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Classification of Living Things

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Domains and Kingdoms

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Classification of Living Things

  1. 1. Classification of Living Organisms
  2. 2. • As living things are constantly being investigated, new attributes are revealed that affect how organisms are placed in a standard classification system. 2
  3. 3. What is taxonomy? • Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with the grouping and naming of organisms • Biologists who study this are called taxonomists
  4. 4. How did it start? • People wanted to organize their world so they began grouping, or classifying everything they saw.
  5. 5. Examples: •Things that break down dead materials •Things that reproduce sexually •Things that are single-celled •Things that have cell walls •Things that eat other organisms •Things that have a nucleus •Things that are multicellular TPS: What categories of living things do you remember?
  6. 6. Why classify? • To help us see relationships, similarities and differences • To help us organize all the organisms we discover . . .
  7. 7. • To give every species a name based on a standard method so scientists from different countries can talk about the same animal without confusion
  8. 8. Who is Carolus Linnaeus? • Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist • Developed a 7-level (taxa) classification system based on similarities between organisms
  9. 9. • • • • • • • • The Seven Level System Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • • • • • • • • Dear King Phillip Called Oprah For Good Spices
  10. 10. Domains • Domains are the broadest taxonomic classification of living organisms • The three Domains: Archaea Bacteria Eukarya 10
  11. 11. Domains are Divided into Kingdoms • Archaea----- Archaebacteria • Bacteria ------ Eubacteria • Eukarya ------- Protist Fungi Plantae Animalia 11
  12. 12. How does it work? • There are 6 broad kingdoms • Every living thing that we know of fits into one of the six kingdoms • Each level gets more specific as fewer organisms fit into any one group
  13. 13. Six Kingdoms of Life 13
  14. 14. • The grouping of organisms into KINGDOMS is based on 3 factors: – 1. Cell Type (prokaryotic or eukaryotic) – 2. Cell Number (unicellular or multicellular) – 3. Feeding Type (autotroph or heterotroph) 14
  15. 15. 1. Cell Type- The presence or absence of cellular structures such as the nucleus, mitochondria, or a cell wall Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes 15
  16. 16. Prokaryotes – Bacteria! • DO NOT HAVE: – A nucleus •Kingdom - Eubacteria •Prokaryotic – •Bacteria is unicellular •Structured organelles – has a cell wall 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. Eukaryotes • DO HAVE: • nucleus organized with a membrane • other organelles 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 2nd criteria for Kingdom Divisions: Cell Number •Unicellular- single celled organism – protozoans, bacteria, some algae •Multicellular- many celled organism – cells start to specialize/differentiate 20
  21. 21. • Unicellular • Multicellular 21
  22. 22. 3rd Criteria for Kingdom Divisions Feeding Type - How the organisms get their food –Autotroph or Producer Make their own food –Heterotroph or Consumer Must eat other organisms to survive Includes decomposers – those that eat dead matter! 22
  23. 23. 6 Kingdoms • • • • • • Archaebacteria Prokaryotes Eubacteria Protista Fungi Eukaryotes Plantae Animalia 23
  24. 24. • • • • • Domain - Archaea Kingdom- Archaebacteria Prokaryote Unicellular Autotrophs Has a cell wall and produces asexually • Ancient bacteria– Live in very harsh environments – extremophiles 24
  25. 25. Domain - Bacteria • • • • Kingdom – Eubacteria Prokaryotic Made up of one cell Bacteria can be an autotroph or an heterotroph • Bacteria has a cell wall and produces asexually • It is the eubacteria that most people are talking about when they say bacteria, because they live in more neutral conditions. 25
  26. 26. Bacteria • Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes 26
  27. 27. Protists • Protists include many widely ranging microbes, including slime molds, protozoa and primitive algae. • There are animal-like, fungus-like, and plant-like protists • Some are beneficial • Some protists can cause diseases in humans 27
  28. 28. Domain- Eukarya • • • • Protista Kingdom Protists have a nucleus Most are unicellular Some protists have a cell wall and some do not have a cell wall • Protists produce sexually 28
  29. 29. Protists Nutrition • Protists can be autotrophs or heterotrophs 29
  30. 30. Fungi Kingdom • The Kingdom Fungi includes some of the most important organisms. • By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. 30
  31. 31. • All fungi are eukaryotic • They may be unicellular or multicellular Fungi Unicellular (yeast) Multicellular • All fungi have a cell wall • Produces sexually 31
  32. 32. Fungi Ringworm • Fungi can be very helpful and delicious • Many antibacterial drugs are derived from fungi • Fungi also causes a number of plant Penicillin 32
  33. 33. Fungi Nutrition • All fungi are heterotrophs - Saprophytes-get their nutrients from dead organic matter - Parasites – absorb from a host, eventually killing the host 33
  34. 34. Plantae Kingdom • All plants are multicellular • The are all eukaryotes with cell walls • they are autotrophs • Plants reproduce sexually and asexually 34
  35. 35. Animalia Kingdom All animals are: -Multicellular: they have a nucleus and are lacking a cell wall -Heterotrophs -Reproduce sexually -Capable of movement at some point in their lives. 35
  36. 36. At this point, your Characteristics of Kingdoms Comparison Matrix is complete CHECK YOUR WORK MAKE CORRECTIONS/ADDITIONS AS NEEDED 36

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