A Web-based user interface for specifying report parameters and other reportproperties, generating formatted reports, and viewing reports. -A command-line interface for working with objects in the data store andperforming additional administrative functions. -Report packages, archive files containing reports, documentation, graphics, anddynamic link libraries. Report packages for some monitoring agents are included as .zip files onthe Application CD in the REPORTS directory, and the REPORTS directory is divided intosubdirectories named with the three-character prefix that identifies the product. Report packagesfor some monitoring agents are available from the IBM Tivoli Open Process Automation Library( You can search on "Tivoli Common Reporting" tofind report packages on OPAL. A sample set of reports was provided with the Tivoli CommonReporting product. Other sets can be downloaded and installed by using the Import facility. Youcan find additional report packages generated by other non-IBM users, business report templates,and the Tivoli Common Reporting: Development and Style Guide on the IBM developerWorks(Website: -The open-source Eclipse BIRT Report Designer that you can use to modify reportsor create your own. This tool is not included with Tivoli Common Reporting, but can bedownloaded from or from the Tivoli Common Reportingpage at IBM developerWorks ( Analytics Products IBM Cognos -IBM Smart Analytics Cloud IBM SPSS -IBM Predictive Analysis Business Rules Management IBM ILog Jrules -The IBM WebSphere ILOG JRules business rule management system (BRMS)provides a comprehensive set of capabilities that enable Business and IT functions within theorganization to work together collaboratively for authoring, maintaining and deploying decisionlogic that is critical to business systems. Given an understanding of cloud computing, describe TUAM capabilities, so that IBMaccounting and billing strategy for a cloud environment is clearly understood. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: IBMs accounting and billing capabilities on the Cloud are provided by TUAM. IBMTUAM can collect data from the provisioning solutions to provide service usage reporting andenable accurate billing of cloud services consumed. It provides comprehensive insights into IT consumer costs across virtualized, hybrid andtraditional infrastructure and application environments. From a Cloud perspective, it can show
  26. 26. whos (individual, department, geography, SP customer, project etc.) using what and how much ofthe shared resources are available. If chargeback is desired, it can also generate bills, either for actually billing or fordata-driven capacity and portfolio planning. TUAM drill-down delivers both per-service andper-service component usage, which is important for Cloud. For instance, it can itemize on avolume or dollars-and-cents basis database usage, e-mail usage, print server usage, storagerequirements, and systems/workload usage for Cloud and non-Cloud infrastructures, in support ofboth distributed and mainframe-hosted services. The benefits of this type of visibility are manifold. It allows for capacity and resourceplanning, portfolio and service planning, vendor management, and conversely vendor-enabledbilling for customers. Most importantly, it provides a foundation for IT and business executives to discuss inconsistent and meaningful dollars-and-cents terms how and why and at what cost IT services arebeing used and so promote better communication between IT and the business it supports.Test 000-032: Foundations of IBM Cloud Computing Architecture V1Section 1 - Cloud Computing Concepts and Benefits Given a list of cloud computing environment attributes, describe how those attributes arerealized to provide business advantages, so that the business advantages of cloud computing havebeen defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Virtualization: IT resources can be shared between many computing resources (physicalservers or application servers). Provide more efficient utilization of IT resources and reduce hardware cost throughresource consolidations and economies of scale. Lowering total cost of ownership and improvingasset utilization. Provisioning: IT resources are rapidly provisioned (or de-provisioned) based onconsumer demands. Reduce IT cycle time and management cost. Elastic scaling: IT environments scale up and down by any magnitudes as needed tosatisfy customer demands. Optimize IT resource utilization and increase flexibility. Service Automation Management: IT environments that provide the capability to request,deliver, and manage IT services automatically. Reduce IT operational costs by automating the processes used to deliver andmanage a cloud computing environment. Pervasiveness: Services are delivered through the use of the Internet and on anyplatform. Improve customers experience by enabling services to be accessed from anywhere,
  27. 27. at anytime, and on any device. Flexible pricing: Services are tracked with usage metrics to enable multiple paymentmodels. Improve cost transparency and offer more flexible pricing schemes. Given the definition and attributes of virtualization, describe how virtualization is a keyinfrastructure element for cloud computing so that the costs for infrastructure investment can bereduced. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Computing resources (application servers. physical servers, databases, storages, services)are dynamically created, expanded, compacted, or moved as demand varies. Under-utilized physical servers are consolidated into a smaller number of morefully-utilized physical servers. Virtualization is a key infrastructure element for cloud computing because it Provides important advantages in sharing, manageability, and isolation ofcomputing resources. Reduces costs significantly via server consolidations and optimal resourceutilization. Provides a way for provisioning a computing resource dynamically andautomatically. Given an audience with knowledge of current data system technology, define dynamicinfrastructure so a model of how cloud computing relates to dynamic infrastructure is produced. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Explain dynamic infrastructure. Dynamic Infrastructure is an information technology paradigm concerning the design ofDataCenters so that the underlying hardware and software can respond dynamically to changinglevels of demand in more fundamental and efficient ways than before. Explain the relationship between cloud computing and dynamic infrastructure. Cloud computing is a way to establish a dynamic infrastructure, specifically tooptimize the IT infrastructure through virtualization and energy-efficienct initiatives to achievemore with less. Dynamic infrastructure helps to visualize all resource servers, storage, desktops,and applications and proactively handle energy management across the business. This helps toreduce cost, resolve power and cooling issues, free up staff, and better manage and automateoperations, which enables customers to dynamically adjust their IT to meet changing demandlevels and new business requirements. Given an audience with knowledge of current data system technology, define elasticity so a
  28. 28. model of how cloud computing relates to elasticity is produced. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Explain elasticity as it relates to cloud computing. A user can create, launch, and terminate server instances as needed. This user paysby the hour for active servers, hence the term "elastic". Explain the benefits of elasticity. Given the benefits of automation in an IT infrastructure, describe how automation is a keyinfrastructure management attribute of cloud computing in order to reduce system administrativetasks and achieve cost saving. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Automation is a key infrastructure management attribute for cloud computing because,without the benefits of automation, the complexity of a cloud environment is increasedsignificantly and added costs are generated - costs high enough to cancel out the cost savingsderived from cloud computing in the first place. Automation provides the following benefits: standardization and automation for deployment and management of IT services. the ability to maintain or improve quality and cost per IT service. a management stack that is easier to handle and provides for smoother workloadmigration. the ability to be audit proof and integrated with process governance. the ability to reduce costly manual interventions. the ability for IT to reduce the skill requirements needed for deploying andmanaging IT services. reduced errors caused by manual processes. Given the benefits of provisioning in an IT infrastructure, define how provisioning is a keyinfrastructure management attribute for cloud computing, so that the benefits of provisioning havebeen defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Provisioning is an automated process that handles computing resource managementprocesses. Provisioning helps optimize availability by maintaining configurations and managingchanges to resources. Provisioning is used to capture and rerun scenarios of highly complex tasks; thus,minimizing the potential for human errors. Given the characteristics of a public cloud, explain how the cloud users would utilize services
  29. 29. from a public cloud in an economical way. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Obtaining an instance of a cloud computing environment via a public cloud is easy andinexpensive because hardware, application, and bandwidth costs are covered by the provider. Computing resources in a public cloud can be scaled to meet the needs of the cloudusers. A public cloud can use flexible pricing models. No resources are wasted because thecloud users pay for what they use on an as-needed basis, without the requirement to invest inadditional internal infrastructure. A public cloud helps businesses shift the bulk of the costs from capital expenditures andIT infrastructure investment to a utility operating expense model. A public cloud also helps isolatethe end-users from the complexity of IT operations and management. Given the characteristics of a private cloud, explain how enterprise and business users benefitfrom private clouds, so that the benefits of private clouds have been defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: A private cloud is owned by an enterprise and can only be accessed by internal users. A private cloud is deployed internally behind the corporates security firewall. A private cloud is operated and maintained by either the enterprises IT operations or bya 3rd party cloud service provider. By totally owning a cloud computing environment, an enterprise can provide and governcomputing resources (physical servers, application servers, storage space, applications, services,etc.) in an efficient, compliant, and secure manner. At the same time, by using a private cloud, anenterprise can also achieve significant cost saving from the infrastructures consolidation andvirtualization. Given the characteristics of a hybrid cloud - which consists of multiple private clouds(internal) and public clouds (external), explain how this hybrid model is an attractive cloud modelfor many enterprises to achieve both cost savings and security, so that the characteristics of ahybrid cloud have been explained. With emphasis on performing the following task: A hybrid cloud model is prevalent in the industry today as it helps enterprises achievesubstantial savings from investments in the infrastructure required to provide resources via publicclouds. At the same time, a hybrid cloud also provides secure ways for enterprises to keep andprotect sensitive data under their own control of private clouds. Given the characteristics of a virtual private cloud, explain how this model is necessary tosecurely manage computing resources in a public cloud, so that the benefits of a virtual private
  30. 30. cloud have been explained. With emphasis on performing the following task: A virtual private cloud can help quickly create an economical and functional computingenvironment and provide additional security measures and system management tools. Given an audience with knowledge of current data system technology, define private, public,and hybrid clouds. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Define a private cloud. Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used todescribe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These (typicallyvirtualization automation) products claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud computing withoutthe pitfalls", capitalizing on data security, corporate governance, and reliability concerns. Private clouds are where activities and functions are provided "as a service" over acompanys intranet. Private clouds are built by an organization for its own users, and everything isdelivered within the organizations firewall (instead of the Internet). The private cloud owner doesnot share resources with any other companies, so multitenancy is not an issue. Therefore, privateclouds are also called "internal clouds". Define a public cloud. Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstreamsense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis overthe Internet via Web applications/Web services. These Web applications/Web services originatefrom an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utilitycomputing basis. Public clouds are where IT activities/functions are provided "as a service" over theInternet, which allows access to technology-enabled services without knowledge of, expertise with,or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. Therefore, public clouds are alsocalled "external clouds". Define a hybrid cloud. A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers"will be typical for most enterprises". By integrating multiple cloud services, users may be able toease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance. Hybrid clouds are where the external and internal service delivery methods areintegrated. Rules and policies are established by the organization based on factors such as securityneeds, criticality, and underlying architecture so that activities and tasks are allocated to externalor internal clouds as appropriate. Given the definition of SaaS, explain how SaaS differentiates from the other kinds of cloud
  31. 31. computing delivery models, so that the term "SaaS has been clearly described. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Explain SaaS. SaaS "delivers software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need toinstall and run the application on the customers own computer and simplifying maintenance andsupport. Differentiate SaaS from Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS). SaaS, PaaS and IaaS represent different delivery models of a cloud computingenvironment. SaaS delivers software as a service over the Internet. PaaS delivers computing platform as a service. IaaS delivers computer infrastructure (normally a virtual machine) as a service. Explain the key concepts of SaaS. Tenancy: the same environment can be shared among many customers or users. Payment method: the SaaS is normally modeled as pay-as-you-go, which isdifferent from traditional licensed applications. Application management: the SaaS provider is responsible for managing thecomputing environment. Application upgrade: the SaaS provider can upgrade the application or release newfeatures seamlessly, in contrast to the traditional and costly software upgrade. Describe some examples of SaaS. Google Docs LotusLive Given the definition of PaaS, explain how PaaS differentiates from the other kinds of cloudcomputing delivery models, so that the term PaaS is clearly described. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Explain PaaS. PaaS "delivers a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, oftenconsuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment ofapplications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardwareand software layers. Differentiate between PaaS and SaaS and IaaS. SaaS, PaaS and IaaS represent delivery models of a cloud computing environment. SaaS delivers software as a service over the Internet. PaaS delivers a computing platform as a service.
  32. 32. IaaS delivers computer infrastructure (normally a virtual machine) as a service. Explain how PaaS relates to Computing Platform. A computing platform "describes some sort of hardware architecture or softwareframework (including application frameworks), that allows software to run". A PaaS delivers acomputing platform as a service. Given the definition of IaaS, explain how IaaS differentiates from the other kinds of cloudcomputing delivery models so that the term IaaS is clearly defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Explain IaaS. IaaS "delivers computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualizationenvironment, as a service." Differentiate between IaaS and SaaS and PaaS. SaaS, PaaS and IaaS represent different delivery models of a cloud computingenvironment. SaaS delivers software as a service over the Internet. PaaS delivers a computing platform as a service. IaaS delivers computer infrastructure (normally a virtual machine) as s service. Explain how IaaS relates to utility computing. "Utility computing relates to the business model in which application infrastructureresources, hardware, and/or software are delivered. Cloud computing relates to the way we design,build, deploy, and run applications that operate in a visualized environment, sharing resources andboasting the ability to dynamically grow, shrink, and self-heal." List some examples of IaaS. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud Eucalyptus IBM Smart Business Test & Development Cloud Given the definition of a hosted service, explain how a hosted service relates to cloudcomputing, so that the similarities and differences between a hosted service and cloud computingare described. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Explain the kinds of service providers. "An application service provider (ASP) is a business that provides computer-basedservices to customers over a network. Software offered using an ASP model is also sometimescalled on-demand software or software as a service (SaaS). The most limited sense of this businessis providing access to a particular application program (such as customer relationship management)using a standard protocol such as HTTP."
  33. 33. "An Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that offers its customers access tothe Internet." "A hosted service provider (xSP) is a business that delivers a combination oftraditional IT functions such as infrastructure, applications (SaaS), security, monitoring, storage,Web development, Website hosting and email, over the Internet or other wide area networks(WANs). An xSP combines the abilities of an ASP and an ISP." Define how ASP relates to cloud computing. An ASP provides a cloud computing service, more specifically a SaaS. Define the difference between a Service Provider and cloud computing. A service provider might not provide any cloud computing capability. For example, anISP is not considered to be a cloud computing service. Given the definition of grid computing, explain how grid computing relates to cloudcomputing, so that the distinction between cloud computing and grid computing becomes clear. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Explain grid computing. Grid computing is a type of parallel and distributed system that enables the sharing,selection, and aggregation of geographically distributed "autonomous" resources dynamically atrun-time depending on their availability, capability, performance, cost, and usersquality-of-service requirements. Differentiate between grid computing and cloud computing. Grid computing is "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing, whereby asuper and virtual computer is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computersacting in concert to perform very large tasks." So the goal of grid computing is to divide a singleand large task among many loosely-coupled computers. Grid computing might run in a cloudcomputing environment. The main difference is that, whereas grid computing is comprised ofmany computers working together to achieve one goal, cloud computing is aimed to providecomputing resources for independent tasks. Given the definition of utility computing, explain how utility computing relates to cloudcomputing, so that the difference between cloud computing and utility computing is explained. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Explain utility computing. "Utility computing is the packaging of computing resources, such as computation andstorage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility (such as electricity, water,natural gas, or telephone network). This system has the advantage of a low or no initial cost toacquire hardware; instead, computational resources are essentially rented. Customers with very
  34. 34. large computations or a sudden peak in demand can also avoid the delays that would result fromphysically acquiring and assembling a large number of computers." Differentiate between utility computing and cloud computing. "Utility computing relates to the business model in which application infrastructureresources – hardware and/or software – are delivered. While cloud computing relates to the waywe design, build, deploy and run applications that operate in a visualized environment, sharingresources and boasting the ability to dynamically grow, shrink, and self-heal." Given a set of customer business requirements, explain cloud computing features, so that amapping of each requirement to one or more features is produced. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Categorize customer business requirements. This may be from a business pain point ofview or the framework defined in ITIL. Map cloud computing features to the corresponding business requirements. Since cloudcomputing features cover a wide scope, you may use case scenarios of existing solutions that aresimilar to a given customer pain point, or categorize each requirement to a part of ITIL, anddiscuss how cloud computing satisfies that part of ITIL. Given an understanding of cloud computing, define multitenancy as it relates to cloudcomputing, so that its advantages and disadvantages have been defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Multitenancy: a single instance of software runs on a server, serving multiple clients(tenants). Multitenancy vs Multi-instance In a Multitenancy environment, multiple customers share the same application, runningon the same operating system, on the same hardware, with the same data storage mechanism. Thedistinction between the customers is achieved during application design, so that customers do notshare or see each others data. Contrast this with multi-instance where one or the other of thesecomponents is abstracted so that each customer application appears to be running on a separatephysical machine. Benefits of Multitenancy. Cost savings Multitenancy allows for cost savings over and above the basic economies of scaleachievable from consolidating IT resources into a single operation. An application instance usuallyincurs a certain amount of memory and processing overhead, which can be substantial whenmultiplied by many customers, especially if the customers are small. Multitenancy reduces thisoverhead by amortizing it over many customers. Efficiency
  35. 35. Peak demand by individual tenants can be more easily accommodated becauseprocessing power can be "borrowed" from other tenants in that application instance that areexperiencing processing lulls. Concerns with multitenancy Data Privacy Because different clients are sharing the same application resources (storage,databases, software) there is a danger of one clients data being exposed to another client if propersafeguards are not built into the application. Complexity of Customization Because a single application instance must serve the needs of multiple clients, it ismore difficult to customize the application to meet the individual needs of a clients organization. Given an audience familiar with data system architecture, explain how cloud computingcapabilities save energy so that a list of features of a more efficient data system is produced. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Identify energy costs in a data system. Physical systems require energy even when they are not fully utilized. Furthermore, thisenergy is turned into heat, which must be removed from the DataCenter. Additionally, energy maybe more expensive in some places than others. Identify how cloud computing optimizes utilization of energy-intensive resources. Maximizing CPU usage, allowing rapid consolidation of VMs to shut down surplussystems, savings on cooling. Multiple virtual assets can share the same physical resources to betterutilize energy. As requirements diminish, even on an hourly basis, virtual assets can beconsolidated allowing physical assets to be shut down. Then when requirements increase, physicalassets can be brought online to meet demand. Ability to move visualized assets to run on physical assets in a location whereenergy is cheaper (such as closer to a generation station) or where cooling is easier. Virtual assetscan be quickly migrated to take advantage of changes in energy pricing/availability. Given an audience familiar with data system architecture, explain the difference between acloud computing environment and a cluster environment so that the difference between the two inthe DataCenter environment are understood. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Cloud computing is Internet-based computing; whereby, shared resources, software, andinformation are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like a public utility. A computer cluster is a group of linked computers, working together closely so that inmany respects they form a single computer. The components of a cluster are commonly - but not
  36. 36. always - connected to each other through fast local area networks. Outline differences between clouds and clusters. The two are not opposites, and there can be overlaps in functionality. Cloudindicates that a group of resources is shared, through virtualization and multi-tenancy. On theother hand, clustering describes how a set of assets (physical or visualized) work together as asingle system. #The goal of cluster computing is to perform autonomous computing, workingtogether to fulfill a certain task. Cloud computing is systems working independently. Given a thorough analysis of the customers existing business processes, explain andarticulate how existing processes can be offered as cloud services and existing approval processescan be automated so that a highly-automated cloud solution can be achieved. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Describe the existing processes that will be automated as cloud services. Companies that are implementing a cloud environment need to analyze theirexisting processes to determine the areas where it can be automated in an efficient way whenoffered as a cloud service. Approvals play an essential role in the core operations of every business. As a rule,most approvals represent the delegation of authority to carry out an activity, for exampleprovisioning of computing resources. It is critical to understand and document how approvals are obtained today to seewhere opportunities for automation and efficiency improvements can be introduced. Describe how the dynamic provisioning of cloud resources can influence the changes onthe business approval process. Customers existing business approval processes may contain several manualapproval steps that may slow down the overall provisioning process. In a cloud environmentwhere IT services are rapidly provisioned and provided as standardized offerings, these manualapproval steps should be identified and automated.Section 2 - Cloud Computing Design Principles Given an understanding of cloud computing, define cloud architecture, so that anunderstanding of cloud architecture has been demonstrated. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Cloud architecture Cloud architectures are designs of software applications that use Internet-accessibleon-demand services. Applications built on cloud architectures are such that the underlyingcomputing infrastructure is used only when it is needed (for example to process a user request),draw the necessary resources on-demand (like compute servers or storage), perform a specific job,
  37. 37. then relinquish the unneeded resources and often dispose themselves after the job is done. Whilein operation, the application scales up or down elastically based on resource needs. Given the Wikipedia definition of cloud computing layers, identify and define the 5 layers ofcloud computing, so that the five layers of cloud computing have been defined. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Cloud computing layers: Client; Application; Platform; Infrastructure; Server Client: a cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software thatrelies on cloud computing for application delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery ofcloud services and that, in either case, is essentially useless without it. Examples include somecomputers, phones and other devices, operating systems and browsers. Application: cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliversoftware as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application onthe customers own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. Platform: cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver acomputing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure andsustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost andcomplexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Infrastructure: cloud infrastructure services or "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)"delivers computer infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment, as a service.Rather than purchasing servers, software, DataCenter space or network equipment, clients insteadbuy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Server: the servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer softwareproducts that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-coreprocessors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. Given an audience familiar with data system architecture, explain the hardware used in acloud computing environment so that the infrastructure of a cloud environment has been produced. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Processing unit: the processing unit generally contains CPU and RAM used by thevisualized resources. It must be able to support the following: Elasticity: ability to meet changing requirements of visualized resources. As anexample, a processing unit may need to support multiple visualized resources with competingrequirements for processing power and RAM. Migration: the ability to move visualized assets from one processing unit toanother. Storage: storage can be localized to the processing unit or can be shared among multipleprocessing units. Storage must be able to support: the following: Rapid provisioning and deprovisioning of virtual assets Migration of virtual assets Security measures to keep one customer from accessing another customers data
  38. 38. Network: the network hardware must be able to support the various networks used in thecloud environment. Different networks have different requirements, and this means that there may be avariety of specialized hardware. For example, fiber channel hardware may be used to implement astorage area network (SAN) processing unit and centralized storage, while ethernet hardware mayneed to support different speeds. Single networking hardware components may also support multiple networks. Forexample, a management network and customer network may share the same physical ethernetswitch. Given an audience familiar with data system architecture, explain the principles ofnetworking in a cloud computing environment so that the infrastructure of a cloud computingnetwork has been produced. With emphasis on performing the following tasks: Network Hardware: must be able to support the various networks used in the cloudenvironment. Management networks Virtual server management networks: virtual assets may require a set of dedicatedmanagement networks. These may be used to administer, monitor, and migrate the virtual asset. Virtual server provisioning networks: a set of dedicated provisioning networks maybe required for the various provisioning tools. - Used to access provisioning tools (e.g., for requesting the provisioning of a virtualasset); - Used by provisioning tools to provision and configure virtual assets. Hardware management networks - A set of networks used to manage the physical infrastructure (blades, bladechassis, switches, storage, and Power Distribution Units) SANs: provide access to centralized storage. Customer data management networks: provide users with access to visualized assets. Network management/monitoring components: used to administer the network andmonitor the health of the network. They are tied into cloud monitoring components to provide anoverall view. Virtual local area networks (VLANs) VLANs can be used to separate different networks and provide security features toprevent unauthorized access to customer or administrator data. Given an understanding of cloud computing, summarize the importance of the DataCenter incloud computing, so that understanding of the importance of the DataCenter in cloud computinghas been demonstrated.