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Many, many thanks to Bryan Alexander for this presentation.

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  1. 1. Podcasting for Teaching and Learning NITLE workshops 2008, revised
  2. 2. Plan for the session <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting from start to finish </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical issues and cases </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>How old is the term? </li></ul>I. Podcasting background
  4. 4. <ul><li>How old is the term? February 12, 2004: </li></ul><ul><li>“ With the benefit of hindsight, it all seems quite obvious. MP3 players, like Apple's iPod, in many pockets, audio production software cheap or free, and weblogging an established part of the internet…” </li></ul>I. Podcasting background
  5. 5. <ul><li>How old is the term? February 12, 2004: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… all the ingredients are there for a new boom in amateur radio. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But what to call it? Audioblogging? Podcasting ? GuerillaMedia?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Ben Hammersley, The Guardian ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Early, rapid growth </li></ul>
  7. 7. Early, rapid growth
  8. 8. Early, rapid growth
  9. 9. <ul><li>Podcasting News, February 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.podcastingnews.com/2008/02/04/podcast-audience-statistics/ </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Context: the player </li></ul><ul><li>iPods and others (really) </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>“ net.gen” </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic status </li></ul><ul><li>History: Walkman, Discman, transistor radios </li></ul><ul><li>The failure of convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Not the only way we listen to podcasts </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Pew Internet and American Life project on mp3 players: </li></ul><ul><li>“ More than 22 million American adults own iPods or MP3 players and 29% of them have downloaded podcasts from the Web so that they could listen to audio files at a time of their choosing….” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Pew Internet and American Life project: </li></ul><ul><li>“… That amounts to more than 6 million adults who have tried this new feature that allows internet “broadcasts” to be downloaded onto their portable listening device.” </li></ul><ul><li>(April 200 5 ) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Context: social demand for audio </li></ul><ul><li>Historical arc of music sharing and republication </li></ul><ul><li>Web audio grows steadily </li></ul><ul><li>Net.gen life experience </li></ul><ul><li>File-sharing persists… </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>About that File-sharing. </li></ul><ul><li>Context: did copyright policy spur podcasting? </li></ul><ul><li>Doc Searls on CARP: </li></ul><ul><li>“ As it developed, Internet radio didn't die [in the early 2000s]. Instead, what happened was the growth of talk radio on the Net, mostly in the form of podcasting...” </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>“… No doubt an unintended consequence of the CARP ruling (creating high bureaucratic and financial costs for broadcasting RIAA-sanctioned music on the Net) was the growth of podcasting.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Doc Searls, March 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>( http://doc.weblogs.com/2007/03/04#riaaMovesToKillInternetRadio ) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Context: the file format, or “I want my MP3” </li></ul><ul><li>Decent quality </li></ul><ul><li>Workable size </li></ul><ul><li>Portable </li></ul><ul><li>Net.gen yet again </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Context: easier, popular tools for playing sound: hardware </li></ul><ul><li>iPods </li></ul><ul><li>Laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Desktops </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Context: easier tools for recording sound: hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Mikes </li></ul><ul><li>Phones </li></ul><ul><li>MP3 player plugins </li></ul>
  19. 19. Context: easier tools for recording and editing sound <ul><li>Context: easier tools for recording and editing sound </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garageband, iMovie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moviemaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audacity </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Context: the Apple effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2001 January: Apple unleashes iTunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001 October: “ “ iPod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2002 Windows compatible iTunes launched </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Context: easier tools for distribution: syndication </li></ul><ul><li>R eally S imple S yndication, RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Free, open standards (XML) </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Added to news media </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used, not widely recognized </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Protopodcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Web audio </li></ul><ul><li>Audioblogging </li></ul><ul><li>phoneblogging </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Protopodcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Web audio </li></ul><ul><li>Audioblogging </li></ul><ul><li>phoneblogging </li></ul><ul><li>(Orson Welles) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Mainstream media leaps in </li></ul><ul><li>BBC </li></ul><ul><li>NPR ( http://www.npr.org/rss/podcast/podcast_directory.php ) </li></ul><ul><li>Public radio in general ( http:// www.publicradiofan.com/podcasts.html ) </li></ul><ul><li>Repurposing, republishing professional radio content </li></ul>
  25. 25. II. Podcasting 101 <ul><li>Neologism tracking </li></ul><ul><li>godcasting </li></ul><ul><li>nanocasting </li></ul><ul><li>podfading </li></ul><ul><li>vlogging </li></ul><ul><li>podsafe </li></ul><ul><li>podspamming </li></ul><ul><li>podvertising </li></ul><ul><li>porncasting </li></ul>
  26. 26. The entire structure: From the top
  27. 27. From the other side: finding content
  28. 28. Getting your content to the world
  29. 29. All together now
  30. 30. What is this RSS?
  31. 31. Example: Berkeley Science Groks
  32. 32. Example: Berkeley Science Groks
  33. 33. <ul><li>The Firefox browser tries to help you </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>But clicking on the link gets you something odd: </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Adding the link to an aggregator: Bloglines </li></ul>
  36. 36. Adding the link to another aggregator: Google Reader
  37. 37. <ul><li>The structure of podcasting, in other words: </li></ul><ul><li>The sound file </li></ul><ul><li>The hardware (laptop, desktop, mobile device, phone) </li></ul><ul><li>The editor </li></ul><ul><li>The compressor (often in the editor) </li></ul><ul><li>The genial host </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>What is this aggregation? </li></ul><ul><li>RSS means syndication, therefore aggregation </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of readers for variety of purposes beyond podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Bloglines </li></ul><ul><li>NetNewsWire </li></ul><ul><li>Newsgator </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Syndication, therefore podcatchers </li></ul><ul><li>Juice </li></ul><ul><li>Songbird </li></ul><ul><li>Odeo </li></ul><ul><li>iTunes </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Syndication is optional for playing </li></ul>(a mere file folder)
  41. 41. III. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>How does this connect with teaching and learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal arts pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Affordances </li></ul><ul><li>Cases + exploration </li></ul>
  42. 42. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Classic digital pedagogy: timeshifting </li></ul><ul><li>In- and out of class content </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance issue </li></ul><ul><li>Student-driven </li></ul><ul><li>PS: the Betamax case (1984) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Classic digital pedagogy: repeatability </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubbing </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Student-driven </li></ul>
  44. 44. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>New forms: profcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Bryn Mawr College: Michelle Francl, chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Duke: Classroom recording </li></ul>
  45. 45. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Profcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Washington University: Gardner Campbell, English </li></ul>
  46. 46. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Studentcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Individual or team-based </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul>Response composition “ As part of the culmination of the seminar, I recorded student readings of Donne’s work for later distribution as podcasts.”
  47. 47. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Content podcasting on campus </li></ul><ul><li>Language lessons by iPod (Middlebury College) </li></ul><ul><li>IT updates (Lafayette College ITS Coffee Break) </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Student program podcasting on campus </li></ul><ul><li>War News Radio </li></ul><ul><li>(Swarthmore College) </li></ul><ul><li>PEPI courses (University of British Columbia, department of Land and Food Resources) </li></ul>
  49. 49. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Campus program podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Language Lab Unleashed (Oberlin College) </li></ul>
  50. 50. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Campus podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Allegheny College http://webtools.allegheny.edu/podcast/ </li></ul><ul><li>Bowdoin College http://www. bowdoin . edu/podcasts/ </li></ul><ul><li>Colgate University </li></ul><ul><li>Layafette College https://ww2.lafayette.edu/~soapbox/podcast </li></ul><ul><li>Swarthmore College http://acad.swarthmore.edu/podcast/ </li></ul>
  51. 51. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Focus on content </li></ul><ul><li>Literary texts </li></ul><ul><li>Oral history </li></ul><ul><li>Critical phrasing </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign language </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Lab sciences </li></ul>
  52. 52. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Podcasts and research </li></ul><ul><li>Duke: Field recording </li></ul><ul><li>Trudi Abel, “Digital Durham and the New South” (Duke University, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>New area for podcasting: information literacy </li></ul>
  53. 53. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>“ Podagogy” or Podcasting Plus, University of Wisconsin </li></ul>
  54. 54. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>“ Podagogy” or Podcasting Plus, University of Wisconsin </li></ul><ul><li>http://engage.wisc.edu/podcasting/teaching/index.html </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Podcasts and research </li></ul><ul><li>Public intellectual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the Past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engines of Our Ingenuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Our Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Missing Link </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Media to enhance other media </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast + pdfs: Allegheny College, Gothcast </li></ul>
  57. 57. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Enhance other media </li></ul><ul><li>Middlebury College, Barbara Ganley </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting with… </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul><ul><li>Digital storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Study abroad </li></ul>
  58. 58. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Enhance other media </li></ul><ul><li>Beth Harris, Art History, Fashion Institute of Technology, SUNY </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting with… </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul><ul><li>Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations </li></ul>
  59. 59. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Enhance other media </li></ul><ul><li>Commentary on digital video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Battlestar Galactica DVD to Web </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Combine with social software </li></ul>(Missing Link podcast, Southwestern University)
  61. 61. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Combine with social software </li></ul>
  62. 62. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Combine with social software </li></ul>http://missinglinkpodcast.wordpress.com/2008/04/30/episode-10-people-of-the-book/
  63. 63. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Instrumental: enhance other media </li></ul><ul><li>Apple: sound + images = “enhanced podcasting” </li></ul>
  64. 64. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Influences on other social media </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting and videoblogging </li></ul>
  65. 65. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Mixing and mashups </li></ul><ul><li>Long historical antecedents </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul>
  66. 66. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Commentary on primary and secondary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Merrymount College, Artmobs </li></ul>
  67. 67. Pedagogy of podcasting <ul><li>Podcasts and questions for research </li></ul><ul><li>Information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of access </li></ul><ul><li>Archival problem </li></ul><ul><li>Editing and sampling challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul>
  68. 68. Podcasting: other issues <ul><li>Copyright issues </li></ul><ul><li>“ podsafe” </li></ul><ul><li>Public domain </li></ul><ul><li>DiY (Garageband) </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>Academic open archives for social media </li></ul><ul><li>Freesound archive </li></ul><ul><li>DIY copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking values </li></ul><ul><li>University of Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona) </li></ul>( http://freesound.iua.upf.edu/ )
  70. 70. <ul><li>Harvard University Press </li></ul><ul><li>MIT Press </li></ul><ul><li>Rutgers Press </li></ul><ul><li>University of California Press </li></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan Press </li></ul><ul><li>Yale Press </li></ul>Academic presses using social media Currently podcasting university presses:
  71. 71. Podcasting: other issues <ul><li>Searching podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Podscope </li></ul><ul><li>Podzinger </li></ul><ul><li>(EveryZing) </li></ul>
  72. 72. Podcasting: other issues <ul><li>More emergent issues </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative composition </li></ul><ul><li>Social software </li></ul>
  73. 73. Podcasting: other issues <ul><li>Social podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>http://waxxi.us/interactive.html </li></ul><ul><li>Podserve http://www.pod-serve.com </li></ul>
  74. 74. Podcasting: other issues <ul><li>Copyright issues: content sources </li></ul><ul><li>Garageband.com - indie music hosting </li></ul><ul><li>iCompositions - free downloads, discussion for Garageband </li></ul><ul><li>One Laptop Per Child’s clip archive: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Sound_samples </li></ul>
  75. 75. Podcasting: other issues <ul><li>audio.weblogs.com </li></ul><ul><li>iPodder </li></ul><ul><li>Odeo </li></ul><ul><li>Podanza </li></ul><ul><li>Finding podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast Alley </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast Network </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast News </li></ul>
  76. 76. Podsafe Audio <ul><li>FreeSound.org - sound library </li></ul><ul><li>Transom - downloadable shows and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Disquiet - archive of links to ambient and electronic mp3s </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon's free downloads </li></ul><ul><li>Magnatune - inexpensive, and pays artists </li></ul><ul><li>Jamendo.com - creative commons </li></ul>
  77. 77. National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education (NITLE) http://nitle.org Liberal Education Today blog http://b2e.nitle.org