Unified Learning Model is a model that how we learn. It is a resulting model for teaching and instruction. Even thought there are many theories on instruction and learning in the current literature, they are just containing limited model and theories on isolated specific aspect of learning and teaching. Also each theories has its own specific terms and principles, so these theories are not suitable for understanding universal interactions in teaching and learning.
Presenting clicker questions in the class also stimulates students’ attention to the important concepts. Also if used in a fashion where contents are linked together and constructed in a way that students learn from previous lectures as well as requiring students to think critically on the discussion topics will increase students’ deep understanding. Instructors could cover the most important and critical topics in the class time and in addition to in class activities, they can direct students to other additional information resources. Shortly in order to benefit best from clickers’ instructors should consider writing good questions and design and adapt the content flow accordingly to new system.
Designing a lesson using clicker is simple but it requires knowledge of designing a presentation with Power Point software. In order to pose a question in the classroom instructor should create a clicker slide. Some of the clicker systems in the market can be integrated with Power Point that allows creating - integrating clicker slides and recording students’ responses directly without any extra effort. The only thing instructor should worry about is reminding students to log-in in to clicker system and presenting the Power Point slides in the class. During the presentation, students’ responses recorded automatically and displayed very quickly (Draper et al., 2002). In this sense use of clickers in the classroom heavily depends on instructor facilitation. Additionally recorded data could be used to run complex calculations, trend analysis, and data modeling by using software provided by clicker companies or other third party products.
Clickers use a simple networking protocol to send a signal form student handset (transmitter) to instructors’ computer (via Receivers). Clickers handsets look like TV remote controls. Many clickers just support multiple-choice questions that require students to key the right answer. Some of the clickers have 10 digits to enter answer (Elliot, 2003) and some of the clickers also allows entering text data to send to instructor (Oder, 1997). In the classroom there should be some transmitters that gather signals when students click to a clicker and send them to instructors’ computer to be recorded via the clicker software. The transmitters work with radio-frequency (RF) or infrared. The physical attributes of classrooms are more important in the clicker case that may require some adjustments. Also it is suggested (Betty, 2004) to add bigger presentation screens with a good projector, wireless microphones and sound systems into these classrooms in order to fully benefit from these systems.
Pod casting allows instructors to upload lessons to a podcast web service that students can download to their iPods. Students can automatically follow podcast feeds for updates in content by using software called pod catcher. That will enable students to listen and learn the information on their phase, replaying the materials in order to have greater comprehension, creating a chance to review exact materials that the lecturer covers before exams and helping instructors to review their lessons to make further improvements (Gilroy, 2006). iPods allow students to have freedom to listen lesson materials downloading in any podcast form in order to prepare for their classes in anyplace and anytime they would like to. Use of additional microphone can also create their recordings in anyplace and anytime (Sathe & Waltje, 2008). In this sense podcast is not only a knowledge delivery it could be also used interactively as a reflection tool
Mobile technologies could facilitate collaboration and interaction, accessing, discovering, discussing, and sharing environmental information with use of SMS services (Cavus & Uzunboylu, 2008). There are some models of learning with mobile phones. These are a ‘Push’ model which allows the school or the teacher to send out messages to learners enrolled in a specific lesson , a 'Pull' system which enables learners to receive information using a menu system, an interactive system which enables learners receive questions then answer, receive feedback (Cavus & Uzunboylu, 2008). Most other usage of mobile phones includes short answering, ranking, matching, fill in blanks, true/false, multiple choice questions (Sharma & Miller, 2004; TxtTools, 2010). Additionally to these interactive benefits SMS can be used to alert students about a certain event or to announce specific facts.
Educational institutions also may run their free services in the campus but they should consider the costs. For example, in order to run SMS traffic, mobile operators should have a node in the network called SMS Center (SMSC) and this center could be a third party aggregator (provider) that could connect to other operators (Nix et.al., 2007). This also enables educational institutions to have their own service centers to run much cheaper than direct connections to operators. These kinds of aggregator are relatively easier to develop an application using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or HTTP protocol (http://www.w3.org/TR/soap/). This kind of implementing could reduce costs of ownership efforts and expertise requirement.
Instructional Potential of Clicker (response system),iPod (audio podcasting), and Mobile Phone (SMS) & Learning Theories. Dr. Bojan Lazarevic - Mount Saint Mary College. Newburgh, New York, USA. & Dr. Ilker Yengin - A*STAR, Institute of High Performance Computing Singapore, Singapore.
Choosing the Right Technologyhttp://www.unf.edu/cirt/edtech/clickers/Clickers.aspx 1
What Does Learning Theories Tell Us ?• The Unified Learning Model (ULM) 2
General Rules of Learning • Rule 1. New Learning Requires Attention: “Teaching and instruction are about getting learners to attend things”• Devices should be able to directing learners’ attention.• Asking questions is a good method to direct attention to a specific point. 3
General Rules of Learning • Rule 2. Learning Requires Repetition: “Teaching needs to include retrieving and for skills, practice”• Teachers should build statements in questions according to learners existing knowledge. This will lead retrieving previous knowledge of learning as well as using it in variety of situations. 4
General Rules of Learning • Rule 3. Learning Is About Connections: “Effective teaching and instruction are about insuring that learners are attending proper connections”• Teachers should give opportunity to test the validity of learners existing connections.• Analysis questions are good for this purpose. 5
General Rules of Learning • Rule 4. Some Learning is Effortless; Some Requires Effort: “Since school is about deliberately learning specific information and skills, learning in school will be difficult (needs effort)”.• In class interactions are important but not the only way of flexible discovery of knowledge. 6
General Rules of Learning • Rule 5. Learning is Learning: “At the level of neuron, human learning is human learning, the only difference comes from previous experiences. What we already know impacts what we can learn next or more• easily” The learner is unique in personality so we may build on his experiences to bring him a mastery level. (Personal learning).• It is important to keep track of learners activities (such as his responses into data base for further analysis) 7
What is a Clicker ?• A Personal Response System 8
Clickers Introduction to The Technology • Personal response systems • Instant assessment • Instant feedback • Increase engagement • Increase retention • Test students • Interactive discussionshttp://www.unf.edu/cirt/edtech/clickers/Clickers.aspx • Keep records of reposes • Take class attendance 9
Designing Lectures with Clickers• Usually teachers design slides such as Power Point.• Pose questions• Record students responses• Depends on instructor facilitation• Trend analysis are also available 10
Equipment RequirementsNetwork: Classroom Settings:• Simple signaling (like TV • Receivers remotes). • Handsets• Radio or infrared • Projector • Computer to run software • Mic. And speakers (optional) 11
Clickers Comparison to Other TechnologiesMobile Phone I-Pod• Increase the active • Collaboration and participation cooperation in some cases.• Instant feedback • True mobile and distance• Support on demand learning. applications• Collaboration and cooperation• Support two way interaction.• True mobile and distance learning. 12
Clickers Unique Benefits and Advantages• Physical face-to-face interaction• No the telepresence• Increase students’ attention• Focus to the specific topic discussed• Higher engagement 13
Clickers Disadvantages and Challenges• Not flexible in terms of mobility and freedom• Without clicker software NO benefit for the interaction• Registration problems• Technical problems• Inadequate classroom physical structures• Students can change their clickers• Students can forget to bring their clickers• Requires re-design for existing course materials 14
Clickers Social and Economical Values – ImpactsCons Pros• Buy certain textbooks from • Receivers + transmitters are certain publishers• Impossible to modify software cheap functions • Creates a social community• Not aimed for cross - platforms• Could lead to requiring students oriented learning to buy different clickers for environment different courses.• Not a usual daily used technology • Becoming another popular . trend• Poor adoption and acceptance• Scalability, portability and re- usability of this system is very low . 15
Designing Lectures with Clickers• Podcasting Design• Anyplace and anytime access to lesson material.• Students also record their own materials using additional mic. 16
Equipment RequirementsNetwork: Classroom Settings:• Internet connection to • Can be used outside of deliver – receive the the classroom . contents. • In classroom it would• RSS requirements be nice to have• Server to upload files computers to download content. • Charging stations. • Additional mic. 17
What is an iPod• A portable media player• Stores and plays digital media (audio, images, video, documents, etc.). 18
iPods Introduction to The Technology • Podcasting • RSS (really simple syndication) • Listeners should download audio content • Deliver lessons and voice recording 19
iPods Comparison to Other TechnologiesMobile Phone Clickers• Access the content anywhere • Collaboration and• No Dependence on other cooperation in some cases. technology• TRUE on demand applications• Receive updates automatically• Support TWO way interaction.• True mobile and distance learning. 20
iPods Unique Benefits and Advantages• Ease of use• Cheap – easy production• Cheap-easy installation of the systems• Scalable• NO reading in a small screen <> listen the content anywhere 21
iPods Disadvantages and Challenges• Not good IF noise in the environment• Hard to focus on listening• Background noise while recoding• A chance for lazy students• Challenging maintenance• Transferring audio files• Issues of compatibility between operating systems and iTunes software .• Uploading the files for podcasting• Managing RSS• Recording voice to iPod• Send files to the instructor• Requires re-design for existing course materials into audio 22
iPods Social and Economical Values – ImpactsCons Pros• Lack of F2F Communication • Production and delivery is• Technical problems for really cheap . production and usage. • FTP and server • IPod is a very popular device all over the world • Effective use of free and wasted time of students time • Teacher owns the content • A social tool. 23
What is a Mobile Phone (Not a Smart Phone) ?• Can make and receive telephone calls and send and receive short text messages using radio link around a wide geographic area. 24
What is a SMS ?• A short message services (SMS) any-time and anywhere a mobile technology .• Sending and receiving text messages using global or local network-based infrastructures.• Generally 160 characters long. 25
Mobile Phones Introduction to The Technology • SMS • On demand, any-time and anywhere • Not a new concept • Most of the countries and universities already have the network infrastructure. 26
Designing Lectures with Mobile Phones• ‘Push’ model allows the school or the teacher to send out messages to learners enrolled in a specific lesson.• ‘Pull’ system enables learners to receive information using a menu system.• Capable for short answering, ranking, matching, fill in blanks, true/false, multiple choice questions 27
Equipment RequirementsNetwork: Classroom Settings:• Mobile network service • SMS server that can providers. host a database• In-Campus aggregators. 28
Mobile Phones Comparison to Other TechnologiesiPod Clickers• No fixed location or time • Collaboration and• No Dependence on other cooperation. technology • Engage in discussions• Receive updates automatically• True mobile and distance learning. 29
Mobile Phones Unique Benefits and Advantages• True on DEMAND• Capacity of storing information and received texts in SIM cards .• Receive information and feedback on real time and on demand• A daily technology• Easy to use and adapt• Scalable• Two way technology• Support different platforms applications (mobile to mobile, computer to mobile etc.) 30
Mobile Phones Disadvantages and Challenges• SMS spam• Small screen sizes and small keypads• Costly to install and maintain 31
Mobile Phones Social and Economical Values – ImpactsCons Pros• Costs depended to mobile • Free services in the campus phone service providers. • No need to investigate on a• Ownership and service new technology. installation for some • Scalable applications may be costly. • Wide all over the world • Students already own mobile phones. • Teacher owns the content. • A social tool. 32
The Winner !!!http://www.unf.edu/cirt/edtech/clickers/Clickers.aspx 33
Conclusion - Mobile Phones Superiorities• Fulfills the functions of clickers and iPod (via texts rather than audio)• Instantly on demand• Two way interaction is supported totally by mobile• Access the network anywhere in the world• More global and flexibile• Is not dependent on one company <>getting a monopoly is reduced 34
Conclusion - Mobile Phones Superiorities• More open systems than clickers and ipod in terms of developing different kinds of models and projects for education• Do not have any dependencies other than service provider• Nearly every students own one• Mobile phone and SMS is easier to use• Daily technology• Learnability and adaptation of technology is much greater 35
Questions !Please call me (MR.CAT) or send SMS. at (402) CAT HELP 36