The Hidden EnemyBy Eric C. Ratcliff
Bedbugs Are Back!• Eradicated in the U.S. in the 30’s with DDT• Brought back into U.S. by travelers &foreigners• Now resis...
Historical Perspective• Evolved with man & adapted to humanhabitations• Bedbugs are mentioned in ancient Egyptian &Greek l...
The Enemy Revealed!Adult Bedbug
Adult BedbugActual Size
Bedbug Nymphs
Bedbugs eggs
Bedbug Eggs
Identification – size & shape• Adults oval• Adults about size of apple seed (1/4”)• 1st stage nymphs < 1/10”• Flattened wh...
Color• Adult bedbugs are brown when unfed –reddish brown after feeding• Young nymphs are light brown when unfed –red after...
Bedbug NymphsBefore Feeding After Feeding
Bedbug Life Cycle• Female lays 1 – 12 eggs/day• Eggs hatch in 6 – 17 days• 5 nymphal stages• Development from egg to adult...
Feeding Habits• Nocturnal – hide during day & come out atnight to feed• Feed only on blood – usually human blood• Can feed...
Bedbug Bite• Bite is initially painless• Allergic reaction in some people, i.e. welts &severe itching• Reaction may take 2...
Bedbug Bites
Nymph Feeding On Finger
Treatment of Bites• Do not scratch – scratching can lead toinfection• Wash affected areas – bedbugs defecate asthey feed• ...
Bedbugs• Crawl, but not as fast as cockroaches• Cannot fly, jump, or hop• Tend to cluster together• Able to hide in small ...
Bedbugs• External – don’t live on body• Usually found near food source, i.e. wherepeople are sleeping or resting• Can trav...
Hiding Places• Mattress & box springs, especially seams• Couches, easy chairs, & other furniture• Behind baseboards & unde...
Hiding Places• Peeling wallpaper• Light fixtures• Clothing• Toys• Nicknacks• Anything else you can think of
Signs of Infestation• Live & dead bedbugs• Shed skins & egg shells• Black fecal spots• Blood stains from crushed bugsBlood...
Bedbugs On Mattress Seam
Bedbugs on Carpet
Bedbugs Behind Baseboard
Bedbug Treatment• Inform landlord ASAP• Strongly recommend licensed professional• Licensed professional must be hired if m...
Treating With Pesticides• Residual insecticides w/ pyrethroids• Available at hardware stores• Not as effective as restrict...
Treatment Methods• No insecticides labeled for use on bedding• Insecticides available for treating mattress• Diatomaceous ...
Treatment Methods• Wash bedding & clothing in hot water and/ordry on high heat for 20 to 30 minutes• Vacuum thoroughly – e...
Treatment Methods• Buy good quality mattress bags• Check bed every day• Use cups under bed legs• Heat treatment• Cold trea...
Professional Exterminators• Should treat every two weeks• Once a month not sufficient• Usually treat 2 to 3 times• Will no...
Bedbug Prevention• Be careful who you visit & who visits you• Check used furniture before bringing it home• Check book bag...
Prevention When Traveling• Check hotel/motel room for bedbugs,especially mattress, box spring, & headboard• Don’t unpack s...
Tips for Home Care Visitors• Don’t sit on upholstered furniture• Don’t place bags on floor• Don’t bring in unnecessary ite...
Tips for Schools• Educate parents & kids• Encourage personal inspections• Keep eyes peeled• Separate coat storage• Prohibi...
Licensed Applicators• Recommend maintenance personnel becomelicensed pesticide applicators• Licensing by Ohio Dept. of Agr...
Regulatory Agency• Regulatory authority is CCGHD• Sanitarian investigates written complaints• Will issue orders if appropr...
Resource List• www.ohioline.osu.edu• www.clermonthealthdistrict.org• www.odh.ohio.gov• www.centralohiobedbugs.org
The End
Bedbugs the hidden enemy
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Bedbugs the hidden enemy

  1. 1. The Hidden EnemyBy Eric C. Ratcliff
  2. 2. Bedbugs Are Back!• Eradicated in the U.S. in the 30’s with DDT• Brought back into U.S. by travelers &foreigners• Now resistant to DDT & other pesticides• Spread by transients & others• Carried from place to place• May now be found in any public place,especially schools & day care centers
  3. 3. Historical Perspective• Evolved with man & adapted to humanhabitations• Bedbugs are mentioned in ancient Egyptian &Greek literature• Introduced to North America by colonists fromEurope
  4. 4. The Enemy Revealed!Adult Bedbug
  5. 5. Adult BedbugActual Size
  6. 6. Bedbug Nymphs
  7. 7. Bedbugs eggs
  8. 8. Bedbug Eggs
  9. 9. Identification – size & shape• Adults oval• Adults about size of apple seed (1/4”)• 1st stage nymphs < 1/10”• Flattened when unfed• Swollen after feeding• Eggs cylindrical & 1/32” long
  10. 10. Color• Adult bedbugs are brown when unfed –reddish brown after feeding• Young nymphs are light brown when unfed –red after feeding• Eggs are off white
  11. 11. Bedbug NymphsBefore Feeding After Feeding
  12. 12. Bedbug Life Cycle• Female lays 1 – 12 eggs/day• Eggs hatch in 6 – 17 days• 5 nymphal stages• Development from egg to adult affected bytemperature – 21 days at 86 deg F, 120 days at65 deg F• Live 12 to 18 months• Need blood meal to breed & grow
  13. 13. Feeding Habits• Nocturnal – hide during day & come out atnight to feed• Feed only on blood – usually human blood• Can feed on pets or other animals• Sharp beak pierces skin• Inject salivary fluid with anitcoagulant• Adults feed 10 to 15 minutes• Nymphs become engorged within 3 minutes
  14. 14. Bedbug Bite• Bite is initially painless• Allergic reaction in some people, i.e. welts &severe itching• Reaction may take 2 weeks• No reaction in some people• No evidence of disease transmission• Can lead to anxiety & sleeplessness
  15. 15. Bedbug Bites
  16. 16. Nymph Feeding On Finger
  17. 17. Treatment of Bites• Do not scratch – scratching can lead toinfection• Wash affected areas – bedbugs defecate asthey feed• Cortisone cream may be used to reduceitching
  18. 18. Bedbugs• Crawl, but not as fast as cockroaches• Cannot fly, jump, or hop• Tend to cluster together• Able to hide in small cracks due to flattenedbody• May be seen during day if infestation is severe• Prefer to lay eggs on rough surfaces
  19. 19. Bedbugs• External – don’t live on body• Usually found near food source, i.e. wherepeople are sleeping or resting• Can travel relatively long distances to feed• Not caused by bad housekeeping or hygiene• Poor housekeeping will hinder exterminationor make it virtually impossible
  20. 20. Hiding Places• Mattress & box springs, especially seams• Couches, easy chairs, & other furniture• Behind baseboards & under carpet• Electric outlets & switch plates• Drapes, wallpaper, & picture frames
  21. 21. Hiding Places• Peeling wallpaper• Light fixtures• Clothing• Toys• Nicknacks• Anything else you can think of
  22. 22. Signs of Infestation• Live & dead bedbugs• Shed skins & egg shells• Black fecal spots• Blood stains from crushed bugsBlood Smears
  23. 23. Bedbugs On Mattress Seam
  24. 24. Bedbugs on Carpet
  25. 25. Bedbugs Behind Baseboard
  26. 26. Bedbug Treatment• Inform landlord ASAP• Strongly recommend licensed professional• Licensed professional must be hired if morethan 4 units in one place• Eliminate clutter• Check all possessions for bedbugs• Pack up as much as possible
  27. 27. Treating With Pesticides• Residual insecticides w/ pyrethroids• Available at hardware stores• Not as effective as restricted use pesticidesavailable to licensed applicators• Must be labeled for use on bedbugs• Follow directions on label – don’t overdo it• The label is the law
  28. 28. Treatment Methods• No insecticides labeled for use on bedding• Insecticides available for treating mattress• Diatomaceous earth• Beware of products sold on the internet• Dispose of heavily infested items• Killed by 120 degree heat• More resistant to cold temperatures
  29. 29. Treatment Methods• Wash bedding & clothing in hot water and/ordry on high heat for 20 to 30 minutes• Vacuum thoroughly – empty container or bag• Remove and discard crushed bugs• Steam heat for furniture
  30. 30. Treatment Methods• Buy good quality mattress bags• Check bed every day• Use cups under bed legs• Heat treatment• Cold treatment• Search & destroy• Must be aggressive
  31. 31. Professional Exterminators• Should treat every two weeks• Once a month not sufficient• Usually treat 2 to 3 times• Will not treat if there’s too much clutter• Cost of treatment between landlord & tenant
  32. 32. Bedbug Prevention• Be careful who you visit & who visits you• Check used furniture before bringing it home• Check book bags & purses• Avoid sleepovers• Seal cracks & holes
  33. 33. Prevention When Traveling• Check hotel/motel room for bedbugs,especially mattress, box spring, & headboard• Don’t unpack suitcases• Place suitcases on rack• After returning, check suitcases, clothing, &other items before bringing inside
  34. 34. Tips for Home Care Visitors• Don’t sit on upholstered furniture• Don’t place bags on floor• Don’t bring in unnecessary items• Wear disposable coveralls & booties• Check for bedbugs after visit• Change clothes before going home
  35. 35. Tips for Schools• Educate parents & kids• Encourage personal inspections• Keep eyes peeled• Separate coat storage• Prohibit book bags• Use clothes dryer if available• Keep infested kids at home
  36. 36. Licensed Applicators• Recommend maintenance personnel becomelicensed pesticide applicators• Licensing by Ohio Dept. of Agriculture• Pay fee, study provided materials, take test• Yearly renewal fee• Recertification every three years• www.agri.ohio.gov
  37. 37. Regulatory Agency• Regulatory authority is CCGHD• Sanitarian investigates written complaints• Will issue orders if appropriate• Cannot provide material assistance or funds• Can provide information & training
  38. 38. Resource List• www.ohioline.osu.edu• www.clermonthealthdistrict.org• www.odh.ohio.gov• www.centralohiobedbugs.org
  39. 39. The End

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