By: Ava Vardell, Brittany Morgan and KaraHoward
• To help familiarize those working in a healthcare setting with two different depression assessments that can be used to evaluate patients.
What is the purpose of this tool?• To detect, assess and monitor depression with a 21 item questionnaire, that takes approximately 5 minutes to complete.• Each answer on the inventory is scored 0-3 with a maximum score of 63 points. Patients with scores of 17 points or more may warrant further clinical assessment.
Who is the Target Population & in what setting isthis tool used?• This tool can be used on patients ranging from 13 years old to 80.• The Beck Depression Inventory can be used in a variety of health care settings ranging from primary care to mental health care facilities.• Any situation in which a patient is suspected of having depression is an appropriate setting for this assessment to be completed.
What Kind of Data is Obtained?• The data obtained through the questionnaire is subjective as the patient choses appropriate statements that reflect his/her thoughts, feelings , beliefs and attitudes.• The data is provided by the patient.
Who Developed this tool?• The Tool was developed by Dr. Aaron T. Beck in 1961.• The assessment has had several revisions and the current tool in use is the BDI-II, which was developed in 1996.
Is this tool reliable?• The Beck Depression Inventory is the most extensively used assessment for detecting depression in patients.• Studies done show a positive correlation between the Beck Depression Inventory and other depression assessments that were obtained by trained clinicians.
What are the limitations associated with thisassessment?• While the BDI-II can be used in many settings this assessment would not be appropriate for use in individuals that meet the following criteria: • Not alert with no cognitive impairment • Limited cognitive ability • Younger than 13 or older than 80• The BDI-II suffers from the same problems that other self reporting inventories have; you are dependent on the information that patient choses to provide.• There are questions about the cross cultural validity.• The BDI-II is copyrighted and there is a fee associated with obtaining the materials needed to complete the assessment.
What are Alternatives to Accessing Depression?• There are several other self assessments used to aide in the detection of depression that can be used in place of the BDI-II. One such assessment is the Patient Health Questionnaire. This is in the public domain and is free to use unlike the BDI-II.• Is training Required to Use this tool? • No training is required to use the BDI-II.• Is the tool easy to Use? • The Tool is simple in nature and requires minutes to complete.
What is the purpose of this tool?• To detect and monitor depression in the elderly through the use of a 30 item self report assessment.• The questionnaire asks “yes” or “no” questions, which are deemed to be more appropriate than the tradition five category responses used by the BDI-II.• One point is assigned to each answer and a score of 10 or higher indicates that a patient may warrant further clinical assessment.
Who is the Target Population & in what setting is thistool used?• This tool can be used on patients 65 years of age and older.• The short form can be used on healthy, the mentally ill, and mild to moderately cognitively impaired patients.• It is often used in community, acute and long term settings.
What Kind of Data is Obtained?• The data obtained through the questionnaire is subjective as the patient choses yes or no in response to questions regarding their feelings.• The data is provided by the patient.
Who Developed this tool?• The Tool was developed J.A. Yesavage is 1982.• The short form was created in 1986.• The Geriatric Depression Scale is used extensively in the older population and is considered to be the standard for assessing depression in the elderly.
What are the limitations associated with thisassessment?• While the GDS can be used in many settings and on people with varying cognitive function, the patient must be alert and oriented in order to complete the questionnaire.• The GDS suffers from the same problems that other self reporting inventories have; you are dependent on the information that patient chooses to provide.• The GDS does not assess or evaluate for suicidal thoughts or tendencies.• The GDS is free of charge and readily available for use.
What are Alternatives to Accessing Depression in the geriatric population? • There are several other self assessments used to aide in the detection of depression that can be used in place of the Geriatric Depression Scale. One such assessment is the BD-II, however the GDS is more specific to the aging population.Is training Required to Use this tool? • No training is required to use the Geriatric Depression Scale.Is the tool easy to Use? • The tool is simple in nature and requires minutes to complete.
How does the Beck Depression Inventory and GeriatricDepression Scale Affect Patient Health, patient careand nursing practice?• Patients benefit from the use of these assessment tools as it helps their care providers to get a better picture of the patients overall health and will help dictate appropriate treatment. As a result of these assessments, patients should be better cared for and have better overall health.• The appropriate use of these tools affects the nursing practice as a whole as it provides nurses and other care providers easy options to assess their patient’s mental health status. This information will help to provide more complete care and result in better health for the patient.
• Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2012). Beck Depression Inventory. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/A-Br/Beck-Depression- Inventory.html#b#ixzz1wrzA1IoV. [Last Accessed 6/4/2012]• Greenberg, S. A. (2007, October). How To Try This: The Geriatric Depression Scale: Short Form. American Journal of Nursing, 107 (10), 60-69. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1071624/• Jarvis, Carolyn (2012). Physical Examination and Health Assessment. 6th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders.
• Kerr, L. K. & Kerr L.D (2001, November). Screening tools for depression in primary care. Western Journal of Medicine, 175 (4), 349-352. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1071624/• Pearson Clinical Assessments (n.d). Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Retrieved from http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/ en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=015-8018-370