Beyond Free: How Open Textbooks Can Improve Learning, Build Community & Empower Faculty

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Presentation to COHERE conference in Regina, Sask October 28, 2014 on the BC Open Textbook Project

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Beyond Free: How Open Textbooks Can Improve Learning, Build Community & Empower Faculty

  1. 1. Beyond Free The BC Open Textbook Project Clint Lalonde Manager, Open Education COHERE October 28, 2014 Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Feel free to use, modify or distribute any or all of this presentation with attribution
  2. 2. Open Educational Resources & Open Textbooks Implications of textbook costs 6 benefits beyond free The BC Open Textbook Project Q & A
  3. 3. Connect the expertise, programs, and resources of all BC post-secondary institutions under a collaborative service delivery framework 1 23 Open Education & Professional Learning Collaborative Programs & Shared Services Student Services & Data Exchange
  4. 4. 1 Connect the expertise, programs, and resources of all BC post-secondary institutions under a collaborative service delivery framework Open Education & Professional Learning Support & promote the development & use of Open Educational Resources Support the development of effective teaching & learning practices OER Global Logo by Jonathas Mello is licensed under a CC-BY 30 License
  5. 5. Online Program Development Fund (OPDF) 2003-2012 $9 million invested 153 grants awarded 100% participation across system 83% partnerships 47 credentials developed in whole or part 355 courses, 12 workshops, 19 web sites/tools and 396 course components (learning objects, labs, textbooks, manuals, videos)
  6. 6. What are Open Educational Resources? “Open Educational Resources (OERs) are any type of educational materials that are in the public domain or introduced with an open license. The nature of these open materials means that anyone can legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-share them.” UNESCO
  7. 7. The 5 R’s of Open Retain • Make and own copies Reuse • Use in a wide range of ways Revise • Adapt, modify, and improve Remix • Combine two or more Redistribute • Share with others Adapted (color change) from Open Education: A “Simple” Introduction by David Wiley released under CC-BY license
  8. 8. Creative Commons logo by Creative Commons used under a CC-BY 3.0 License CC license image from Copyright in Education & Internet in South African Law used under CC-BY 2.5 South Africa license
  9. 9. Beyond Free Benefit #1 Faculty have full legal right to customize & contextualize open textbooks to fit their pedagogical needs
  10. 10. Choices for students (and for adapters) Old Leather books, by Wyoming_Jackrabbit used under a CC-BY-NC-SA
  11. 11. Where do they come from?
  12. 12. Okay, free & why it is important
  13. 13. Average student debt difficult to pay off, CBC, March 11, 2014 Student Debt in Canada, Canadian Federation of Students, Fall 2013
  14. 14. Textbooks are expensive Image credit: Beyond Textbooks by Thomas used under CC-BY license
  15. 15. Students spend $1200/yr on textbooks 3x rate of inflation in 10 years 2nd biggest educational expense after tuition Source: Fixing the Broken Textbook Market U.S. PIRG Cover image: Center for Public Interest Research used under CC-BY 4.0 license
  16. 16. Why textbook prices keep rising Planet Money, NPR October 3, 2014
  17. 17. 2 Year Mining Exploration Program Term 1 (of 4) Course Textbook Bookstore CHEM 1105 Chemistry: The Central Science (lab manual) $215.00 MATH 1501 Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus $186.50 MINE 1101 Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology $118.95 COMM 1135 Writing for Success $45.95 COMP 1620 New Perspectives on Computer Concepts $183.95 New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel $137.95 MINE 1100 Mineral Exploration and Mining Essentials $73.95 MINE 1107 None - PHYS 1147 Custom book & Lab Manual $37 SURV 1145 None - Total $999.25
  18. 18. 2 Year Mining Exploration Program Term 1 (of 4) Course Textbook Bookstore Amazon CHEM 1105 Chemistry: The Central Science (lab manual) $215.00 $214.20 MATH 1501 Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus $186.50 $140 MINE 1101 Laboratory Manual in Physical Geology $118.95 $155 COMM 1135 Writing for Success $45.95 $36.20 COMP 1620 New Perspectives on Computer Concepts $183.95 $165.25 New Perspectives on Microsoft Excel $137.95 $151.40 MINE 1100 Mineral Exploration and Mining Essentials $73.95 $89.95 MINE 1107 None - - PHYS 1147 Custom book & Lab Manual $37 n/a SURV 1145 None - - Total $999.25 $952
  19. 19. How students battled textbook publishers to a draw, Planet Money, NPR, Oct 9, 2014
  20. 20. What is going on here? How students battled textbook publishers to a draw, Planet Money, NPR, Oct 9, 2014
  21. 21. 65% students have not purchased a textbook for a course during their academic career because of price Source: Fixing the Broken Textbook Market U.S. PIRG Cover image: Center for Public Interest Research used under CC-BY 4.0 license
  22. 22. Free is more than a good deal
  23. 23. Textbook Costs vs Student Success       Source: 2012 student survey by Florida Virtual Campus 60%+ do not purchase books at some point due to book cost 35% take fewer courses due to book cost 31% choose not to register for a course due to book cost 23% regularly go without textbooks due to book cost 14% have dropped a course due to book cost 10% have withdrawn from a course due to book cost Slide: CC-BY Cable Green, Creative Commons via http://www.project-kaleidoscope.org/
  24. 24. “I had to take very few classes, because each time the price of the book more than doubles the tuition fee. It took me much longer to get my degree.” Marie Efira, 63 Anthropology, Foothill College “Usually when I don’t buy it, it’s because I’ve found that you actually don’t need it for the class.” “My most expensive class was clinical psych, because she writes the textbook herself, and it has a new edition every semester or something ridiculous. So it was like almost $200. And the thing is that you can’t use the previous edition, because she changes it herself because she knows the textbooks sell well. It’s like so manipulative.” Students Get Savvier about Textbook Buying, The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 2013 Emma Anderson, 21 Political science, U. of California at Berkeley Jennifer Bi, 20 Economics, U. of California at Berkeley
  25. 25. Source: http://www.wmnf.org/news_stories/usf-student-shows-his-peers-how-to-download-textbooks-online-for-free
  26. 26. Beyond Free Benefit #2 Retain for future use
  27. 27. iPod DRM by *n3wjack's world in pixels used under CC-BY-SA license eBook on eBook by DWRL at U Texas used under CC-BY-SA-NC license
  28. 28. Beyond Free Benefit #3 Day 1 access to resources
  29. 29. “My textbook is… …back-ordered …in the mail …out of stock …the wrong edition …on hold until my student loan arrives …not needed until I decide I want this course” How often do students start the term without the resources they need?
  30. 30. Faculty have: Right to customize The textbook Students have: Day 1 access to that customized textbook +
  31. 31. Beyond Free Benefit #4 Improved Learning
  32. 32. “Many students attending HCC have difficulty with the cost of college. Some students do not purchase books at all; other students use outdated editions or non-assigned books. In addition, the cost of textbooks may prevent students from taking an optimal course load. A reduced course load means more years in college and reduces the likelihood of completion. For these reasons, faculty were concerned that the cost of textbooks was interfering with student success. A faculty committee, with the support of administration, decided to make cost a primary consideration in the textbook adoption process.” Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012
  33. 33. “A group of six full-time and six adjunct HCC psychology faculty members participated in the adaptation of FWK’s Introduction to Psychology textbook. The adaptation was necessary in order to lower the reading level to one that the faculty felt was appropriate for HCC students (12th grade) and to incorporate additional learning objectives and key terms that they had identified as being essential to the course. Additional video links, relevant examples, and cross-cultural information were also added to the text.” Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012
  34. 34. Spring 2011, Traditional Textbook (n = ~370 students) Fall 2012, open Textbook (n = ~370 students) GPA 1.6 2.0 Withdrawl Rate 14% 7.1% Department Final Exam 67.6% 71.1% Table 1. Aggregated data, spring 2011 (traditional text) versus fall 2011 free text: multiple campuses and instructors. Source: One college’s use of an open psychology textbook, John Hilton III, Carol Laman, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning Volume 27, Issue 3, 2012
  35. 35. Beyond Free Benefit #5 Opportunities for collegial collaboration to create stronger resources
  36. 36. Sprints 2 Days 17 Psych Faculty 6 Institutions 850 Questions
  37. 37. Sprints
  38. 38. Sprints
  39. 39. Beyond Free Benefit #6 Opportunities for Authentic Learning Activities
  40. 40. Delmar Larsen now offers extra credit to students who submit entries. He assigns a rating system to new articles based on the author's expertise and experience, with articles moving up as they are edited and vetted. 5.5 million view per month. The most visited chemistry website in the world. Sources: ChemWiki takes on costly textbooks UC Davis News, October 2013 UCD Hyperlink Newsletter October 2014
  41. 41. Sources: ChemWiki takes on costly textbooks UC Davis News, October 2013 UCD Hyperlink Newsletter October 2014
  42. 42. The Project
  43. 43. BC Open Textbook Project 40 free & open textbooks for highest enrolled 1st & 2nd year post-secondary subjects in BC 2013 – 20 for skills & training First province in Canada 2013 – AB & SASK MOU $1 million 2013 - $1 million Visual notes of John Yap announcement, Giulia Forsythe Used under CC-SA license
  44. 44. Why are we doing this project? To increase access to higher education by reducing student costs To give faculty more control over their instructional resources To improve learning outcomes for students Annie Lennox campaigns with Oxfam at the AIDS Conference by Oxfam used under CC-BY-NC-ND license
  45. 45. The Project Don’t reinvent it by Andrea Hernandez released under CC-BY-NC-SA and based on Wheel by Pauline Mak released under CC-BY license
  46. 46. Faculty Reviews 291/365 by thebarrowboy used under a CC-BY
  47. 47. Reviews > Adaptations My 291/365 by thebarrowboy used under a CC-BY Adventures Adapting a Chemistry Textbook
  48. 48. Faculty Reviews Faculty Reviewers
  49. 49. Write Once Publish Many
  50. 50. Outreach
  51. 51. Thank You open.bccampus.ca @clintlalonde @bccampus http://www.slideshare.net/bccampus

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