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Incidental Information Seekingon Facebook: Social Capitaland Information BehaviorCliff LampeUniversity of Michigan - Schoo...
“May you live in exciting times...”
What are the outcomes ofFacebook use?
Social CapitalFacebook helps people maintain the relationshipsthat lead to social capital.
Social Capital Social capital describes the ability of individuals or groups to access resources from their social network...
Social Capital Bridging and bonding (Putnam 2000) Online vs. offline (Williams 2006) More likely a continuum than a binary
Bridging Social Capital      Flickr: Arlington County
Bridging social capital describes the informational benefits typically associated with “weak ties” (Granovetter, 1982), lo...
Bonding Social Capital                         Flickr: HarlanH
Bonding social capital Emotional support “Big” resources   Money   Moving   Rides to the airport
Connect on Facebook
Connect on Facebook             Engage in             interaction
Connect on Facebook             Engage in             interaction                               Build                     ...
Connect on Facebook                 Engage in                 interaction                                   Build       Co...
Connect on FacebookPeople mostly connect to those theyknow offline (Lampe et al., 2006; Lampe et al., 2008)The tools of Fa...
Engage in Interaction “Actual” Friends more important than total Friends   (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2011) Facebook u...
Build Social Capital Facebook use is associated with bridging and bonding social capital   (Ellison et al., 2007; Steinfie...
Build Social Capital Facebook’s social & technical affordances:   Enable users to broadcast and respond to requests   for ...
Convert social capital Organize “quotidian” tasks   (Wohn et al., 2011) Classroom organizing   (Lampe et al., 2011) Politi...
Flickr: Dimitri N.Requests for resourcesSocial capital in action
To what extent are people seekingresources through Facebook?
Social Q&AMany questions on Twitter are rhetorical  (Paul et al., 2011)People in an organization posted requests forrecomm...
StudyData collected Fall, 2010 and Spring, 2011  Sample of non-academic MSU staff  N=666 (including 134 [22%] non-Facebook...
Data collection Survey Instrument [today’s talk]   n=614, 29% RR Facebook network data via Facebook app, Hogan’s NameGenWe...
Dependent Variables Likelihood to use Facebook for Information Seeking Perceived value of Facebook as a source of informat...
Independent variablesDemographicsFB AppropriatenessFB minutes per dayFB Total Friends AND Actual FriendsFacebook Bridging ...
Total vs. Actual Friends “Approximately how many TOTAL Facebook friends do you have at [university] or elsewhere?” “Approx...
Signals of RelationalInvestment (SRI) Behaviors such as explicitly responding to Friends’ questions are productive because...
Relationship to info seeking
Older people were     less likely  More education =     less likelyMore bridging socialcapital = more likelyComplex relati...
Low and high info seekers
Some conclusions from thisstudyPeople didn’t see themselves that likely to do this“Norms” and motivations to use the site ...
Issues of InformationWhat is a question anyway?
QuestionsWhat librarians havealways known aboutquestions  Not always accurate  Often embeds multiple  agendas  Not always ...
What’s the differencebetween a question andother resource requests?
What are the characteristicsof the (user/question) thatmake it appear on Facebookas opposed to a searchengine?
Are there ways to make thesite more useful for infoseekers?
Next stepsContinue analyzing data from Spring studyWorking with Facebook to learn:  Prevalence of resource requests  Satis...
Thanks!Cliff Lampecacl@umich.eduTwitter: @clifflampeSlideShare: clifflampehttp://clifflampe.org
2011 11 4_uci
2011 11 4_uci
2011 11 4_uci
2011 11 4_uci
2011 11 4_uci
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2011 11 4_uci
2011 11 4_uci
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2011 11 4_uci
2011 11 4_uci
2011 11 4_uci
2011 11 4_uci
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2011 11 4_uci

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2011 11 4_uci

  1. 1. Incidental Information Seekingon Facebook: Social Capitaland Information BehaviorCliff LampeUniversity of Michigan - School of InformationNovember 4, 2011[Supported by the National Science Foundation #0916019]
  2. 2. “May you live in exciting times...”
  3. 3. What are the outcomes ofFacebook use?
  4. 4. Social CapitalFacebook helps people maintain the relationshipsthat lead to social capital.
  5. 5. Social Capital Social capital describes the ability of individuals or groups to access resources from their social network “investment in social relations with expected returns in the marketplace” (Lin, 2001) “connections among individuals - social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them” (Putnam, 2000) A benefit from position in a network that can be converted into other forms of capital (Resnick, 2001)
  6. 6. Social Capital Bridging and bonding (Putnam 2000) Online vs. offline (Williams 2006) More likely a continuum than a binary
  7. 7. Bridging Social Capital Flickr: Arlington County
  8. 8. Bridging social capital describes the informational benefits typically associated with “weak ties” (Granovetter, 1982), loose connections who may provide useful, non- redundant information or diverse worldviews Bridging ties (across two networks) facilitate information diffusion (Burt, ‘92) Flickr: Jeslee Cuizon
  9. 9. Bonding Social Capital Flickr: HarlanH
  10. 10. Bonding social capital Emotional support “Big” resources Money Moving Rides to the airport
  11. 11. Connect on Facebook
  12. 12. Connect on Facebook Engage in interaction
  13. 13. Connect on Facebook Engage in interaction Build Social Capital
  14. 14. Connect on Facebook Engage in interaction Build Convert Social Capital Social capital
  15. 15. Connect on FacebookPeople mostly connect to those theyknow offline (Lampe et al., 2006; Lampe et al., 2008)The tools of Facebook reduce transactioncosts of maintaining a large network (Lampe et al., 2007)
  16. 16. Engage in Interaction “Actual” Friends more important than total Friends (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2011) Facebook users have large networks but only interact with few of their Friends (Facebook Data Team, 2009; Golder et al., 2007) Directed communication with individual Friends lead to social capital gains, but not passive consumption or broadcasting (Burke, Kraut, & Marlow, 2011) News Feed algorithm (which is unknown) determines visibility of Friends’ content
  17. 17. Build Social Capital Facebook use is associated with bridging and bonding social capital (Ellison et al., 2007; Steinfield et al., 2008, Valanzuela, 2009; Burke et al., 2010; Burke et al., 2011; Ellison et al., 2011)
  18. 18. Build Social Capital Facebook’s social & technical affordances: Enable users to broadcast and respond to requests for information, advice, and recommendations Support maintenance of larger network of weak (and strong) ties Facilitate socially relevant interactions with latent ties (ties that are technically possible but not yet socially activated – Haythornthwaite, 2005)
  19. 19. Convert social capital Organize “quotidian” tasks (Wohn et al., 2011) Classroom organizing (Lampe et al., 2011) Political expression (Vitak et al., 2011) Knowledge management (Steinfield et al., 2009)
  20. 20. Flickr: Dimitri N.Requests for resourcesSocial capital in action
  21. 21. To what extent are people seekingresources through Facebook?
  22. 22. Social Q&AMany questions on Twitter are rhetorical (Paul et al., 2011)People in an organization posted requests forrecommendations, opinions, favors, and factualknowledge. (Morris et al., 2010)“Culture” affect the types of things people look for. (Yang et al., 2011)
  23. 23. StudyData collected Fall, 2010 and Spring, 2011 Sample of non-academic MSU staff N=666 (including 134 [22%] non-Facebook users) 66% female Average 45 years old44% college graduates, 32% post-graduate trainingMulti-method approach
  24. 24. Data collection Survey Instrument [today’s talk] n=614, 29% RR Facebook network data via Facebook app, Hogan’s NameGenWeb (N=238) “Favor” request to activate network potential on Facebook Capture example of question-asking from participant’s News Feed with short survey about responders
  25. 25. Dependent Variables Likelihood to use Facebook for Information Seeking Perceived value of Facebook as a source of information
  26. 26. Independent variablesDemographicsFB AppropriatenessFB minutes per dayFB Total Friends AND Actual FriendsFacebook Bridging Social CapitalSignals of Relational Investment
  27. 27. Total vs. Actual Friends “Approximately how many TOTAL Facebook friends do you have at [university] or elsewhere?” “Approximately how many of your TOTAL Facebook friends do you consider actual friends?” From 2008 undergraduate dataset: Median total Friends: 300; “actual” friends: 75 (25%) 2010-2011 adult dataset: Median total Friends: 130; “actual” friends: 40 (~30%)
  28. 28. Signals of RelationalInvestment (SRI) Behaviors such as explicitly responding to Friends’ questions are productive because they: Create an expectation about reciprocal behavior: “expected returns in the marketplace” (Lin, 2001) Perform a social grooming function (Dunbar, 1996; Donath, 2007; Tufekci, 2008) and signal attention Potentially train the News Feed Comments on Friends’ updates and Wall posts are seen by the Friends’ network, not your own (until recent UI change)
  29. 29. Relationship to info seeking
  30. 30. Older people were less likely More education = less likelyMore bridging socialcapital = more likelyComplex relationshipAppropriateness - SRI
  31. 31. Low and high info seekers
  32. 32. Some conclusions from thisstudyPeople didn’t see themselves that likely to do this“Norms” and motivations to use the site mattered
  33. 33. Issues of InformationWhat is a question anyway?
  34. 34. QuestionsWhat librarians havealways known aboutquestions Not always accurate Often embeds multiple agendas Not always framed as a question It is costly to search
  35. 35. What’s the differencebetween a question andother resource requests?
  36. 36. What are the characteristicsof the (user/question) thatmake it appear on Facebookas opposed to a searchengine?
  37. 37. Are there ways to make thesite more useful for infoseekers?
  38. 38. Next stepsContinue analyzing data from Spring studyWorking with Facebook to learn: Prevalence of resource requests Satisfaction with responses User variables that affect request behaviors What about “passive information collection” vs. info seeking?
  39. 39. Thanks!Cliff Lampecacl@umich.eduTwitter: @clifflampeSlideShare: clifflampehttp://clifflampe.org

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