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Content Modelling for Personalization
Cleve Gibbon
Kate Kenyon
Confab Intensive 2016
Hello, we’re pleased to meet you
Cleve Gibbon
‘70s – hyperactive child to nightshift nurses
‘80s – designer, come gamer, and console hacker
‘90s – student,...
Kate Kenyon
‘80s – bookish child of an IT dev and a PM
‘90s – linguist, magazine writer
‘00s – marketer, journalist, CMS w...
Here’s the plan for today
What we will cover
• Content modeling: what is it, why do it, and what you’ll get out it
• How to define and draw up a mod...
A timeline
Introduction &
Content Modeling
overview
How to model
content
Content models &
Relationships
Coffee!
Personaliz...
The future of digital marketing. London . Poznań, New York
Clerkenwell House, 67 Clerkenwell Road, London, United Kingdom ...
The future of digital marketing. London . Poznań, New York
Clerkenwell House, 67 Clerkenwell Road, London, United Kingdom ...
Content Modeling: what and why
Content Modeling: it’s part of better content
This is where
content modeling
fits within your
overall content
ecosystem
The goal: deliver content-centered experiences
Plan, manage, publish and optimise content
in a predictable, repeatable and...
What do you get from model content?
enhance
author experience
shared
language
content
modelling
build
x-discipline teams
A...
Content architecture
Content
Context Users
Content
Wireframes, Blueprints
Metadata, Taxonomy, Thesauri
Labelling, Navigati...
What can you do with modular
content?
Single Souce, Multi Channel Content
Don't get set into one form.
Adapt it and build your own, and let it grow, be like wat...
The future of digital marketing. London . Poznań, New York
Clerkenwell House, 67 Clerkenwell Road, London, United Kingdom ...
Responsive Design
http://mediaqueri.es/
Content modelling is critical to continuously communicating
the structure and meaning of content to and from designers.
Co...
Effective Production
Content modelling provides early and continuous access
to content structure to define and design
the best experience for e...
Personalization
http://www.point6.co.uk/2015/01/22/packaging-design-trends-2015-part-3-personalisation/
Content modeling is critical to creating scaleable content that
is personalized for individual audience
Content
Model
User...
Summary of benefits
• Single source Multi Channel content uses the model to make
content flow like water.
• Responsive des...
Let’s take a look at a content model
A content model is a formal representation of content
as a collection of content types and their inter-
relationships.
Chart Song
Album Page
Artist Profile
A content type is an information asset. It
is an abstraction that captures the
essential characteristics (attributes) of
c...
Content items
Event
name
logo
organiser
startDate
endDate
Content ItemContent Type
Instantiate
Event
name
logo
organiser
s...
Model summary
• Content models are formal representations of structured content.
• Content models should be simple, clear ...
Making the model
Making the model
Mine and define!
Content Types
Movie Series
Episode MemberReview
title
duration
synopsis
cast
director
starring
genres
moods
keywords
longDescription
aud...
Our ‘Netflix’ Content Types
Mined out the content types.
Defined attributes for content types.
Now before we think…
• Auth...
Content relationships
A content model is a formal representation of
structured content as a collection of content types
and their inter-relation...
Design time: relationships
A content type is an information asset. It is an abstraction that
captures the essential charac...
Event
name
logo
summary
organiser
startDate
endDate
name
logo
description
address
capacity
cost
Venue
What is my
relations...
Event
name
logo
summary
organiser
startDate
endDate
name
logo
description
address
capacity
cost
Venue
Dependency
Relations...
Event
name
logo
summary
organiser
startDate
endDate
name
logo
description
address
capacity
cost
Venue
Dependency
Relations...
Event
name
logo
summary
organiser
startDate
endDate
name
logo
description
address
capacity
cost
Venue
Whole / Part
Relatio...
Event
name
logo
summary
organiser
startDate
endDate
name
logo
description
address
capacity
cost
Venue
Aggregation
Relation...
Cardinality
Event Venue
1 *
For every event,
there are zero or more venues
Expresses the number of
content items that can
...
Cardinality Examples
Cardinality Alternative Description
0..0 0 Zero content items
0..1 Zero or one content items
1..1 1 E...
Cardinality Examples
Event Venue
1 0..1
Event Venue
1 *
Event Venue1 5
Event Venue
0..1 *
An event can have an unlimited n...
More Cardinality Examples
Event Venue
1 1
Event Venue1 1..7
Every event has exactly one venue An event can have between 1 ...
Content relationships summary
We have three relationships:
• Dependency
• Whole/Part
• Aggregation
Each relationship:
• Gi...
Content models and relationships
Member
Review
EpisodeSeriesMovie
movieReviews
related seriesEpisodes
seriesReviews
Strengthen relationships
Where appropriate, turn dependency
relationships into either:
1. Whole/Part Relationships
2. Aggr...
Member
Review
EpisodeSeriesMovie
*
movieReviews
related seriesEpisodes
seriesReviews
Cardinality
Add cardinality
to the relationships
Content Type
A
Content Type
B
1 Whole Many Parts
*
Member
Review
EpisodeSeriesMovie
* *
** *
movieReviews
related seriesEpisodes
seriesReviews
Our ‘Netflix’ Content model
1) Mined out the content types
2) Defined attributes for content types
3) Refined relationship...
And remember…
…No model survives first contact with real content.
http://www.clevegibbon.com/2013/09/no-model-survives-fir...
Coffee!
Coffee break time!
Personalisation
Mutually beneficial connections
Personalisation: an invitation to connect, not a demand
Personalisation isn’t about abuse of information
When to do personalisation
There is a clear, identified need amongst users for it
• Diverse audiences with distinct conten...
Identifying customers
Persona-based approach
Where two or more audience personas are accessing the same piece of content,
...
Personalisation: data mining
How much can you do?
Received data
http://www.houseofkaizen.com/conversion-rate-optimisation/services/content-personalisation/
Collected data
Given data
Building a data model in Netflix
Netflix: received data
Netflix: collected data
Personal details: name, address, billing details
Account details:
• length of membership
• frequen...
Netflix: given data
Netflix: given data
Netflix: given data
Using personal data
in the Netflix model
How do we use that data?
ME
Me, expressed as data
Netflix member
name
address
billingDetails
membershipStartDate
membershipFrequency
membershipDevices...
The future of digital marketing. London . Poznań, New York
Clerkenwell House, 67 Clerkenwell Road, London, United Kingdom ...
Personalizing the Netflix content model:
results
   
…but it’s not perfect
Netflix: you already know what I watched!
And what if I want to choose by actor?
Using a model for personalisation
Netflix User Task – the personalisation rationale
“I want to find a film or TV show that I
will enjoy that I haven’t seen ...
Movie Series
cast
director
starring
genres
moods
keywords
longDescription
audio
subtitles
movieReviews
netflixProduction
t...
If memberComplete = yes, then DON’T SHOW IN FEED!
Netflix User Task – the personalisation rationale
“I want to find a new film or TV show
based on my favourite actors”
Search by actor
An Actor content type
Actor
name
image
bio
isinMovies
isinSeries
isinEpisodes
Movie Series
cast
director
starring
genres
moods
keywords
longDescription
audio
subtitles
movieReviews
netflixProduction
t...
! Stop, think – where are you going to get the data?
Don’t model
with data you
don’t have
Movie Series
cast
director
starring
genres
moods
keywords
longDescription
audio
subtitles
movieReviews
netflixProduction
t...
A formula for fans
IF Movies OR Series where (memberCompleted = yes AND starring =
actor name X) >=3 instances
THEN show M...
Personalisation: your turn!
What would you do to make Netflix more personal to you?
Steps to take
1. Define a user goal – why use personalization?
2. Consider your model – what have data and content have
yo...
Use the data sets and the
content model to extend
Netflix’s content
personalization.
Work with your neighbours to
help use...
How did you do?
That’s a wrap
cleve.gibbon@cognifide.com
kate.kenyon@cognifide.com
Content Modelling for
Personalisation
content modelling for personalization
content modelling for personalization
content modelling for personalization
content modelling for personalization
content modelling for personalization
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Content Modelling for Personalisation at Confab Intensive 2016 with Cleve Gibbon and Kate Kenyon

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content modelling for personalization

  1. 1. Content Modelling for Personalization Cleve Gibbon Kate Kenyon Confab Intensive 2016
  2. 2. Hello, we’re pleased to meet you
  3. 3. Cleve Gibbon ‘70s – hyperactive child to nightshift nurses ‘80s – designer, come gamer, and console hacker ‘90s – student, lecturer, modeler and UI developer ‘00s – platform developer / architect building trading & platforms ‘10s – consultant in content, platforms, experience management to operationalise client promises I work equally across the business, content and technology to create engaging platforms to better serve our customers
  4. 4. Kate Kenyon ‘80s – bookish child of an IT dev and a PM ‘90s – linguist, magazine writer ‘00s – marketer, journalist, CMS wrangler, technologist, content strategist Today, I work across content and technology to help businesses make content a genuine asset.
  5. 5. Here’s the plan for today
  6. 6. What we will cover • Content modeling: what is it, why do it, and what you’ll get out it • How to define and draw up a model • How to approach personalization • How to use a content model to plan and manage personalization
  7. 7. A timeline Introduction & Content Modeling overview How to model content Content models & Relationships Coffee! Personalization Modeling & Personalization 15 mins 30 mins 45 mins 15mins 30 mins 30 mins Q&A 15 mins Thank you to Shutterstock
  8. 8. The future of digital marketing. London . Poznań, New York Clerkenwell House, 67 Clerkenwell Road, London, United Kingdom +44 (0)20 3475 7200 Use the Parking Lot
  9. 9. The future of digital marketing. London . Poznań, New York Clerkenwell House, 67 Clerkenwell Road, London, United Kingdom +44 (0)20 3475 7200 To better understand how to approach structured content and personalisation.
  10. 10. Content Modeling: what and why
  11. 11. Content Modeling: it’s part of better content This is where content modeling fits within your overall content ecosystem
  12. 12. The goal: deliver content-centered experiences Plan, manage, publish and optimise content in a predictable, repeatable and scalable manner to deliver contextually relevant, personalised experiences. WhatHow Why
  13. 13. What do you get from model content? enhance author experience shared language content modelling build x-discipline teams APIs for access define structure add meaning Align Thinking better manage content (CMS) … http://www.slideshare.net/cleveg/why-content-model
  14. 14. Content architecture Content Context Users Content Wireframes, Blueprints Metadata, Taxonomy, Thesauri Labelling, Navigation, Search Content Inventories & Mapping Content Models, Author Experience, Workflow Structured, Reusable & Personalised Content Content Administration, Asset Organisation Role-Based Content, Permissions Content Scale, Storage, Analytics MIND THE GAPFILL THAT GAPWITH CONTENT, UX AND TECHNOLOGY PEOPLE Information Architecture Content Architecture
  15. 15. What can you do with modular content?
  16. 16. Single Souce, Multi Channel Content Don't get set into one form. Adapt it and build your own, and let it grow, be like water. Empty your mind, be formless, shapeless — like water. Now you put water in a cup, it becomes the cup; You put water into a bottle it becomes the bottle; You put it in a teapot it becomes the teapot. Now water can flow or it can crash. Be water, my friend. Bruce Lee: A Warrior’s Journey (2000)
  17. 17. The future of digital marketing. London . Poznań, New York Clerkenwell House, 67 Clerkenwell Road, London, United Kingdom +44 (0)20 3475 7200 Raw Self Describing Modular Content modelling enables content to be transformed and transported to everywhere it needs to be.
  18. 18. Responsive Design http://mediaqueri.es/
  19. 19. Content modelling is critical to continuously communicating the structure and meaning of content to and from designers. Content Model Web Developer Content Modeller Visual Designer CMS Engineer
  20. 20. Effective Production
  21. 21. Content modelling provides early and continuous access to content structure to define and design the best experience for effective production of great content. Structured Content Content Model Authoring Interfaces understands creates
  22. 22. Personalization http://www.point6.co.uk/2015/01/22/packaging-design-trends-2015-part-3-personalisation/
  23. 23. Content modeling is critical to creating scaleable content that is personalized for individual audience Content Model User group 1 User group 4 User group 2 User group 3
  24. 24. Summary of benefits • Single source Multi Channel content uses the model to make content flow like water. • Responsive design uses it to best display within multiple devices. • Author enhanced interfaces use it to produce content efffectively. • Personalization uses it to make a direct connection to customers.
  25. 25. Let’s take a look at a content model
  26. 26. A content model is a formal representation of content as a collection of content types and their inter- relationships.
  27. 27. Chart Song Album Page Artist Profile
  28. 28. A content type is an information asset. It is an abstraction that captures the essential characteristics (attributes) of content that distinguish it from all other kinds of content. An attribute is a property of a content type. For example, the content type Person may have three attributes, age, name, and title. Collectively, the attributes define what a content type is. Event name logo summary organiser startDate endDate Content types and attributes
  29. 29. Content items Event name logo organiser startDate endDate Content ItemContent Type Instantiate Event name logo organiser startDate endDate Copy Structure Event name logo organiser startDate endDate TheOlympics JPEG IOC 5th Aug, 2016 21st Aug, 2016 Assign Values Event: Summer Olympics name logo organiser startDate endDate TheOlympics JPEG IOC 5th Aug, 2016 21st Aug, 2016 Assign Name
  30. 30. Model summary • Content models are formal representations of structured content. • Content models should be simple, clear and relevant. • Content models are the result of content modelling.
  31. 31. Making the model
  32. 32. Making the model
  33. 33. Mine and define! Content Types
  34. 34. Movie Series Episode MemberReview title duration synopsis cast director starring genres moods keywords longDescription audio subtitles movieReviews netflixProduction title year duration synopsis imageTeaser maturityRating memberRating cast director starring genres moods keywords longDescription seriesEpisodes audio subtitles seriesReviews netflixProduction title year duration synopsis imageTeaser maturityRating memberRating season sequence imageTeaser rating description reviewAsset feedback
  35. 35. Our ‘Netflix’ Content Types Mined out the content types. Defined attributes for content types. Now before we think… • Author Experience • Adaptive Content • Responsive Design • Content APIs • Personalization SeriesMovie Episode MemberReview Let’s talk Relationships
  36. 36. Content relationships
  37. 37. A content model is a formal representation of structured content as a collection of content types and their inter-relationships.
  38. 38. Design time: relationships A content type is an information asset. It is an abstraction that captures the essential characteristics (attributes) of content that distinguish it from all other kinds of content. An attribute is a property of a content type. For example, the content type Person may have three attributes, age, name, and title. Collectively, the attributes define what a content type is. A relationship defines how one content type relates to another. There are many different types of relationship (e.g. whole-part) depending on the level of detail. Event Venue name logo description address capacity cost name logo summary organiser startDate endDate
  39. 39. Event name logo summary organiser startDate endDate name logo description address capacity cost Venue What is my relationship to Venue? What is my relationship to Event? Let’s figure it out. We’re both adults here.
  40. 40. Event name logo summary organiser startDate endDate name logo description address capacity cost Venue Dependency Relationship • Express a connection • Weak Semantics
  41. 41. Event name logo summary organiser startDate endDate name logo description address capacity cost Venue Dependency Relationship • Express a connection • Weak Semantics • Name it eventVenue
  42. 42. Event name logo summary organiser startDate endDate name logo description address capacity cost Venue Whole / Part Relationship • Strong semantics • A declaration of ownership • Binds together lifecycle eventVenue Whole • Owns the part • Venue is a part of Event • When the Event is destroyed, so too is the Venue Part • Owned by the Whole • Venue does not make sense without an Event • No Event. No Venue.
  43. 43. Event name logo summary organiser startDate endDate name logo description address capacity cost Venue Aggregation Relationship • Strong semantics • A declaration of shared access • Lifecycle is not bound eventVenue Composite • Accesses the part • Venue is a part of Event • When the Event is destroyed, the Venue lives on Part • Accessed by the Composite • Venue makes sense outside of an Event • Venue can be part of multiple Events
  44. 44. Cardinality Event Venue 1 * For every event, there are zero or more venues Expresses the number of content items that can participate in a relationship between content types
  45. 45. Cardinality Examples Cardinality Alternative Description 0..0 0 Zero content items 0..1 Zero or one content items 1..1 1 Exactly one content item 0..* * Zero or more content items 1..* At least one content item 5..5 5 Exactly 5 content items m..n At least m but no more than n instances
  46. 46. Cardinality Examples Event Venue 1 0..1 Event Venue 1 * Event Venue1 5 Event Venue 0..1 * An event can have an unlimited number of venues Every event has exactly five venues An event can have unlimited venues, And an venue is linked to at most one event An event may or may not have a venue, but at most one
  47. 47. More Cardinality Examples Event Venue 1 1 Event Venue1 1..7 Every event has exactly one venue An event can have between 1 and 7 venues
  48. 48. Content relationships summary We have three relationships: • Dependency • Whole/Part • Aggregation Each relationship: • Give it a name, if required • Add cardinality, if required
  49. 49. Content models and relationships
  50. 50. Member Review EpisodeSeriesMovie movieReviews related seriesEpisodes seriesReviews
  51. 51. Strengthen relationships Where appropriate, turn dependency relationships into either: 1. Whole/Part Relationships 2. Aggregation Relationships Content Type A Content Type B Whole/Part Relationship Content Type A Content Type B Aggregation Relationship
  52. 52. Member Review EpisodeSeriesMovie * movieReviews related seriesEpisodes seriesReviews
  53. 53. Cardinality Add cardinality to the relationships Content Type A Content Type B 1 Whole Many Parts *
  54. 54. Member Review EpisodeSeriesMovie * * ** * movieReviews related seriesEpisodes seriesReviews
  55. 55. Our ‘Netflix’ Content model 1) Mined out the content types 2) Defined attributes for content types 3) Refined relationships between content types Now think… • Author Experience • Adaptive Content • Responsive Design • Personalisation
  56. 56. And remember… …No model survives first contact with real content. http://www.clevegibbon.com/2013/09/no-model-survives-first-contact-with-real-content/
  57. 57. Coffee! Coffee break time!
  58. 58. Personalisation
  59. 59. Mutually beneficial connections
  60. 60. Personalisation: an invitation to connect, not a demand
  61. 61. Personalisation isn’t about abuse of information
  62. 62. When to do personalisation There is a clear, identified need amongst users for it • Diverse audiences with distinct content needs • Large number of similar products/content elements • Repeat customers who need to see their history • When recognition and loyalty is a clear part of the customer experience
  63. 63. Identifying customers Persona-based approach Where two or more audience personas are accessing the same piece of content, looking for difference elements of information Tasks-based approach Where a key customer task has an outcome that is subject to their own personal taste or preference
  64. 64. Personalisation: data mining
  65. 65. How much can you do?
  66. 66. Received data http://www.houseofkaizen.com/conversion-rate-optimisation/services/content-personalisation/
  67. 67. Collected data
  68. 68. Given data
  69. 69. Building a data model in Netflix
  70. 70. Netflix: received data
  71. 71. Netflix: collected data Personal details: name, address, billing details Account details: • length of membership • frequency of use • what you watched • what day and time you watched • how much of it you watched • device(s) used
  72. 72. Netflix: given data
  73. 73. Netflix: given data
  74. 74. Netflix: given data
  75. 75. Using personal data in the Netflix model
  76. 76. How do we use that data? ME
  77. 77. Me, expressed as data Netflix member name address billingDetails membershipStartDate membershipFrequency membershipDevices genresPreferences moodPreferences memberWatched Collected data Received data Given data
  78. 78. The future of digital marketing. London . Poznań, New York Clerkenwell House, 67 Clerkenwell Road, London, United Kingdom +44 (0)20 3475 7200 memberReviews * Member reviews EpisodeSeriesMovie * * * * related seriesEpisodes memberReviews Member * * memberWatched memberReviews memberWatched
  79. 79. Personalizing the Netflix content model: results
  80. 80.    
  81. 81. …but it’s not perfect
  82. 82. Netflix: you already know what I watched!
  83. 83. And what if I want to choose by actor?
  84. 84. Using a model for personalisation
  85. 85. Netflix User Task – the personalisation rationale “I want to find a film or TV show that I will enjoy that I haven’t seen before”
  86. 86. Movie Series cast director starring genres moods keywords longDescription audio subtitles movieReviews netflixProduction title year duration synopsis imageTeaser maturityRating memberRating cast director starring genres moods keywords longDescription seriesEpisodes audio subtitles seriesReviews netflixProduction title year duration synopsis imageTeaser maturityRating memberRating Episode title duration synopsis season sequence imageTeaser MemberReview rating description reviewAsset feedback Netflix member name address billingDetails membershipStartDate membershipFrequency membershipDevices genresPreferences moodPreferences memberWatched memberComplete
  87. 87. If memberComplete = yes, then DON’T SHOW IN FEED!
  88. 88. Netflix User Task – the personalisation rationale “I want to find a new film or TV show based on my favourite actors”
  89. 89. Search by actor
  90. 90. An Actor content type Actor name image bio isinMovies isinSeries isinEpisodes
  91. 91. Movie Series cast director starring genres moods keywords longDescription audio subtitles movieReviews netflixProduction title year duration synopsis imageTeaser maturityRating memberRating cast director starring genres moods keywords longDescription seriesEpisodes audio subtitles seriesReviews netflixProduction title year duration synopsis imageTeaser maturityRating memberRating Episode title duration synopsis season sequence imageTeaser MemberReview rating description reviewAsset feedback Netflix member name address billingDetails membershipStartDate membershipFrequency membershipDevices actorPreferences genresPreferences moodPreferences memberWatched memberComplete
  92. 92. ! Stop, think – where are you going to get the data? Don’t model with data you don’t have
  93. 93. Movie Series cast director starring genres moods keywords longDescription audio subtitles movieReviews netflixProduction title year duration synopsis imageTeaser maturityRating memberRating cast director starring genres moods keywords longDescription seriesEpisodes audio subtitles seriesReviews netflixProduction title year duration synopsis imageTeaser maturityRating memberRating Episode title duration synopsis season sequence imageTeaser MemberReview rating description reviewAsset feedback Netflix member name address billingDetails membershipStartDate membershipFrequency membershipDevices genresPreferences moodPreferences memberWatched memberComplete
  94. 94. A formula for fans IF Movies OR Series where (memberCompleted = yes AND starring = actor name X) >=3 instances THEN show Movies OR Series where (memberCompleted = no AND starring = actor name)
  95. 95. Personalisation: your turn!
  96. 96. What would you do to make Netflix more personal to you?
  97. 97. Steps to take 1. Define a user goal – why use personalization? 2. Consider your model – what have data and content have you got? 3. Consider your options: – Use the existing model? – Extend the existing model? – Add to the existing model?
  98. 98. Use the data sets and the content model to extend Netflix’s content personalization. Work with your neighbours to help users improve their Netflix experience 30 Mins An exercise
  99. 99. How did you do?
  100. 100. That’s a wrap
  101. 101. cleve.gibbon@cognifide.com kate.kenyon@cognifide.com Content Modelling for Personalisation

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