Human body structure and function

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Human body structure and function

  1. 1. Living Organisms:Structure and Function
  2. 2. The Big QuestionWhat is the relationship between the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems in an organism?
  3. 3. Living Organisms Structure and Function A group of cells working together to perform a specific function form TISSUES A group of tissues working together to perform a specific function form ORGANS A group of organs working together to perform a specific function form ORGAN SYSTEMS A group of organ systems working together to maintain a stable, internal environment form ORGANISMS
  4. 4. Tissues A group of similar cells working together form tissues. Tissues are more complex than cells. Types of tissues are:  Epithelial (skin, hair, fingernails)  Connective (bone, blood, cartilage)  Nerve (brain, spinal cord, nerves)  Muscle (limbs, heart, stomach)
  5. 5. Structure and Function in Epithelial TissueStructureCells in epithelial tissue are tightlypacked together.Epithelial tissue covers all bodysurfaces, lines body cavitiesand hollow organs.FunctionProtection, secretion, absorption, excretion,and sensory reception.
  6. 6. How Do You Think the Structure of Epithelial TissueContributes to the Function?
  7. 7. Structure and Function in Connective TissueStructure Cells in connective tissue can be: hard and spongy (bone) small, flexible and rounded (blood) smooth & slippery (cartilage) stringy &elastic (ligaments/tendons)Function Support, cushion and protect body and organs Transport substances Connect 1 tissue to another
  8. 8. How Do You Think theStructure of Connective Tissue Contributes to the Function?
  9. 9. Structure and Function in Muscle Tissue Structure: Skeletal muscle fibers are cylindrical and striated – voluntary (arms, legs) Cardiac muscle fibers are branched and striated – involuntary (heart) Smooth muscle fibers are spindle shaped and non-striated – involuntary (stomach) Function Muscle tissue is composed of cells that have the special ability to shorten or contract in order to produce movement of the parts of the body.
  10. 10. How Do You Think the Structure of MuscleTissue Contributes to the Function?
  11. 11. Structure and Function in Nerve TissueStructure Elongated cells with branches at the ends Found in brain, spinal cord and nervesFunction To deliver a message to the next nerve cell in order to transmit information across the body Responsible for coordinating and controlling many body activities Messages delivered by electrical impulses
  12. 12. How Do You Think the Structure of NerveTissue Contributes to the Function?
  13. 13. Organs Two or more tissues working together form an organ Organs are more complex than tissues. Examples of Organs  Heart  Stomach  Lungs
  14. 14. Structure and Function in the HeartStructureMade of cardiac muscleContains 4 chambers and 2 one-way valvesOxygen poor blood enters the right side of the heart, oxygen rich blood leaves the left side of the heartFunctionTo pump blood throughout the body
  15. 15. How Do You Think theStructure of the Heart Contributes to the Function?
  16. 16. Structure and Function in the StomachStructure Made of layers of smooth muscle Hollow organ that connect to the esophagus and to the small intestine Valves at each connectionFunction To process and transport food
  17. 17. How Do You Think the Structure of theStomach Contributes to the Function?
  18. 18. Structure and Function in the LungsStructure Made of 2 spongy lobes Made of increasingly smaller branches off the trachea, ending in small, thin air sacs called alveoliFunction Responsible for the exchange of O 2 and CO 2
  19. 19. How Do You Think theStructure of the Lungs Contributes to the Function?
  20. 20. Organ Systems Organs that work together form an organ system. Organ systems are the most complex. An organ system perform complex functions for the organism. There are 11 organ systems in the human body – Can you name them?
  21. 21. Organ Systems The 11 organ systems in the human body are Integumentary MuscularIncludes skin, hair and nails Includes all the muscles throughout your body Skeletal Cardiovascular Includes bones and connective tissue Includes heart, blood and blood vessels Respiratory UrinaryIncludes nose, throat, lungs and passageways Includes kidneys and bladder Reproductive Nervous Includes ovaries, uterus, and testes Includes brain, spinal cord and nerves Digestive LymphaticIncludes salivary glands, esophagus,stomach, Includes thymus gland, spleen, boneliver, gall bladder, pancreas, intestines marrow, tonsils, lymph nodes and lymph vessels Endocrine Includes pancreas, thyroid, ovaries, testes
  22. 22. Organ SystemsChoose an organ system and explain how you think the structure contributes to its function
  23. 23. What was that question?
  24. 24. What is the relationship between the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems in an organism?
  25. 25. The question again?(repetition is good!)
  26. 26. What is the relationship between the structure and function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems in an organism?
  27. 27. The Big Answer! Organism Organ Systems Organs Tissues Cells
  28. 28. Any Questions

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