Pedagogic principles of blended language learning

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  • About me and English360, teacher, school owner, e360, e360>consultant, e360>e360.\n\nBE, not classroom-based GE. Instead ESP, personalization, performance-based, 1-1 = dogme, tyranny of the coursebook\n\nGeneralisation issue\n
  • Overview of BE and tech, where it’s going, opportunities with technology.\n\nLots of enthusiasm, blogs, conferences, websites, buzz.\n\nGeneralization issue\nPersonalization\nPerformance based syllabus\n
  • Overview of BE and tech, where it’s going, opportunities with technology.\n\nLots of enthusiasm, blogs, conferences, websites, buzz.\n\nGeneralization issue\nPersonalization\nPerformance based syllabus\n
  • Overview of BE and tech, where it’s going, opportunities with technology.\n\nLots of enthusiasm, blogs, conferences, websites, buzz.\n\nGeneralization issue\nPersonalization\nPerformance based syllabus\n
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  • Overview of BE and tech, where it’s going, opportunities with technology.\n\nLots of enthusiasm, blogs, conferences, websites, buzz.\n\nGeneralization issue\nPersonalization\nPerformance based syllabus\n
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  • Three things about social:\n1) learning has always been social\n2) classroom is still supreme\n3) \n
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  • Overview of BE and tech, where it’s going, opportunities with technology.\n\nLots of enthusiasm, blogs, conferences, websites, buzz.\n\nGeneralization issue\nPersonalization\nPerformance based syllabus\n
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  • Phaedrus\n
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  • Moving into stage 2: pedagogy > personalization > performance\n\n
  • Moving into stage 2: pedagogy > personalization > performance\n\n
  • Moving into stage 2: pedagogy > personalization > performance\n\n
  • Moving into stage 2: pedagogy > personalization > performance\n\n
  • Overview of BE and tech, where it’s going, opportunities with technology.\n\nLots of enthusiasm, blogs, conferences, websites, buzz.\n\nGeneralization issue\nPersonalization\nPerformance based syllabus\n
  • Task\nCourse\nStrategy\n
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  • Task\nCourse\nStrategy\n
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  • About me and English360, teacher, school owner, e360, e360>consultant, e360>e360.\n\nBE, not classroom-based GE. Instead ESP, personalization, performance-based, 1-1 = dogme, tyranny of the coursebook\n\nSo I developed a open online platform to do all this. This puts me in a quandry, because I’m in the wonderful position where, whatever I believe pedagogically, I can implement in the English360 platform. So there is a one to one correspondence between what I believe as a teacher and the platform. The downside to this is that I can’t talk about my ideas in ELT without it sounding like a sales pitch. So with that pre-emptive caveat let’s get the issues at play here.\n
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  • About me and English360, teacher, school owner, e360, e360>consultant, e360>e360.\n\nBE, not classroom-based GE. Instead ESP, personalization, performance-based, 1-1 = dogme, tyranny of the coursebook\n\nSo I developed a open online platform to do all this. This puts me in a quandry, because I’m in the wonderful position where, whatever I believe pedagogically, I can implement in the English360 platform. So there is a one to one correspondence between what I believe as a teacher and the platform. The downside to this is that I can’t talk about my ideas in ELT without it sounding like a sales pitch. So with that pre-emptive caveat let’s get the issues at play here.\n
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  • About me and English360, teacher, school owner, e360, e360>consultant, e360>e360.\n\nBE, not classroom-based GE. Instead ESP, personalization, performance-based, 1-1 = dogme, tyranny of the coursebook\n\nSo I developed a open online platform to do all this. This puts me in a quandry, because I’m in the wonderful position where, whatever I believe pedagogically, I can implement in the English360 platform. So there is a one to one correspondence between what I believe as a teacher and the platform. The downside to this is that I can’t talk about my ideas in ELT without it sounding like a sales pitch. So with that pre-emptive caveat let’s get the issues at play here.\n
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  • About me and English360, teacher, school owner, e360, e360>consultant, e360>e360.\n\nBE, not classroom-based GE. Instead ESP, personalization, performance-based, 1-1 = dogme, tyranny of the coursebook\n\nSo I developed a open online platform to do all this. This puts me in a quandry, because I’m in the wonderful position where, whatever I believe pedagogically, I can implement in the English360 platform. So there is a one to one correspondence between what I believe as a teacher and the platform. The downside to this is that I can’t talk about my ideas in ELT without it sounding like a sales pitch. So with that pre-emptive caveat let’s get the issues at play here.\n
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  • Pedagogic principles of blended language learning

    1. 1. Six Principles for Success with Blended LearningIATEFL Chile Conference 2012Cleve Miller - English360
    2. 2. AgendaOne contextTwo problemsFive principles
    3. 3. AgendaOne context for technology and ELTTwo problemsFive principles
    4. 4. AgendaOne context for technology and ELTTwo problems that are slowing progressFive principles
    5. 5. AgendaOne context for technology and ELTTwo problems that are slowing progressFive principles that can help guide the way
    6. 6. cleve@english360.comwww.english360.com/blogtwitter: cleve360
    7. 7. AgendaOne context for technology and ELTTwo problems that are slowing progressFive principles that can help guide the way
    8. 8. Content from the cloud...
    9. 9. ...delivered through a range of mobile devices,
    10. 10. ...ubiquitous,
    11. 11. personalised for each learner...
    12. 12. ...adaptive,
    13. 13. ...and social.
    14. 14. So, personalized, adaptive, and social, withubiquitous cloud-to-mobile delivery.How are these trends being implementedin blended learning programs?
    15. 15. Time Place
    16. 16. Time together apart Place
    17. 17. asynchronousTime synchronous together apart Place
    18. 18. asynchronousTime (classroom) synchronous together apart Place
    19. 19. asynchronousTime (classroom) synchronous IWB projector Ss mobile together apart Place
    20. 20. asynchronousTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB projector Ss mobile together apart Place
    21. 21. asynchronousTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
    22. 22. (computer) asynchronousTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
    23. 23. (computer) asynchronous forums wikis tasks, drillsTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
    24. 24. (computer) asynchronous language lab forums wikis tasks, drillsTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
    25. 25. “blended learning” (computer) asynchronous language lab forums wikis tasks, drillsTime (classroom) (computer) synchronous IWB phone / skype projector chat Ss mobile web conference together apart Place
    26. 26. What is blended learning?“Blended, blended, the future is blended.”
    27. 27. What is blended learning?“Blended, blended, the future is blended.” Combination of: in-class (F2F, synchronous) + out-of-class (online, asynchronous)
    28. 28. What is blended learning?“Blended, blended, the future is blended.” Combination of: in-class (F2F, synchronous) + out-of-class (online, asynchronous) typically organized in a Learning Management System (LMS) or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)
    29. 29. Benefits of technology
    30. 30. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching
    31. 31. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching Collapse of time and space
    32. 32. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching Collapse of time and space Hyper-personalisation
    33. 33. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching Collapse of time and space Hyper-personalisation “big data”
    34. 34. Benefits of technology Flexibility for ID, efficiency for teaching Collapse of time and space Hyper-personalisation “big data” Student focus / UGC
    35. 35. A 2-minute history of the web(and how it effects us as teachers)
    36. 36. The old web is aThe old web is a pipe. pipe.
    37. 37. What is the “old web” relationship?Top-down, expert-created, static, passively consumed
    38. 38. The new web is a platform....where we all work together to create, share, discuss, learn.
    39. 39. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
    40. 40. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
    41. 41. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
    42. 42. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
    43. 43. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
    44. 44. What direction is the relationship?Bottom-up, active user-generated, dynamic content
    45. 45. Active users: new skills for teachersWeb apps today support creativity: “teacher as DJ” Source: Jamie Keddie 11/6/09
    46. 46. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENT
    47. 47. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward Traditional Technology-supportedTOP DOWN BOTTOM UP model model SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENT
    48. 48. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward Traditional Technology-supportedTOP DOWN BOTTOM UP model model SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENTreliable, validated pedagogic qualityeasy to use, saves timequality production
    49. 49. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward Traditional Technology-supportedTOP DOWN BOTTOM UP model model SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENTreliable, validated pedagogic quality fast, up-to-date, and inexpensiveeasy to use, saves time closer fit to language, culture, student needsquality production integration with content areas
    50. 50. Educational materials developmentThe content continuum and a new way forward Traditional Technology-supportedTOP DOWN BOTTOM UP model model SCHOOL PUBLISHER TEACHER STUDENTreliable, validated pedagogic quality fast, up-to-date, and inexpensiveeasy to use, saves time closer fit to language, culture, student needsquality production integration with content areas Open platforms allow teachers to move along this continuum to fit learner needs (i.e. specificity).
    51. 51. Principle 1: how tech improves teaching
    52. 52. Principle 1: how tech improves teachingWhen possible, always leverage technology to enable “web 2.0”,bottom-up, student-centered, user-generated content / output.
    53. 53. Principle 1: how tech improves teachingWhen possible, always leverage technology to enable “web 2.0”,bottom-up, student-centered, user-generated content / output.
    54. 54. Principle 1: how tech improves teachingWhen possible, always leverage technology to enable “web 2.0”,bottom-up, student-centered, user-generated content / output. “It’s not about the technology, it’s about the learner” - Valentina Dodge
    55. 55. AgendaOne context for technology and ESPTwo problems that are slowing progressThree principles that can help guide the way
    56. 56. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTphoto by Marcelo Duarte, CC Flickr
    57. 57. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Reason #2photo by Marcelo Duarte, CC Flickr
    58. 58. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Humans resist changeReason #2photo by Marcelo Duarte, CC Flickr
    59. 59. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELT Everett Rogers, from his book Diffusion of Innovation
    60. 60. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Humans resist changeReason #2
    61. 61. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Humans resist changeReason #2It’s new. We are not sure what weare doing yet.
    62. 62. Teacher resistance and frustrationwith web technologies in ELTReason #1Humans resist changeReason #2It’s new. We are not sure what weare doing yet.Little dissemination of best practices: toomuch “what” and not enough “how”....
    63. 63. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT
    64. 64. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT1. Tools
    65. 65. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT1. Tools2. Techniques
    66. 66. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT1. Tools2. Techniques3. Traction
    67. 67. Three stages ofweb adoption in ELT1. Tools2. Techniques3. Traction
    68. 68. AgendaOne context for technology and ESPTwo problems that are slowing progressFive principles that can help guide the way
    69. 69. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis
    70. 70. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level
    71. 71. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level
    72. 72. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
    73. 73. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
    74. 74. Blended task design: definition of “task”“...a broader and higher order process than “step, “activity”or “technology” used in the lesson. Thus it may take a mix ofseveral steps online and F2F to achieve a task.” Gruba, Hinkelman 2012
    75. 75. “Blended task” design: definition“...a broader and higher order process than “step, “activity”or “technology” used in the lesson. Thus it may take a mix ofseveral steps online and F2F to achieve a task.” Gruba, Hinkelman 2012 “...includes subtasks that move back and forth between online and face-to-face venues.” Hinkelman 2005
    76. 76. “blended learning” (computer) asynchronous language lab (?) forums wikis input, drillsTime (computer) synchronous (classroom) phone / skype chat web conference together apart Place
    77. 77. Principle 2: blended task design
    78. 78. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online.
    79. 79. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning
    80. 80. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning Online receptive skills, remedial work, drills, writing, reflection, focus on form
    81. 81. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning Online receptive skills, remedial work, drills, writing, reflection, focus on form •Blended learning supports a dogme classroom
    82. 82. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning Online receptive skills, remedial work, drills, writing, reflection, focus on form •Blended learning supports a dogme classroom •It’s not about the technology, it’s about the learner
    83. 83. Principle 2: blended task designWhen designing tasks, separate elements of the task into whatis best done F2F and what is best done online. F2F Speaking, interaction, dialogue, role play, and focus on meaning Online receptive skills, remedial work, drills, writing, reflection, focus on form •Blended learning supports a dogme classroom •It’s not about the technology, it’s about the learner •Tech-enabled flipped classrooms humanise
    84. 84. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
    85. 85. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
    86. 86. Principle 3: blended course design
    87. 87. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus.
    88. 88. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus. Dual track Integrated
    89. 89. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus. Dual track Integrated F2F online
    90. 90. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus. Dual track Integrated F2F online F2F online
    91. 91. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus. Dual track Integrated F2F online F2F online
    92. 92. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus.Dual track IntegratedF2F online F2F online
    93. 93. Principle 3: blended course designWhen designing courses, integrate the F2F and online elementstogether so that they are co-dependent, with either a fixed oremergent syllabus.Dual track Integrated IntegratedF2F online F2F online F2F online
    94. 94. Case study #1
    95. 95. Case study on course design: LTC
    96. 96. Case study on course design: LTCUses range of dual track and integrated
    97. 97. Course design: dual track and integrated
    98. 98. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers
    99. 99. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components
    100. 100. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components• Digital component is Business Benchmark workbook, some coursebook content, plus 25% customized content
    101. 101. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components• Digital component is Business Benchmark workbook, some coursebook content, plus 25% customized content• Integrated courses fully personalised, customised for each client, group
    102. 102. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components• Digital component is Business Benchmark workbook, some coursebook content, plus 25% customized content• Integrated courses fully personalised, customised for each client, group• Integrated courses pre-loaded with content anticipated through NA, but only “published” when need emerges
    103. 103. Course design: dual track and integrated• Defines course design based on client, teachers• Dual track uses print coursebook (Business Benchmark) for F2F, with online components• Digital component is Business Benchmark workbook, some coursebook content, plus 25% customized content• Integrated courses fully personalised, customised for each client, group• Integrated courses pre-loaded with content anticipated through NA, but only “published” when need emerges• Benefit to corp HR: emergent performance-based syllabus focusing on bottom-line business needs
    104. 104. Implementing blended learning design:Three levels of analysis 1. Task level 2. Course level 3. Strategic level
    105. 105. Principle 4: blended strategy design
    106. 106. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each.
    107. 107. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit
    108. 108. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR
    109. 109. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Students
    110. 110. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Students Teachers
    111. 111. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Do more with less Students Teachers
    112. 112. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Do more with less Students Flexibility Teachers
    113. 113. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Stakeholder Benefit Universities, HR Do more with less Students Flexibility Teachers Better teaching, pro dev, higher pay
    114. 114. Case study #2
    115. 115. Case study on strategy: Vantage
    116. 116. Case study on strategy: VantageBusiness model, stakeholder benefits
    117. 117. Business model, stakeholder benefits
    118. 118. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program
    119. 119. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours
    120. 120. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours• Courses are priced just below market average
    121. 121. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours• Courses are priced just below market average• 50% F2F, 50% online: teaching costs drop, margin up
    122. 122. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours• Courses are priced just below market average• 50% F2F, 50% online: teaching costs drop, margin up• Use higher margin to raise teacher pay, Ss support
    123. 123. Business model, stakeholder benefits• 1500 students in blended learning program• Programs based on course duration, not class hours• Courses are priced just below market average• 50% F2F, 50% online: teaching costs drop, margin up• Use higher margin to raise teacher pay, Ss support• Benefit to universities, corp HR: better teaching, flexibility, doing more with less infrastructure
    124. 124. Principle 4: blended strategy design
    125. 125. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each.
    126. 126. Principle 4: blended strategy designImplementing blended learning requires pro-active andsustained communication to all stakeholders regardingspecific benefits and expectations for each. Principle 4 corollary: The most important stakeholders are the teachers.
    127. 127. Case study #3
    128. 128. Case study on onboarding: LTC
    129. 129. Case study on strategy design: LTCTeacher-driven onboarding is required
    130. 130. Case study on onboarding: LTC
    131. 131. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers
    132. 132. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.
    133. 133. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class
    134. 134. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class• In second class, teachers introduce platform, online component projected in class on IWB or screen
    135. 135. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class• In second class, teachers introduce platform, online component projected in class on IWB or screen• Course invitations to LMS sent from F2F class itself
    136. 136. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class• In second class, teachers introduce platform, online component projected in class on IWB or screen• Course invitations to LMS sent from F2F class itself• Course structure, benefits, expectations discussed
    137. 137. Case study on onboarding: LTC• Defines course design based on client, teachers• HR department defines realistic online time expectations: ranges from 30 minutes to 90 minutes per week.• Online component not introduced until second class• In second class, teachers introduce platform, online component projected in class on IWB or screen• Course invitations to LMS sent from F2F class itself• Course structure, benefits, expectations discussed• Teachers lead process as “ambassadors”
    138. 138. Summary
    139. 139. By letting humans do what humans do best,and machines do what machines do best,blended learning provides a humanistic,student-driven, personalised learning.
    140. 140. When possible, always leverage technologyto enable “web 2.0”, bottom-up, student-centred, user-generated content and output.
    141. 141. Optimal blended course design fullyintegrates classroom and online tasks
    142. 142. Successful implementation of blendedprograms requires communication ofstakeholder benefits
    143. 143. Principle 4 corollary: teachers first
    144. 144. Principle 4 corollary: teachers firstWeb 2 approach: bottom up, active users
    145. 145. Principle 4 corollary: teachers firstWeb 2 approach: bottom up, active usersPrinciple 5:Teachers can engage with technologythemselves, not waiting for institutionaldirection. Action research approach.
    146. 146. Thank you.
    147. 147. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
    148. 148. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and processCurriculum-basedNeeds-basedPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
    149. 149. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based performance goalsNeeds-basedPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
    150. 150. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goalsNeeds-basedPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
    151. 151. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goals identifies categoriesNeeds-based of performance goalsPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
    152. 152. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goals identifies categories Select from range of resources,Needs-based of performance goals based on needs analysisPerformance-based Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
    153. 153. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goals identifies categories Select from range of resources,Needs-based of performance goals based on needs analysis responds to specificPerformance-based performance events Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)
    154. 154. Approaches to BE, ESP course designCurricular, needs-based, performance-based Course design Selection of outcomes Material and process predicts genericCurriculum-based Work through a coursebook performance goals identifies categories Select from range of resources,Needs-based of performance goals based on needs analysis responds to specific Language needs for the eventPerformance-based performance events define materials, methods Source: Cleve Miller in 2/2010 Business Issues (BESIG)

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