The Rise of Fascism

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The Rise of Fascism

  1. 1. The Rise of Fascism Glorification of Power
  2. 3. Etymology of Fascism <ul><li>Italian dictator Benito Mussolini coined the term in 1919, referring to the Roman symbol for “power through unity” – a bundle of reeds called “fasces,” individually weak but collectively strong. </li></ul>
  3. 4. What is Fascism? <ul><li>a form of nationalistic and authoritarian government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>initially emerged in Italy under Benito Mussolini in 1919 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. More About Fascism <ul><li>supremacy of the nation and its leader above all else </li></ul><ul><li>demands discipline and devotion from the individual members of society </li></ul><ul><li>extremely militaristic </li></ul><ul><li>adopt aggressive policies toward other countries </li></ul>
  5. 6. Fascism and Totalitarianism <ul><li>Fascist ideology is totalitarian, which means a political system that controls every aspect of life, so that there is no private sphere or independent organizations. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Fascism Throughout History <ul><li>typically, fascism has appeared in countries with turbulent economic, social, and political conditions in addition to limited experience with democratic institutions and traditions </li></ul>
  7. 8. Fascism in Power <ul><li>M arginalizing and demonizing racial and religious minority groups </li></ul><ul><li>Linking elites and dominant religious institutions and ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting sexist attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting militarism and obsession with national security; dismissing ignoring, or violating “human rights” </li></ul><ul><li>Centralizing control of mass media by eliminating oppositional media, rewarding compliant media, and censoring/controlling media content </li></ul>
  8. 9. Fascism in Power <ul><li>Consolidating economic control by promoting plutocracy*, state support of corporate interests, and suppression of labor organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating ‘cultural’ control by suppression of intellectual and artistic freedoms, attacking higher education, standardizing public school curricula. </li></ul><ul><li>plutocracy = A government or state in which the wealthy rule </li></ul>
  9. 10. Fascism in Power <ul><li>Consolidating political power through widespread use of corruption and cronyism* </li></ul><ul><li>Use of fraudulent election and plebiscite* practices that support elite interests </li></ul><ul><li>cronyism = Favoritism shown to old friends without regard for their qualifications, as in political appointments to office </li></ul><ul><li>plebiscite = A vote in which a population exercises the right of national self-determination </li></ul>
  10. 11. Fascism in Power <ul><li>Imposing draconian criminal justice practices, including expanding the definition of ‘crime,’ instituting harsher punishment practices, and eliminating alternatives to incarceration </li></ul><ul><li>Draconian = Exceedingly harsh; very severe </li></ul>
  11. 12. Fascist Principles <ul><li>Anti-individualistic </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-egalitarian </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-capitalist </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-pacifist </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-internationalist </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-intellectual </li></ul>
  12. 13. Examples of Fascism <ul><li>Italy under Mussolini (1919-1943) </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal under Salizar (1922-1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany under Hitler (1933-1945) </li></ul><ul><li>Spain under Franco (1938-1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina under Juan Peron (1946-55) </li></ul><ul><li>Chile under Pinochet (1973-1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq under Saddam Hussein (1970s – 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa apartheid regime for blacks </li></ul><ul><li>(1945-1990) </li></ul>

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