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RDA, FRBR, and FRAD: Connecting the dots


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RDA, FRBR, and FRAD: Connecting the dots

  1. 1. RDA, FRBR, and FRAD: Connecting the dots Louise Spiteri School of Information Management Dalhousie University
  2. 2. Setting the stage • In how many versions can this work appear? • In how many adaptations can this work appear? • How do you describe all these different manifestations within one catalogue? • How do you bring together all these manifestations to a client who, for example, wants a specific English edition or the client who isn't fussy about which edition? APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Consider the work The three musketeers by Alexandre Dumas. 2
  3. 3. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Film adaptations: IMDb 3
  4. 4. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Book versions: Amazon 4
  5. 5. Background • Economic pressures prompting libraries to do more "minimal level" cataloguing in order to keep pace with the continued growth of publishing output. • Recognized need to respond more effectively to an increasingly broad range of user expectations and needs • Growth of large-scale national and international databases containing records contributed and used by thousands of libraries participating in shared cataloguing programs. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • IFLA undertook a re-examination of cataloguing principles in the early 1990s to take into consideration significant changes in which cataloguing principles and standards operated. 5
  6. 6. FRBR user tasks    To find entities that correspond to the user's stated search criteria, i.e., to locate a single entity or a set of entities that match search query. To identify an entity, i.e., to (a) confirm that the entity described in the bibliographic record corresponds to the entity sought, and (b) determine how one entity differs from another. To select an entity that is appropriate to the user's needs, e.g., an English translation of the text of The Three Musketeers. to acquire or obtain access to the entity described, e.g., to borrow a Blu-Ray DVD of the 1993 film The Three Musketeers. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  6
  7. 7. Group 1 entity: Work, 1 APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA A work is an abstract entity; there is no single material object one can point to as the work. This is the story of The three musketeers as created by Alexandre Dumas. 7
  8. 8. • The name we give to a work (e.g., The Three Musketeers) serves a collective name for all the expressions, or realizations, of this work (e.g., texts, films, plays, etc.). APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Group 1 entity: Work, 2 8
  9. 9. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Group 1 entity: Expression, 1 English text French text Film Expression is the form in which a work, or the intellectual concept of The Three Musketeers is expressed, e.g., an English translation, a performance of the content via a film or play, etc. 9
  10. 10. • • Each expression is considered to be separate, since they are all unique, so every English translation is a different expression since, presumably, each translation may be a different interpretation of the original work. Defining expression as an entity in the model allows us to reflect the different types of realizations of the same work APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Group 1 entity: Expression, 2 10
  11. 11. Group 1 entity: Manifestation, 1 APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Manifestation is the physical embodiment of an expression of a work, e.g., DVDs, books, maps, etc. So, it's not just a film about The Three Musketeers, but the film contained in DVDs. 11
  12. 12. Group 1 entity: Manifestation, 2 • Defining manifestation as an entity enables us to name and describe the complete set of items that result from a single act of physical embodiment or production, e.g., we can name all the manifestations of the 1993 film The Three Musketeers, e.g., the VHS, DVD, or Blu-Ray versions. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • When the production process involves changes in physical form the resulting product is considered a new manifestation, e.g., A VHS version released as a DVD. 12
  13. 13. Group 1 entity: Item • An item exemplifying a manifestation is normally the same as the manifestation itself. However, variations may occur from one item to another, e.g., a DVD you get from a library; it may differ from the original manifestation in that the library often removes a lot of the booklets that come with a DVD, including original cover slips, etc., or it's a single copy amongst a series (e.g., 20 copies of the same manifestation). APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • Item is a concrete entity. It is in many instances a single physical object (e.g., a copy of a one-volume monograph, a single audio cassette, etc.) 13
  14. 14. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA The entities of Hamlet 14
  15. 15. Group 2 Entities: Person, Corporate Body • An expression may be realized by one or more than one person and/or corporate body, and vice versa • A manifestation may be produced by one or more than one person or corporate body, and vice versa. • An item may be owned by one or more than one person and/or corporate body, and vice versa. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • A work may be created by one or more than one person and/or one or more than one corporate body, and vice versa. 15
  16. 16. Group 3 Entities: Concept, Object, Event, Place • A work may have as its subject one or more than one concept, object, event, and/or place. Conversely, a concept, object, event, and/or place may be the subject of one or more than one work. • A work may have as its subject one or more than one work, expression, manifestation, item, person, and/or corporate body. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Concept (an abstract notion or idea), object (a material thing), event (an action or occurrence), and place (a location). 16
  17. 17. • Library catalogues using FRBR principles could more easily group search results and provide disambiguation steps to give users more control over their search.  A list of all Works by a creator could be presented, then Expressions of a given Work could appear grouped by format, language (for textual works), performer (for musical works), director (for films), or any number of other attributes relevant to a given search. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Applications of FRBR 17
  18. 18. 18 APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA
  19. 19. 19 APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA
  20. 20. • FRAD maps out the relationships between entities. Relationships play an important role in assisting the user to complete the tasks of finding, identifying, selecting, and obtaining. • Relationships carry information about the nature of the links that exist between entities, enable collocation, and provide pathways to improve resource discovery. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) 20
  21. 21. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA FRAD conceptual model 21
  22. 22.        Name of person/body Dates associated with person/body Title (person) Gender (person) Place of birth (person) Place of death (person) Country        Place of residence (person) Affiliation (person) Address Language Field of activity Profession (person) Biography/history APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA FRAD Attributes: Persons or corporate bodies 22
  24. 24. Introduction RDA is a new cataloguing standard that replaces AACR2. Although it has strong links to AACR2, RDA is quite different because: It is based on the FRBR theoretical framework Is designed for the digital environment Has a broader scope than AACR2 APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  24
  25. 25. Reasons for RDA • Even when we switched to machine-readable catalogue records, we continued to use print-based rules. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • AACR represents an unbroken continuum that began in the early 19th century. The rules were developed for linear presentation, either in printed book catalogues or in alphabetically arranged card catalogues • It is becoming increasingly difficult to make AACR meet the needs of rapidly-changing technologies and types of records 25
  26. 26. Key RDA principles, 1 • RDA has a wider scope and is extensible: new instructions include improve the coverage of visual resources and online resources and provide guidance on the creation of authority records. They also allow for the incorporation of new resource types as they emerge. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • RDA is principles-based: the instructions are based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) and IFLA‟s International Cataloguing Principles. 26
  27. 27.  RDA is user-focused: RDA data elements have been selected based on the FRBR/FRAD user tasks. Data produced using RDA can be presented to users in more meaningful „clustered‟ displays. RDA‟s greater emphasis on relationships will provide additional navigational paths for library users.  RDA is designed for the web environment: data produced using RDA will be able to be used more readily web-based catalogues and resource discovery services. The RDA data model, data elements and controlled vocabularies will be made freely available online in a machine readable form consistent with semantic web standards. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Key RDA principles, 2 27
  28. 28.       Section 1: Recording attributes of manifestation & item Section 2: Recording attributes of work & expression Section 3: Recording attributes of person, family, corporate body Section 4. Recording attributes of concept, object, event, place Section 5: Recording primary relationships Section 6: Recording relationships to persons, families & corporate bodies associated with a resource APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA RDA and FRBR/FRAD, 1 28
  29. 29.     Section 7: Recording the subject of a work Section 8: Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items Section 9: Recording relationships between persons, families, & corporate bodies Section 10: Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA RDA and FRBR/FRAD, 2 29
  30. 30.    In RDA, you transcribe information as it appears in the resource, e.g., if the item says Third Edition, this is what you transcribe; it is says 3rd ed., this is what you transcribe. This applies to author names, etc. You are to transcribe inaccuracies (e.g. spelling) as you see them, then make a variant title. No rule of three in RDA; you can add as many SORs as is warranted by the item. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Take what you see, 1 30
  31. 31. Take what you see, 2 title page by the Reverend John Clarke AACR2 by John Clarke  RDA by the Reverend John Clarke  “Take what you see. Accept what you get.” (from LC)  based on principle of representation  simplifies transcription  allows for automated data capture or scanning  no longer limited by the small space of the catalogue card APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  31
  32. 32.   RDA does not employ the principle of main entry; you still must choose a preferred entry to designate who has primary responsibility for a work. There is no limit to the number of access points (added entries) that you can record. The main authorized access point is to take the name of the person or body with principal responsibility; in collaborative works, if there is no principal responsibility indicated, take the first named person or body, followed by the title. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Preferred access points 32
  33. 33. Relationships RDA allows you to specify the exact nature among works, expressions, manifestations, and items, e.g., in the authorized access points, you can add: A term indicating content type The date of the expression A term indicating the language of the expression A term indicating another distinguishing characteristic of the expression, e.g.: APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  Brunhoff, Jean de, 1889-1937. Babar en famille. English. Spoken word 33
  34. 34. Examples of RDA relationships in MARC coding 245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, What's a nice kid like you doing in a place like this? /$cHanna-Barbera Productions. 700 1# $i parody of (work) $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t Alice's adventures in Wonderland. authority record 510 3# $a Adams family, $e descendant family APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA 245 10 $a National Geographic atlas of the world / $c Melville Bell Grosvenor, editor-in-chief; Wellman Chamberlin, chief cartographer. 700 1# $a Chamberlin, Wellman , $e cartographer 34
  35. 35. No more Latin s.l. and s.n., a RDA record would have “[place of publication not identified]” and “[publisher not identified].”  The square brackets are used in both AACR2 and RDA to indicate information that is supplied by the cataloguer and not found on the resource being catalogued. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  Instead of 35
  36. 36. No more rule of three uses the “rule of three” when recording and providing access points for multiple authors of a resource.  RDA does away with the rule of three, recording and providing an access point for every author of a resource APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  ACR2 36
  37. 37. No more GMD APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • Three new MARC fields have been created to describe the medium of the work. 37
  38. 38. Content type (MARC 336) Expression-level attribute. It is a categorization of the fundamental form of communication in which the content is expressed, e.g.: Computer dataset Notated music Tactile text (e.g., braille) Text Sounds (e.g., audio recordings) Still image Two-dimensional moving image (e.g., films) APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  38
  39. 39. Media type (MARC 337) Media type reflects the type of device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of the resource. It is an attribute of manifestations, e.g.: Audio Computer Microform Microscopic Projected Stereographic Unmediated (e.g., text) Video APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  39
  40. 40. Carrier type (MARC 338) Carrier type is a manifestation-level attribute and reflects the format of the storage device, e.g., Video Carriers     Video cartridge Videocassette Videodisc Videotape reel APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA  40
  41. 41. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA AACR vs. RDA records 41
  42. 42. Implementation plans • LC‟s partner national libraries (U.S.: National Agricultural Library and National Library of Medicine; and non-U.S.: British Library, Library & Archives Canada, Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (DNB), and National Library of Australia) also intend to target the first quarter of 2013 as their RDA implementation date, i.e., between January 2 and March 31, 2013. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • Library of Congress has announced that it will start implementation of RDA on March 31, 2012. • LC‟s training plan. 42
  43. 43. • Phase One: Training will start June 2012 for a core group of approximately 30-40 trainees, identified by chiefs. Each chief shall identify at least five persons (one per section if they so desire). At least one from each division should be able to serve as a classroom instructor. • Phase Two: Supervisors and Chiefs will be trained in July 2012. They will receive the same training as their staff. • Phase Three: The remainder of the staff will begin training in August 2012. Each month, three groups of 20 trainees will attend approximately 40 hours of classroom training, spread over four weeks. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA LC‟s training plan 43
  44. 44. • “Regardless of what the official industry stance is on RDA, we believe that libraries will have a mix of RDA and AACR2 records for the forseeable future, as they currently have a mix of AACR, AACR2 and other record formats. It is our role as a library vendor to ensure that our system can handle all of these formats to allow maximum flexibility for every customer‟s needs.” ~ Innovative Interfaces ( APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA RDA: Vendor perspectives, 1 44
  45. 45. • “Even with the adoption of RDA, we believe that libraries will continue to use MARC and AACR2 for a long time. RDA has a significant impact on the library industry as a whole. Our customers are importing records from many different sources and all of those sources must update their software in order to comply with the RDA standard. We are committed to supporting the needs of our customers in this regard. Our desire is to continue to allow customers to import and maintain their catalogs with the least amount of disruption in their workflows.” ~ SirsiDynix ( APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA RDA: Vendor perspectives, 2 45
  46. 46. • MARC 21 and its predecessors have served the library community well for nearly 50 years but taking full advantage of what RDA offers requires more flexible and robust data structures. OCLC welcomes the Library of Congress‟s recent announcement of the Bibliographic Framework Transformation Initiative and looks forward to working with LC colleagues on this initiative. ~ OCLC ( APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA RDA: Vendor perspectives, 3 46
  47. 47. • RDA is not radically different from AACR; in fact, it could be argued that it hasn‟t changed sufficiently. Students in my advanced cataloguing class have noted that RDA still looks and feels very much like AACR, and that it does not yet have sufficient flexibility for nonprint resources. • Since LC and LAC are going to implement RDA, you need to consider seriously transitioning to the new standard. A key question is the degree to which vendors will adopt RDA, but given LC‟s decision, it‟s likely that they will. • You‟ll need to think about training plans and workshops: SIM could help  APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA Conclusions, 1 47
  48. 48. Conclusions, 2 • Conversion of existing records will generally not be necessary as records created using RDA are intended to integrate with AACR2 records in existing databases. • Eventually library systems and OPACs will evolve to take full advantage of the data created using RDA, with its underlying FRBR structure of work, expression, manifestation and item. These changes will improve the ease and effectiveness with which users are able to find, identify and obtain the resources they require. APLA 2012_FRBR & RDA • New MARC21 RDA fields will need to be incorporated into the cataloguing input/verification modules of local library systems to enable the import and/or export of new catalogue records from national libraries and vendors. 48