FITNESS TESTS Briefly describe (dot points) the procedure used by you while completing each of the 3 fitness tests Name 2 specific sporting examples each test would be suited to. (which athletes would perform which test)
Phosphate Recovery Test Performers must complete 8x7sec sprints departing every 30sec (23sec recovery). Each sprint is to be completed at maximal/100% intensity. Performer scores points indicated by the last cone passed after the 7sec mark. Performers use the scores recorded and put them into a formula to determine their Percentage Decrement Score (the lower the % the better the result)
20m Shuttle Run Test (BeepTest) Performers run between 2 parallel lines 20m apart, getting from one line to the other in the designated time period noted by the BEEP on the CD. Performers turn/pivot on the line and head back to the start, they must reach that before the next BEEP. As the test progresses, new levels are reached resulting in less time allowed to reach each line before the BEEP (intensity and speed ↑) Performers run until exhaustion and are eliminated from the test when they fail to reach the line before the BEEP on 2 consecutive occasions.
Shuttle Run Test Performer is required to run up to and back from the free throw line, half court, far free throw line and far end of the court. Each trial is to be done at maximal/100% intensity (as fast as possible). Record the time it takes to complete the run/trial. The run is repeated 4 times with 2mins rest between each trial.
ENERGY SYSTEMS1. For each of the fitness tests completed in class name the predominant energy system and explain why it would be predominant (remember key terms!).2. For each of the energy systems list the fuel source(s), ATP resynthesis rate (in terms of how rapid compared to other systems) and yield of ATP per molecule (how much ATP is produced per molecule of fuel source).
1 Phosphate Recovery Test: - Predominant system = ATP-PC system - Explanation = Maximal intensity (100% effort) with the duration of repetition being 7 seconds. 20m Shuttle Run Test: - Predominant system = Aerobic energy system - Explanation = Sub-maximal intensity for the majority of test with duration being greater than 4mins. Suicide Run Test: - Predominant System = Anaerobic glycolysis/Lactic Acid system - Explanation = Maximal intensity (100% effort) sprint with a duration of 30-45 seconds.
2 ATP-PC system Fuel = Phosphocreatine ATP Resynth Rate = Most/Very Rapid ATP Yield = 0.7 (or <1) molecule. Anaerobic system Fuel = Glycogen/Glucose ATP Resynth Rate = Rapid ATP Yield = 2-3 molecules. Aerobic system Fuel = CHO (glucose) and Fats (FFA) ATP Resynth Rate = Slow ATP Yield = 38 molecules per molecule of glycogen and over 100 molecules per molecule of fats.
FATIGUE AND RECOVERY 1. Identify the fatigue mechanisms that would occur during/after each test and briefly explain how they may affect performance. 2. List and briefly explain all recovery strategies covered in class.
1 Phosphate Recovery Test: - Depletion of PC stores due to insufficient recovery time results in lower PC stores for the next sprint and a higher reliance on the anaerobic system which cannot supply energy for ATP resynthesis at the same rate as the ATP-PC system, resulting in a decrease in performance. Also a build up of hydrogen ions and Pi (metabolic by-products) occurs which may cause fatigue and result in further performance decreases. Suicide Run Test: - Build up of metabolic by-products (most notably hydrogen ions) due to the muscles relying predominately on the anaerobic glycolysis (LA) system to provide energy. These by-products negatively affect muscular contractions. As there is not sufficient recovery time between efforts to remove these by-products they build up and their affects become more evident resulting in a decrease in performance times. 20m Shuttle Run Test (Beep Test): - Depletion of glycogen stores due to the muscles relying on the aerobic system for energy resulting in the “hitting the wall” phenomenon and causing performance to decrease. Also ↑ Body temp causing dehydration and blood flow away
2 Active Recovery = involves moving/exercising with a greatly reduced workload. This helps to prevent venous pooling and moves blood through the muscles providing oxygen to aid in the removal of metabolic by-products. Passive recovery = recovering by completely resting the muscles or via very slow exercise (walking pace). This strategy is used to help fully replenish PC stores in muscles. Fluid replenishment = water & sports drinks consumed both during and after exercise to help with rehydration, replacement of lost electrolytes and replenishment of glycogen stores Massage = receiving massage treatment during/after exercise on the predominantly used muscle groups. This strategy aids in the removal of metabolic by-products (increasing blood flow), decreases muscle tension/stiffness and reduces the impact of DOMS. Compression Garments = wearing compression garments (e.g. Skins) during and after exercise. The wearing of such garments enhances blood flow (↑oxygen & nutrients, remove MB by- products), reduces venous pooling and the severity of DOMS. Hydrotherapy = this strategy involves the use of water in post- exercise recovery. Examples include contrast water therapy (hot/cold baths), cryotherapy (cold), thermotherapy (heat) and pool/beach sessions. These methods all help ↑ blood flow to muscles (by-product removal) and prevent venous pooling.
ACUTE RESPONSES TO EXERCISE For each of the completed fitness tests name 2 cardio, respiratory and muscular acute responses that may occur (try not to repeat responses where possible).
RESPIRATORY CARDIOVASCULAR MUSCULAR ↑ Heart Rate (HR) ↑ Motor Unit Recruitment ↑ Ventilation (V) ↑ Stroke Volume (SV) ↑ Blood Flow to Working↑ Tidal Volume (TV) ↑ Cardiac Output (Q) Muscles↑ Respiratory Rate ↑ Venous Return ↑ Body Temp (RR) ↑ a-vO2 Difference ↑ Lactate Production ↑ Diffusion ↑ Oxygen Consumption ↓ Intramuscular Substrate Levels (↓ fuel ↓ Blood Volume sources)V = Amount of air breathed in/out per minTV = Amount of air inspired/expired per breathRR = Number of breaths taken per minuteSV = Amount of blood pumped out by left ventricle per beatQ = Amount of blood pumped out of heart per min