INTERWAR PHOTOGRAPHY EUROPE AND THE US
Russian & German Interwar  Constructivist Photography <ul><li>How was Russian & German formalism an “Armed Vision”?  </li>...
(left)  El Lissitzky  Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge , 1919-20  (right) Soviet propaganda poster featuring the destruc...
El Lissitzky , (left) agit-prop panel photographed on the streets of Vitebsk in 1920, reads: &quot;The Machine tool depots...
Gustav Klutsis  (Latvian Russian, 1895-1938), (left)  The Electrification of the Entire Country ,  photomontage,1920; (rig...
Rodchenko ,  Dance ,  oil on canvas,1915 <ul><li>Varvara Stepanova  (Russian, 1894-1958), declared in 1921: “Technique and...
Alexander Rodchenko   (left)  Spatial Construction / Spatial Object , 1921 (right) Rodchenko with spatial constructions, w...
(left)  Alexander Rodchenko ,  Gathering for the demonstration in the courtyard of the VChUTEMAS (Higher Institute of Tech...
(left) Cover page by Rodchenko for Vladimir Mayakovsky's book length poem,  Pro Eto  ( About This ), 1923. Rodchenko’s fir...
Pablo Picasso  (Spanish, 1881-1973)  Guitar, Sheet Music and Glass , charcoal and papier collé, November 1912.  New media ...
Dziga Vertov  (Russian filmmaker1896-1954), Still from  Man with a Movie Camera , 1929 (right)  Rodchenko , photomontage p...
Rodchenko , Poster for film,  Battleship Potemkin,  by Sergei Eisenstein, 1925 Still from the Odessa  steps massacre, famo...
Jan Tschichold , poster for  Film und Foto  exhibition, Stuttgart, 1929 Exhibition of over 1000 photographic works from Eu...
“ What is being stressed is the manifest presence of the means of production, and an implicit rejection of the notion of t...
Alexander Rodchenko ,  On the telephone , 1928 1928 Rodchenko, who gave up painting for photography in 1927, bought himsel...
Shukhov tower – “a symbol of collective effort” –  was designed to be 350 m in height. But it required 2200 tons of steel....
El Lissitzky  (Russian 1890-1941) (left)  The Constructor , 1924, photomontage - the new artist-engineer  (right)  El Liss...
(left)  Rodchenko ,  Shukhov Radio Tower , 1928 (right)  László Moholy-Nagy  (American, born Hungarian, Constructivist art...
(left)  László Moholy-Nagy , Balance study , 1924, wood and metal, reconstruction 1967  (center)  László Moholy-Nagy and L...
The Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, designed by German architect, Walter Gropius .  In 1923 Moholy Nagy was hired to instruct th...
László Moholy-Nagy , Photogram, ca. 1924. The medium is the light-sensitive paper. No camera. “The photogram, or camera-le...
Moholy-Nagy’s definition of “Camera Vision” “…the political implications of Russian formalist photography were sheared awa...
(left)  Moholy-Nagy ,  Bauhaus Balcony , 1926 (right)  Rodchenko ,  Gathering for the demonstration in the courtyard of th...
Moholy-Nagy ,  Chairs at Margate , 1935, gelatin silver print diptych Multiples like mass production = machine aesthetic
http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/works/lichtspiel/ (left)  László Moholy-Nagy ,  Light Prop , 1930 In 1937, at the invitation...
Rodchenko ,  White Sea Canal , 1933 Commissioned by Stalin to document the construction of the canal, Rodchenko did not re...
Berlin Dada First   Dada Fair , Berlin, 1920
Raoul Hausmann  (Austrian Dadaist active in Germany, 1886-1971),  Tatlin at Home , 1920, photomontage, Berlin Dada  Accord...
Hannah Höch  (German, 1889 - 1978),  Cut With the Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of ...
(left)  Hannah Höch ,  Pretty Woman,  1920, photomontage, Berlin Dada (right)  Hannah Höch ,  Dada Ernst , 1920, photomont...
John Heartfield  (Born   Herzfelde,   German, 1891-1968) front covers of the newspaper  AIZ  (Arbeiter-Illustrierte Zeitun...
On 10. May 1933, 20.000 books were burnt in the then Opernplatz, later Bebel Platz, adjacent to the Opera House. Among the...
August Sander  (German, 1876-1964),  Brick Carrier  (left), and  Cook  (right) 1928 from the  Face of Time  portfolio
August Sander ,  Wandering People  from portfolio,  Citizens of the 20 th  Century,  1930 Sander’s archive of German “type...
Albert Renger-Patzsch  (German 1897 – 1966),  New Objectivity Irons Used in Shoemaking, Fagus Works , c. 1925 (left) and  ...
Hans Haacke , German, b.1936, &quot;Shapolsky et al. Manhattan Real Estate Holdings, a Real-Time System, as of May 1, 1971...
Bernhard   and Hilla Becher  (German, born 1931 and 1934 respectively)  Conceptual (typological) photography (left)  Gas T...
Thomas Struth  (Germany, b.1954, student of Bechers)  Shinju-ku (Skyscrapers), Tokyo,  1986  (right)  Ferdinand-von-Schill...
Candida Höfer ,(Germany, 1944, student of Bechers)  (left)  Stiftsbibliothek Klosterneuburg III , 2003, C-print, 68 in. H ...
Thomas Ruff  (German, b.1958),  House # 9 II , 1991, 72 in. H one of series  taken in early morning, apartment blocks in E...
Thomas Ruff , (left)  Portrait , 1989, 63in. H (center and right) from  Portrait  series, 2001, conceptual typologies “abs...
California Modern: Group f/64 <ul><li>“ The members of Group f.64 believe that photography, as an art-form, must develop a...
<ul><li>(left)  Edward Weston  (American 1886-1958),  Pipes and Stacks: Armco, Middletown, Ohio , 1922.  Co-Founder of Gro...
Edward Weston,   Neil, 1922,  platinotype A series of photographs of his son Neil   Modernist fragmentation “ seeing of pa...
<ul><li>(left)  Edward Weston ,  Neil,  1922, platinotype.  Weston based these photographs on a classical sculpture of a m...
<ul><li>Edward Weston ,  Excusado , 1925, gelatin silver print </li></ul><ul><li>“ My excitement was absolute aesthetic re...
(left)  Edward Weston ,  Maguey, Mexico , 1926, gsp (right)  Tina Modotti  (Italian, 1896 -1942) ,  Mexico , 1925, platinu...
<ul><li>Edward Weston ,  Pepper # 30 , 1930, gsp </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ To clearly express my feeling for life with photographic beauty, present objectively the texture, rhythm, form i...
<ul><li>Edward Weston ,  Shells,  1927. Gsp. </li></ul><ul><li>(right)  Henry Moore  (British Abstract Sculptor, 1898-1986...
<ul><li>Compare Weston with Constantin Brancusi (French, born Romania, 1876–1957): </li></ul><ul><li>(left) Brancusi,  Bir...
Modernist “purity” or “ essence” of form Compare Brancusi’s 19 th  c.  Classical Realism (c.1900) with his modernism of 19...
(left)  Constantin Brancusi , The Muse,  1912, marble (right)  Edward Weston ,  Nude,  1936, gelatin silver print &quot;I ...
When Weston saw the work of sculptor Constantin Brancusi for the first time he found one piece &quot;curiously like one of...
Ansel Adams  (American, 1902-1984) ,  Golden Gate Before the Bridge San Francisco, California , 1932
Ansel Adams ,  Thundercloud, Ellery Lake, High Sierra, California , 1934, gelatin silver print <ul><li>The picture we make...
<ul><li>Ansel Adams,  Lake and Cliffs, Sierra Nevada , 1932. Gsp. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Adams’s visual understanding came from being in tune with the changing nature of light and how it moves within the...
<ul><li>A zone represents the relationship of a subject’s brightness to its density in the negative and the corresponding ...
<ul><li>Each zone is the equivalent to one f/stop difference in subject brightness and negative exposure. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>The Negative </li></ul><ul><li>The Negative  explains the Zone System formulated by Adams and Fred Archer in 1939/...
<ul><li>Ansel Adams ,  Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico , 1941, gsp. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Crocker Art Museum Sacramento  </li></ul><ul><li>upcoming exhibition: </li></ul><ul><li>Yosemite 1938:  On the Tra...
<ul><li>Imogen Cunningham  (American, 1883-1976),  </li></ul><ul><li>(left)  Self-Portrait,  1915, platinum print (Pictori...
<ul><li>Imogen Cunningham ,  Roi (Triangles ), 1927, gsp. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Imogen Cunningham,  Triangles , 1928, gsp. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Imogen Cunningham   Agave Design 2 , ca. 1930, gsp.,  f/64 Group </li></ul>
Chicago Institute of Design (I.D.) Formalist Photography “Disarmed Vision” influenced more by American photography and soc...
Harry Callahan  (American 1912-1999)   ,  Detroit , 1941, gelatin silver print, Chicago Institute of Design Callahan, deep...
Harry Callahan ,  Eleanor , 1947 and (right)  Eleanor, Chicago , 1949 I.D. Formalism: A “Disarmed Vision”
(left)  Aaron Siskind  (American, 1903-1991)  Jerome, Arizona , 1949, gelatin silver print , Chicago I.D. (right) Max Yavn...
(left)  Aaron Siskind ,  Jerome, Arizona , 1949, gelatin silver print, Chicago I.D. & Abstract Expressionism  (right)  Fra...
(left)  Franz Kline ,  Palmerton, Pa.,  oil on canvas, 1941, Social Realism (right)  Aaron Siskind ,  Boys Playing With To...
<ul><li>American Documentary Photography  </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression (1929 - c.1939) </li></ul><ul><li>The New...
Walker Evans  (American 1903 -1975), two of three photographs for the  The Bridge  by Hart Crane (1899-1932) 1930.  Evan’s...
<ul><li>Walker Evans ,  Bethlehem, Pennsylvania , 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Evans believed in finding scenes and objects wh...
Walker Evans ,  Hale County, Alabama (Allie Mae Burroughs) , 1936, from  Let Us Now Praise Famous Men , by Walker Evans an...
Walker Evans ,  Subway Portrait, New York , 1938-41 One of series of anonymous New York subway passengers  published in 19...
Dorothea Lange  (American, 1895-1965),  White Angel Bread Line , 1932 “The good photograph is not the object, the conseque...
Dorothea Lange ,  Ditched, Stalled, and Stranded, San Joaquin Valley, California , 1935 The Dust Bowl   1940 movie based o...
Dorothea Lange ,  Migrant Mother , 1936
Reading: Paul Taylor, “Migrant Mother: 1936,” 1970
Caption : &quot;Nipomo, Calif. Mar. 1936. Migrant agricultural worker's family. Seven hungry children. Mother aged 32, the...
Lange immediately gave her photos to the  San Francisco News.  Migrant Mother  was published anonymously in newspapers acr...
Robert Frank  (Swiss-born American Photographer, born in 1924),  The Americans , 1955 Charleston, South Carolina   Elevato...
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Rodchenko evans

  1. 1. INTERWAR PHOTOGRAPHY EUROPE AND THE US
  2. 2. Russian & German Interwar Constructivist Photography <ul><li>How was Russian & German formalism an “Armed Vision”? </li></ul><ul><li>How, when and where did it become “disarmed”? </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: For the quiz next week be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare European and American interwar photography. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present the theses of Abigail Solomon-Godeau and László Moholy-Nagy from the two assigned readings </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. (left) El Lissitzky Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge , 1919-20 (right) Soviet propaganda poster featuring the destruction of White Poland, 1919 Russian Constructivist form versus cartoon realist propaganda: Russian formalism’s “armed vision” failed to communicate to the “masses.”
  4. 4. El Lissitzky , (left) agit-prop panel photographed on the streets of Vitebsk in 1920, reads: &quot;The Machine tool depots of the factories and plants await you. Let's get industry moving.&quot; Compare with WW II Stalinist propaganda poster: “Stalin leads”
  5. 5. Gustav Klutsis (Latvian Russian, 1895-1938), (left) The Electrification of the Entire Country , photomontage,1920; (right) Klutsis , The USSR is the Stock Brigade of the World’s Proletariat , photomontage, 1931 (center) October Revolution marks the beginning of avant-garde modern art as part of the government propaganda bureau – “agitation and propaganda” ( agitprop ) Lenin in St. Petersburg after the storming of the winter palace, 1917 Modernist form employed for political propaganda
  6. 6. Rodchenko , Dance , oil on canvas,1915 <ul><li>Varvara Stepanova (Russian, 1894-1958), declared in 1921: “Technique and Industry have confronted art with the problem of construction as an active process and not reflective. The 'sanctity' of a work as a single entity is destroyed. The museum which was the treasury of art is now transformed into an archive.” </li></ul>Rodchenko and Stepanova“ Art Engineers” and lifetime companions, 1920s Stepanova , Cubo-Futurist painting, c. 1915
  7. 7. Alexander Rodchenko (left) Spatial Construction / Spatial Object , 1921 (right) Rodchenko with spatial constructions, wearing industrial suit designed by Stepanova. Photograph by Mikhail Kaufman,1924
  8. 8. (left) Alexander Rodchenko , Gathering for the demonstration in the courtyard of the VChUTEMAS (Higher Institute of Technics and Art), 1928 (right) Vchutemas student constructivist exhibition, 1925
  9. 9. (left) Cover page by Rodchenko for Vladimir Mayakovsky's book length poem, Pro Eto ( About This ), 1923. Rodchenko’s first photomontage Shostakovich, Meyerhold, Mayakovsky Rodchenko, rehearsing Klop, 1929 New music, theater, poetry, and art for the revolution
  10. 10. Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881-1973) Guitar, Sheet Music and Glass , charcoal and papier collé, November 1912. New media of papier collé and collage pioneered by the cubists in the decade before WWI
  11. 11. Dziga Vertov (Russian filmmaker1896-1954), Still from Man with a Movie Camera , 1929 (right) Rodchenko , photomontage poster for Dziga Vertov film, Kino Eye , 1924 <ul><li>I am a kino-eye [film-eye]. I am in constant motion. I draw near, then away from objects, I crawl under, I climb onto them, I move apace with the muzzle of a galloping horse, I plunge full speed into a crowd, I outstrip running soldiers, I fall on my back, I ascent with an airplane, I plunge and soar …. - Vertov </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rodchenko , Poster for film, Battleship Potemkin, by Sergei Eisenstein, 1925 Still from the Odessa steps massacre, famous scene in Battleship Potemkin
  13. 13. Jan Tschichold , poster for Film und Foto exhibition, Stuttgart, 1929 Exhibition of over 1000 photographic works from Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States, including movie stills, and demonstrating reciprocal uses of camera angles, montages, and superimpositions that were rapidly appropriated for mainstream movies.
  14. 14. “ What is being stressed is the manifest presence of the means of production, and an implicit rejection of the notion of the photograph as either transparent or neutral.” - Abigail Solomon-Godeau, “Armed Vision Disarmed” Rodchenko , Chauffeur – Karelia , 1933. Rodchenko makes his own presence obvious.
  15. 15. Alexander Rodchenko , On the telephone , 1928 1928 Rodchenko, who gave up painting for photography in 1927, bought himself a Leica which, because of its handy format and quick operation, became his preferred tool for his work. This camera enabled him to realize his ideas of unusual camera positions, severe foreshortenings of perspective, and views of surprising details. &quot;One has to take several different shots of a subject, from different points of view and in different situations, as if one examined it in the round rather than looked through the same key-hole again and again.“ -Rodchenko
  16. 16. Shukhov tower – “a symbol of collective effort” – was designed to be 350 m in height. But it required 2200 tons of steel. Young Soviet Russia did not have enough metal. Thus Shukhov had to decrease height to 150 m. Lenin personally ordered 240 tons of high quality German Ruhr steel from military stocks. Rodchenko , Shukhov Radio Tower , 1928 Vladimir Tatlin Monument to The Third International , l920, TOWERS OF COMMUNIST ASPIRATION
  17. 17. El Lissitzky (Russian 1890-1941) (left) The Constructor , 1924, photomontage - the new artist-engineer (right) El Lissitzky , Proun 1d, 1922, oil on canvas
  18. 18. (left) Rodchenko , Shukhov Radio Tower , 1928 (right) László Moholy-Nagy (American, born Hungarian, Constructivist artist, ca.1895-1946), Untitled (View from the Berlin Radio Tower onto chairs and tables), ca.1928 The “New Vision” = functionalism and technologism
  19. 19. (left) László Moholy-Nagy , Balance study , 1924, wood and metal, reconstruction 1967 (center) László Moholy-Nagy and Lucia Moholy , Portrait of Moholy-Nagy , 1932 (right) Moholy-Nagy , AXXV , oil on canvas,1926 <ul><li>“ In 1922 I ordered by telephone from a sign factory five paintings on graph paper. At the other end of the telephone the factory supervisor had the same kind of paper divided into squares. He took down the dictated shapes in the correct position.” </li></ul><ul><li>Moholy-Nagy, whose last paintings rejected the medium’s ethos of originality and subjectivity. </li></ul>László Moholy-Nagy as Bauhaus master and “ artist engineer” “ The New Vision” = Machine aesthetics
  20. 20. The Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, designed by German architect, Walter Gropius . In 1923 Moholy Nagy was hired to instruct the metalwork shop, marking a shift from craft to mechanical production. The same year (1923) the school slogan was changed from “A Cathedral of Socialism” based on the Medieval cathedral workshop ( bauhaus ) to “Art and Technology – A New Unity” based on the machine-production-industrial aesthetic “ The New Vision”
  21. 21. László Moholy-Nagy , Photogram, ca. 1924. The medium is the light-sensitive paper. No camera. “The photogram, or camera-less record of forms produced by light….opens up perspectives of a hitherto wholly unknown morphosis …. It is the most completely dematerialized medium which the new vision commands.” - - Moholy-Nagy, “From Pigment to Light,” 1936 “ Formalism for Moholy signified above all the absolute primacy of the material, the medium itself.”
  22. 22. Moholy-Nagy’s definition of “Camera Vision” “…the political implications of Russian formalist photography were sheared away from the body of New Vision photography” in Germany (Solomon-Godeau) <ul><li>Abstract seeing by means of direct records of forms produced by light; the photogram… </li></ul><ul><li>Exact seeing by means of the fixation of the appearance of things: reportage </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid seeing by means of the fixation of movement in the shortest possible time: snapshots </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid seeing by means of the fixation of movements spread over a period of time… </li></ul><ul><li>Intensified seeing by means of … micro-photography </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrative photography by means of X-rays: radiography… </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous seeing by means of transparent superimposition: the future process of automatic photomontage </li></ul><ul><li>Distorted seeing… </li></ul><ul><li>Camera vision was privileged because it was deemed superior to normal vision – a prosthetic eye. </li></ul>
  23. 23. (left) Moholy-Nagy , Bauhaus Balcony , 1926 (right) Rodchenko , Gathering for the demonstration in the courtyard of the VChUTEMAS (Higher Institute of Technics and Art), 1928 “ The New Vision”
  24. 24. Moholy-Nagy , Chairs at Margate , 1935, gelatin silver print diptych Multiples like mass production = machine aesthetic
  25. 25. http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/works/lichtspiel/ (left) László Moholy-Nagy , Light Prop , 1930 In 1937, at the invitation of the Chairman of the Container Corporation of America, Moholy-Nagy moved to Chicago to become the director of the New Bauhaus and in 1939, the Chicago School of Design. In 1944, this became the Institute of Design. Still from Light Display: Black-White-Gray Moholy-Nagy
  26. 26. Rodchenko , White Sea Canal , 1933 Commissioned by Stalin to document the construction of the canal, Rodchenko did not record the use of forced labor, nor the deaths of thousands of workers at the site.
  27. 27. Berlin Dada First Dada Fair , Berlin, 1920
  28. 28. Raoul Hausmann (Austrian Dadaist active in Germany, 1886-1971), Tatlin at Home , 1920, photomontage, Berlin Dada According to Hausmann, the Dadaists agreed on the term “photomontage” because of “our aversion at playing the artist and, thinking of ourselves as engineers … we meant to construct, to assemble our works.”
  29. 29. Hannah Höch (German, 1889 - 1978), Cut With the Kitchen Knife Dada through the Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany , 1919, Berlin Dada Raoul Hausmann & Hannah Höch at 1920 Berlin Dada Fair (right) An “Armed Vision”
  30. 30. (left) Hannah Höch , Pretty Woman, 1920, photomontage, Berlin Dada (right) Hannah Höch , Dada Ernst , 1920, photomontage, Berlin Dada
  31. 31. John Heartfield (Born Herzfelde, German, 1891-1968) front covers of the newspaper AIZ (Arbeiter-Illustrierte Zeitung / Workers’ Illustrated Newspaper), all 1932-33 (left) The Butcher Goering; (center) Millions Stand Behind Me ; (right) Hurrah, The Butter is Gone! Berlin Dada An “Armed Vision”
  32. 32. On 10. May 1933, 20.000 books were burnt in the then Opernplatz, later Bebel Platz, adjacent to the Opera House. Among the authors whose books were burnt were Thomas Mann, Stefan Zweig, Erich Maria Remarque, Heinrich Mann, Albert Einstein, H.G. Wells, Jack London, Upton Sinclair, Helen Keller, Andre Gide, Marcel Proust, Emil Zola, Sigmund Freud. Arthur Kampf (German, 1865-1950) January 30, 1933 (election night in Berlin) Book burning, Berlin, May 10, 1933 &quot;Where they have burned books, they will end in burning human beings.&quot;   -  Heinrich Heine
  33. 33. August Sander (German, 1876-1964), Brick Carrier (left), and Cook (right) 1928 from the Face of Time portfolio
  34. 34. August Sander , Wandering People from portfolio, Citizens of the 20 th Century, 1930 Sander’s archive of German “types” was censored by the Nazis as “decadent.”
  35. 35. Albert Renger-Patzsch (German 1897 – 1966), New Objectivity Irons Used in Shoemaking, Fagus Works , c. 1925 (left) and Foxgloves , c. 1925 (right)
  36. 36. Hans Haacke , German, b.1936, &quot;Shapolsky et al. Manhattan Real Estate Holdings, a Real-Time System, as of May 1, 1971&quot; 1971: 142 photographs of New York apartment buildings, 2 maps of New York's Lower East Side and Harlem with properties marked, 6 charts outlining business relations within the real estate group. Contemporary German Conceptual Photography That “Imposes Order” = Typology
  37. 37. Bernhard and Hilla Becher (German, born 1931 and 1934 respectively) Conceptual (typological) photography (left) Gas Tanks , 1963 (right) Water Towers , 1980, 9 b/w photographs mounted on board, 62inH overall
  38. 38. Thomas Struth (Germany, b.1954, student of Bechers) Shinju-ku (Skyscrapers), Tokyo, 1986 (right) Ferdinand-von-Schill-Strasse, Dessau, 1991
  39. 39. Candida Höfer ,(Germany, 1944, student of Bechers) (left) Stiftsbibliothek Klosterneuburg III , 2003, C-print, 68 in. H (right) Ca' Rezzonico Venezia II , 2003, C-print, 74 in. Width
  40. 40. Thomas Ruff (German, b.1958), House # 9 II , 1991, 72 in. H one of series taken in early morning, apartment blocks in Eastern Germany
  41. 41. Thomas Ruff , (left) Portrait , 1989, 63in. H (center and right) from Portrait series, 2001, conceptual typologies “absolute objectivity” like passport photos except for scale '... Like archetypal passport photos... young people with dead eyes and empty faces.' Ruff
  42. 42. California Modern: Group f/64 <ul><li>“ The members of Group f.64 believe that photography, as an art-form, must develop along lines defined by the actualities and limitations of the photographic medium, and must always remain independent of ideological conventions of art and aesthetics that are reminiscent of a period and culture antedating the growth of the medium itself.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Group f/64 Manifesto </li></ul><ul><li> Precisionist aesthetics </li></ul>Willard Van Dyke (American 1906-1986), Cement Works, Monolith, California , 1931, Gelatin silver print Van Dyke organized Group f/64
  43. 43. <ul><li>(left) Edward Weston (American 1886-1958), Pipes and Stacks: Armco, Middletown, Ohio , 1922. Co-Founder of Group f/64 </li></ul><ul><li>(right) Charles Sheeler , Crisscrossed Conveyors, River Rouge Plant, Ford Motor Company , 1927 </li></ul>Precisionist machine aesthetic derived from Cubism and Realism
  44. 44. Edward Weston, Neil, 1922, platinotype A series of photographs of his son Neil Modernist fragmentation “ seeing of parts – fragments – as universal symbols” - Weston Auguste Rodin , Walking Man, 1906
  45. 45. <ul><li>(left) Edward Weston , Neil, 1922, platinotype. Weston based these photographs on a classical sculpture of a male nude, Eros , made by the Greek sculptor Praxiteles in the 4 th C. BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>(right) Sherrie Levine , Neil, 1981 , By simply making a copy of a pre-existing copy - Levine subverted modernist “originality.” Postmodern appropriation art </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Edward Weston , Excusado , 1925, gelatin silver print </li></ul><ul><li>“ My excitement was absolute aesthetic response to form. For long I have considered photographing this useful and elegant accessory to modern hygienic life…. Here was every sensuous curve of the ‘human form divine’ but minus imperfections…Never did the Greeks reach a more significant consummation to their culture” </li></ul>Weston , Nude , 1936
  47. 47. (left) Edward Weston , Maguey, Mexico , 1926, gsp (right) Tina Modotti (Italian, 1896 -1942) , Mexico , 1925, platinum print
  48. 48. <ul><li>Edward Weston , Pepper # 30 , 1930, gsp </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>“ To clearly express my feeling for life with photographic beauty, present objectively the texture, rhythm, form in nature, without subterfuge or evasion in technique or spirit, to record the quintessence of the object or element before my lens, rather than an interpretation, a superficial phase, or passing mood – this is my way in photography. It is not an easy way.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Edward Weston, 1927 . </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Edward Weston , Shells, 1927. Gsp. </li></ul><ul><li>(right) Henry Moore (British Abstract Sculptor, 1898-1986), Embrace , bronze, c.1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking the essence of form </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Compare Weston with Constantin Brancusi (French, born Romania, 1876–1957): </li></ul><ul><li>(left) Brancusi, Bird in Space , 1919, photograph by artist </li></ul><ul><li>(right) Brancusi, Golden Bird , 1919-20. Bronze, stone, and wood. </li></ul>Weston, Shell , 1927
  52. 52. Modernist “purity” or “ essence” of form Compare Brancusi’s 19 th c. Classical Realism (c.1900) with his modernism of 1915 Brancusi, Newborn , 1915 marble Brancusi’s studio c.1900
  53. 53. (left) Constantin Brancusi , The Muse, 1912, marble (right) Edward Weston , Nude, 1936, gelatin silver print &quot;I feel that I have been more deeply moved by music, literature, sculpture, painting, than I have by photography.&quot; - Weston
  54. 54. When Weston saw the work of sculptor Constantin Brancusi for the first time he found one piece &quot;curiously like one of my peppers,&quot; but he noted, &quot;I have proved through photography that nature has all the abstract (simplified) forms that Brancusi or any other artist could imagine. With my camera I go direct to Bancusi's source. I find,... select and isolate what he has to 'create.' &quot;
  55. 55. Ansel Adams (American, 1902-1984) , Golden Gate Before the Bridge San Francisco, California , 1932
  56. 56. Ansel Adams , Thundercloud, Ellery Lake, High Sierra, California , 1934, gelatin silver print <ul><li>The picture we make is never made for us alone; it is, and should be a communication….To the complaint ‘There are no people in these photographs,’ I respond, There are always two people, the photographer and the viewer.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Ansel Adams </li></ul>Adams: Sierra Club photographer and activist
  57. 57. <ul><li>Ansel Adams, Lake and Cliffs, Sierra Nevada , 1932. Gsp. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Adams’s visual understanding came from being in tune with the changing nature of light and how it moves within the landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to record the visual sensations of a specific quality of light, at a precise location, and at an exact moment, Adams developed the Zone System in the late 1930s. </li></ul>Half Dome, Merced River , 1938
  59. 59. <ul><li>A zone represents the relationship of a subject’s brightness to its density in the negative and the corresponding tone in the final print. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams took the grayscale of a full-tone black-and-white print and refined it into eleven different zones. From Zone 0, maximum black, to Zone X, pure white. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams identified the zones with roman numerals to avoid confusion with other numerical combinations used in photography. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Each zone is the equivalent to one f/stop difference in subject brightness and negative exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>The zone system is designed to eliminate guesswork and give photographers repeatable control over their materials so that the outcome can be predicted (that is, previsualized). </li></ul><ul><li>- Hirsch, pp 246-248 </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>The Negative </li></ul><ul><li>The Negative explains the Zone System formulated by Adams and Fred Archer in 1939/40. The Negative covers all topics related to exposing and developing film within scope of the Zone System. </li></ul><ul><li>Topics in the book include discussions of philosophical viewpoint, pre-visualization, use of filters, pre-exposure, development modification, special techniques of film development, and darkroom technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Appendixes in the back have formulas for classic darkroom chemicals, film testing techniques, and much more. This is one of the finest technical books ever written about photography. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Ansel Adams , Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico , 1941, gsp. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Crocker Art Museum Sacramento </li></ul><ul><li>upcoming exhibition: </li></ul><ul><li>Yosemite 1938:  On the Trail with </li></ul><ul><li>Ansel Adams and Georgia O'Keeffe February 3 - May 6, 2007 </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Imogen Cunningham (American, 1883-1976), </li></ul><ul><li>(left) Self-Portrait, 1915, platinum print (Pictorialist) </li></ul><ul><li>(right) Two Callas , ca. 1929, gelatin silver print (Precisionist, f/64) </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Imogen Cunningham , Roi (Triangles ), 1927, gsp. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Imogen Cunningham, Triangles , 1928, gsp. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Imogen Cunningham Agave Design 2 , ca. 1930, gsp., f/64 Group </li></ul>
  68. 68. Chicago Institute of Design (I.D.) Formalist Photography “Disarmed Vision” influenced more by American photography and social situation than by “Armed” Russian and Weimar Formalist visions. Moholy-Nagy , Still from Light Display: Black-White-Gray, 1930 Imogen Cunningham , Agave, 1930
  69. 69. Harry Callahan (American 1912-1999) , Detroit , 1941, gelatin silver print, Chicago Institute of Design Callahan, deeply influenced by Ansel Adams, was hired by Moholy-Nagy to teach at the I.D. in 1946. “Calahan was as far removed from the machine-age ethic of Bauhaus photography as anybody possibly could be….The ‘interior shape of private expreienc’ coupled with a rigorous concern for formal values effectively constituted Callahan’s approach to photograpy, and this, more than any of Moholy’s theoretical formulations, constituted the mainstream of American art photography through the 1960s.” - Abigail Solomon-Godeau, “Armed Vision Disarmed”
  70. 70. Harry Callahan , Eleanor , 1947 and (right) Eleanor, Chicago , 1949 I.D. Formalism: A “Disarmed Vision”
  71. 71. (left) Aaron Siskind (American, 1903-1991) Jerome, Arizona , 1949, gelatin silver print , Chicago I.D. (right) Max Yavno (American, 1911-1985), Aaron Siskind, Old Yuma Jail (detail), 1947
  72. 72. (left) Aaron Siskind , Jerome, Arizona , 1949, gelatin silver print, Chicago I.D. & Abstract Expressionism (right) Franz Kline (American Abstract Expressionist Painter, 1910-1962), Siskind , oil on canvas,1959 American post-WW II formalism = “disarmed vision”
  73. 73. (left) Franz Kline , Palmerton, Pa., oil on canvas, 1941, Social Realism (right) Aaron Siskind , Boys Playing With Toy Swords, Harlem , New York , ca.1930-1940, Social Realism “ Armed Visions” before the “Disarmament” of post-WW II American art
  74. 74. <ul><li>American Documentary Photography </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression (1929 - c.1939) </li></ul><ul><li>The New Deal (1933 – 1938) </li></ul><ul><li>The Farm Security Administration (FSA) </li></ul><ul><li>“ What you’ve got are not photographers. </li></ul><ul><li>They’re a bunch of sociologists with cameras.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Ansel Adams </li></ul>
  75. 75. Walker Evans (American 1903 -1975), two of three photographs for the The Bridge by Hart Crane (1899-1932) 1930. Evan’s first publication and Crane’s major work, the book-length poem, The Bridge , expresses in ecstatic terms a vision of the historical and spiritual significance of America. Crane used the landscape of the modern, industrialized city to create a powerful new symbolic literature. Evans was hired by the FSA in 1935.
  76. 76. <ul><li>Walker Evans , Bethlehem, Pennsylvania , 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Evans believed in finding scenes and objects whose appearance implied a story or acted as a metaphor for an attitude toward life” </li></ul><ul><li>- Mary Warner Marien </li></ul>
  77. 77. Walker Evans , Hale County, Alabama (Allie Mae Burroughs) , 1936, from Let Us Now Praise Famous Men , by Walker Evans and James Agee, published in 1941, gelatin silver print Chronicle of the lives of three families of poor cotton-growing tenant farmers in Hale County, Alabama
  78. 78. Walker Evans , Subway Portrait, New York , 1938-41 One of series of anonymous New York subway passengers published in 1966 as Many Are Called
  79. 79. Dorothea Lange (American, 1895-1965), White Angel Bread Line , 1932 “The good photograph is not the object, the consequences of the photograph are the objects. So that no one would say, ’how did you do it, where did you find it, ‘ but they would say that such things could be.” - Dorothea Lange
  80. 80. Dorothea Lange , Ditched, Stalled, and Stranded, San Joaquin Valley, California , 1935 The Dust Bowl 1940 movie based on the novel by John Steinbeck, Grapes Of Wrath
  81. 81. Dorothea Lange , Migrant Mother , 1936
  82. 82. Reading: Paul Taylor, “Migrant Mother: 1936,” 1970
  83. 83. Caption : &quot;Nipomo, Calif. Mar. 1936. Migrant agricultural worker's family. Seven hungry children. Mother aged 32, the father is a native Californian. Destitute in a pea pickers camp, because of the failure of the early pea crop. These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Most of the 2,500 people in this camp were destitute.“ - Lange “ Armed Vision”
  84. 84. Lange immediately gave her photos to the San Francisco News. Migrant Mother was published anonymously in newspapers across the US.
  85. 85. Robert Frank (Swiss-born American Photographer, born in 1924), The Americans , 1955 Charleston, South Carolina Elevator - Miami Beach

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