Overview Reading Comprehension Scaffolding Readers’ Developing Readers’ Development of Skills & Awareness of Story Strategies Structure ActiveQuestion-Answer Story Elements Building a ComprehensionRelationship Schema for(QAR) Stories Reciprocal Questioning Questions the Author (QtA) Guiding Readers’ Interactions With Texts Directed Reading- KWL Thinking Activity (DR-TA) Discussion Webs Story Impressions Inferential Strategy
Comprehension Strategies• Teachers engage students in direct, explicit, researched-based strategy instruction so that students can in turn understand, respond to, question, and even challenge the author’s ideas.
• Students use cognitive and metacognitive strategies plus prior knowledge to construct meaning.• “Comprehension refers to the ability to actively construct appropriate meaning from the text.” (Rasinski,Padak, Fawcett, 2010)
Active Comprehension• When students ask questions that elicit questions in return, they are involved in active comprehension.• Instead of the teacher asking, “What is the picture about?” the teacher should ask, “What would you like to know about the picture?”• Scaffold the process.
Lessons or mini lessons• Before, During, After (BDA) format• Reading involves connecting new text to that which is already understood.• BDA strategies are used to get students to activate prior knowledge, thereby creating a mental framework to which new text, terms, ideas, etc. can be attached.
BDA’s continued• This mental framework is done before reading even begins, strengthened as students interact with the text during the reading, and reflected upon after reading as students incorporate what they have just read into their core knowledge.
BDA activities (see attached hand-out for more activities as well as Rasinski text pp. 168-185) Before (pre-reading) During (reading & rereading) • Word splash • Sticky notes • Key words • Text rendering • Prewrite questions • Chunking • Story impression • Literature circles • Pictures • KWL • Think-pair-share After (post reading) • KWL chart • Jigsaw • Reflection • Think-pair-share • KWL
Balanced Literacy• Strategy instruction is used in Balanced Literacy – Process is scaffolded in • Shared reading • Think aloud • Guided reading (minilesson) • Independent reading
Before Reading: During Reading: After Reading:Comprehension Comprehensionstrategies strategies: Meaning•Developing an making: Does •Connecting it make sense?overview of the •Inferringtext •Evaluating•Connecting to the •Synthesizingtext Structural Visual•Asking questions Cues: Cues:•Connecting prior Does it Does it look sound right? right?knowledge•Predicting Integrating the cueing systems