Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pedagogic principles of blended language learning

6,840 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology

Pedagogic principles of blended language learning

  1. 1. Six Principles for Success with Blended LearningIATEFL Chile Conference 2012Cleve Miller - English360
  2. 2. AgendaOne contextTwo problemsFive principles
  3. 3. AgendaOne context for technology and ELTTwo problemsFive principles
  4. 4. AgendaOne context for technology and ELTTwo problems that are slowing progressFive principles
  5. 5. AgendaOne context for technology and ELTTwo problems that are slowing progressFive principles that can help guide the way
  6. 6. cleve@english360.comwww.english360.com/blogtwitter: cleve360
  7. 7. AgendaOne context for technology and ELTTwo problems that are slowing progressFive principles that can help guide the way
  8. 8. Content from the cloud...
  9. 9. ...delivered through a range of mobile devices,
  10. 10. ...ubiquitous,
  11. 11. personalised for each learner...
  12. 12. ...adaptive,
  13. 13. ...and social.
  14. 14. So, personalized, adaptive, and social, withubiquitous cloud-to-mobile delivery.How are these trends being implementedin blended learning programs?
  15. 15. Time Place
  16. 16. Time together apart Place
  17. 17. asynchronousTime synchronous together apart Place
  18. 18. asynchronousTime (classroom) synchronous together apart Place
  19. 19. asynchronousTime (classroom) synchronous IWB projector Ss mobile together apart Place
  20. 20. asynchronousTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB projector Ss mobile together apart Place
  21. 21. asynchronousTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
  22. 22. (computer) asynchronousTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
  23. 23. (computer) asynchronous forums wikis tasks, drillsTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
  24. 24. (computer) asynchronous language lab forums wikis tasks, drillsTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
  25. 25. “blended learning” (computer) asynchronous language lab forums wikis tasks, drillsTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
  26. 26. What is blended learning?“Blended, blended, the future is blended.”
  27. 27. What is blended learning?“Blended, blended, the future is blended.” Combination of: in-class (F2F, synchronous) + out-of-class (online, asynchronous)
  28. 28. What is blended learning?“Blended, blended, the future is blended.” Combination of: in-class (F2F, synchronous) + out-of-class (online, asynchronous) typically organized in a Learning Management System (LMS) or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
  29. 29. Benefits of technology
  30. 30. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching
  31. 31. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching Collapse of time and space
  32. 32. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching Collapse of time and space Hyper-personalisation
  33. 33. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching Collapse of time and space Hyper-personalisation “big data”
  34. 34. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching Collapse of time and space Hyper-personalisation “big data” Student focus / UGC
  35. 35. A 2-minute history of the web(and how it effects us as teachers)
  36. 36. The old web is aThe old web is a pipe. pipe.
  37. 37. What is the “old web” relationship?Top-down, expert-created, static, passively consumed
  38. 38. The new web is a platform....where we all work together to create, share, discuss, learn.
  39. 39. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
  40. 40. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
  41. 41. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
  42. 42. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
  43. 43. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
  44. 44. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
  45. 45. Active users: new skills for teachersWeb apps today support creativity: “teacher as DJ” Source: Jamie Keddie 11/6/09
  46. 46. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENT
  47. 47. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward Traditional Technology-supportedTOP DOWN BOTTOM UP model model SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENT
  48. 48. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward Traditional Technology-supportedTOP DOWN BOTTOM UP model model SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENTreliable, validated pedagogic qualityeasy to use, saves timequality production
  49. 49. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward Traditional Technology-supportedTOP DOWN BOTTOM UP model model SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENTreliable, validated pedagogic quality fast, up-to-date, and inexpensiveeasy to use, saves time closer fit to language, culture, student needsquality production integration with content areas
  50. 50. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward Traditional Technology-supportedTOP DOWN BOTTOM UP model model SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENTreliable, validated pedagogic quality fast, up-to-date, and inexpensiveeasy to use, saves time closer fit to language, culture, student needsquality production integration with content areas Open platforms allow teachers to move along this continuum to fit learner needs (i.e. specificity).
  51. 51. Principle 1: how tech improves teaching
  52. 52. Principle 1: how tech improves teachingWhen possible, always leverage technology to enable “web 2.0”,bottom-up, student-centered, user-generated content / output.
  53. 53. Principle 1: how tech improves teachingWhen possible, always leverage technology to enable “web 2.0”,bottom-up, student-centered, user-generated content / output.
  54. 54. Principle 1: how tech improves teachingWhen possible, always leverage technology to enable “web 2.0”,bottom-up, student-centered, user-generated content / output. “It’s not about the technology, it’s about the learner” - Valentina Dodge
  55. 55. AgendaOne context for technology and ESPTwo problems that are slowing progressThree principles that can help guide the way
  56. 56. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTphoto by Marcelo Duarte, CC Flickr
  57. 57. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Reason #2photo by Marcelo Duarte, CC Flickr
  58. 58. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Humans resist changeReason #2photo by Marcelo Duarte, CC Flickr
  59. 59. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELT Everett Rogers, from his book Diffusion of Innovation
  60. 60. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Humans resist changeReason #2
  61. 61. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Humans resist changeReason #2It’s new. We are not sure what weare doing yet.
  62. 62. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Humans resist changeReason #2It’s new. We are not sure what weare doing yet.Little dissemination of best practices: toomuch “what” and not enough “how”....
  63. 63. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT
  64. 64. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT1. Tools
  65. 65. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT1. Tools2. Techniques
  66. 66. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT1. Tools2. Techniques3. Traction
  67. 67. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT1. Tools2. Techniques3. Traction
  68. 68. AgendaOne context for technology and ESPTwo problems that are slowing progressFive principles that can help guide the way
  69. 69. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis
  70. 70. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level
  71. 71. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level
  72. 72. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
  73. 73. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
  74. 74. Blended task design: definition of “task”“...a broader and higher order process than “step, “activity”or “technology” used in the lesson. Thus it may take a mix ofseveral steps online and F2F to achieve a task.” Gruba, Hinkelman 2012
  75. 75. “Blended task” design: definition“...a broader and higher order process than “step, “activity”or “technology” used in the lesson. Thus it may take a mix ofseveral steps online and F2F to achieve a task.” Gruba, Hinkelman 2012 “...includes subtasks that move back and forth between online and face-to-face venues.” Hinkelman 2005
  76. 76. “blended learning” (computer) asynchronous language lab (?) forums wikis input, drillsTime (computer) synchronous (classroom) phone / skype chat web conference together apart Place
  77. 77. Principle 2: blended task design
  78. 78. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online.
  79. 79. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning
  80. 80. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning Online receptive skills, remedial work, drills, writing, reflection, focus on form
  81. 81. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning Online receptive skills, remedial work, drills, writing, reflection, focus on form •Blended learning supports a dogme classroom
  82. 82. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning Online receptive skills, remedial work, drills, writing, reflection, focus on form •Blended learning supports a dogme classroom •It’s not about the technology, it’s about the learner
  83. 83. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning Online receptive skills, remedial work, drills, writing, reflection, focus on form •Blended learning supports a dogme classroom •It’s not about the technology, it’s about the learner •Tech-enabled flipped classrooms humanise
  84. 84. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
  85. 85. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
  86. 86. Principle 3: blended course design
  87. 87. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus.
  88. 88. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus. Dual track Integrated
  89. 89. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus. Dual track Integrated F2F online
  90. 90. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus. Dual track Integrated F2F online F2F online
  91. 91. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus. Dual track Integrated F2F online F2F online
  92. 92. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus.Dual track IntegratedF2F online F2F online
  93. 93. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus.Dual track Integrated IntegratedF2F online F2F online F2F online
  94. 94. Case study #1
  95. 95. Case study on course design: LTC
  96. 96. Case study on course design: LTCUses range of dual track and integrated
  97. 97. Course design: dual track and integrated
  98. 98. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers
  99. 99. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components
  100. 100. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components• Digital component is Business Benchmark workbook, some coursebook content, plus 25% customized content
  101. 101. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components• Digital component is Business Benchmark workbook, some coursebook content, plus 25% customized content• Integrated courses fully personalised, customised for each client, group
  102. 102. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components• Digital component is Business Benchmark workbook, some coursebook content, plus 25% customized content• Integrated courses fully personalised, customised for each client, group• Integrated courses pre-loaded with content anticipated through NA, but only “published” when need emerges
  103. 103. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components• Digital component is Business Benchmark workbook, some coursebook content, plus 25% customized content• Integrated courses fully personalised, customised for each client, group• Integrated courses pre-loaded with content anticipated through NA, but only “published” when need emerges• Benefit to corp HR: emergent performance-based syllabus focusing on bottom-line business needs
  104. 104. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
  105. 105. Principle 4: blended strategy design
  106. 106. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each.
  107. 107. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit
  108. 108. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR
  109. 109. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Students
  110. 110. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Students Teachers
  111. 111. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Do more with less Students Teachers
  112. 112. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Do more with less Students Flexibility Teachers
  113. 113. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Do more with less Students Flexibility Teachers Better teaching, pro dev, higher pay
  114. 114. Case study #2
  115. 115. Case study on strategy: Vantage
  116. 116. Case study on strategy: VantageBusiness model, stakeholder benefits
  117. 117. Business model, stakeholder benefits
  118. 118. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program
  119. 119. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours
  120. 120. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours• Courses are priced just below market average
  121. 121. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours• Courses are priced just below market average• 50% F2F, 50% online: teaching costs drop, margin up
  122. 122. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours• Courses are priced just below market average• 50% F2F, 50% online: teaching costs drop, margin up• Use higher margin to raise teacher pay, Ss support
  123. 123. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours• Courses are priced just below market average• 50% F2F, 50% online: teaching costs drop, margin up• Use higher margin to raise teacher pay, Ss support• Benefit to universities, corp HR: better teaching, flexibility, doing more with less infrastructure
  124. 124. Principle 4: blended strategy design
  125. 125. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each.
  126. 126. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Principle 4 corollary: The most important stakeholders are the teachers.
  127. 127. Case study #3
  128. 128. Case study on onboarding: LTC
  129. 129. Case study on strategy design: LTCTeacher-driven onboarding is required
  130. 130. Case study on onboarding: LTC
  131. 131. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers
  132. 132. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.
  133. 133. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class
  134. 134. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class• In second class, teachers introduce platform, online component projected in class on IWB or screen
  135. 135. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class• In second class, teachers introduce platform, online component projected in class on IWB or screen• Course invitations to LMS sent from F2F class itself
  136. 136. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class• In second class, teachers introduce platform, online component projected in class on IWB or screen• Course invitations to LMS sent from F2F class itself• Course structure, benefits, expectations discussed
  137. 137. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class• In second class, teachers introduce platform, online component projected in class on IWB or screen• Course invitations to LMS sent from F2F class itself• Course structure, benefits, expectations discussed• Teachers lead process as “ambassadors”
  138. 138. Summary
  139. 139. By letting humans do what humans do best,and machines do what machines do best,blended learning provides a humanistic,student-driven, personalised learning.
  140. 140. When possible, always leverage technologyto enable “web 2.0”, bottom-up, student-centred, user-generated content and output.
  141. 141. Optimal blended course design fullyintegrates classroom and online tasks
  142. 142. Successful implementation of blendedprograms requires communication ofstakeholder benefits
  143. 143. Principle 4 corollary: teachers first
  144. 144. Principle 4 corollary: teachers firstWeb 2 approach: bottom up, active users
  145. 145. Principle 4 corollary: teachers firstWeb 2 approach: bottom up, active usersPrinciple 5:Teachers can engage with technologythemselves, not waiting for institutionaldirection. Action research approach.
  146. 146. Thank you.
  147. 147. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
  148. 148. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and processCurriculum-basedNeeds-basedPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
  149. 149. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based performance goalsNeeds-basedPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
  150. 150. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goalsNeeds-basedPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
  151. 151. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goals identifies categoriesNeeds-based of performance goalsPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
  152. 152. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goals identifies categories Select from range of resources,Needs-based of performance goals based on needs analysisPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
  153. 153. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goals identifies categories Select from range of resources,Needs-based of performance goals based on needs analysis responds to specificPerformance-based performance events Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
  154. 154. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goals identifies categories Select from range of resources,Needs-based of performance goals based on needs analysis responds to specific Language needs for the eventPerformance-based performance events define materials, methods Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)

×