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Lesson Overview 3.2 Energy, Producers,  and Consumers
Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>What are primary producers? </li></ul></ul>
Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>What are primary producers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary producers are the first produ...
Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>Organisms need energy for growth, reproduction, and metabolic processes. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>For most life on Earth, sunlight is the ultimate energy source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F...
Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>Plants, algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and conver...
Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>Primary producers store energy in forms that make it available to other organisms that eat t...
Energy From the Sun <ul><ul><li>The best-known and most common primary producers harness solar energy through the process ...
Energy From the Sun <ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis  captures light energy and uses it to power chemical reactions that convert...
Energy From the Sun <ul><ul><li>Plants are the main photosynthetic producers on land. Algae fill that role in freshwater e...
Life Without Light <ul><ul><li>Biologists have discovered thriving ecosystems around volcanic vents in total darkness on t...
Life Without Light <ul><ul><li>Deep-sea ecosystems depend on primary producers that harness chemical energy from inorganic...
Consumers <ul><ul><li>How do consumers obtain energy and nutrients? </li></ul></ul>
 
Consumers <ul><ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul>
Consumers <ul><ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul>Also referred to as  ...
Consumers <ul><ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul>Also referred to as  ...
Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Consumers are classified by the ways in which they acquire energy and nutrients. </li></ul>...
 
Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Carnivores  kill and eat other animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catching and killing prey...
 
 
<ul><ul><li>Herbivores  obtain energy and nutrients by eating plant material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They generally sp...
 
<ul><ul><li>Scavengers  consume the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of other ca...
 
<ul><ul><li>Omnivores  are animals whose diets naturally include a variety of different foods that usually include both pl...
 
Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Detritivores,  like giant earthworms, feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding...
Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Detritivores,  like giant earthworms, feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding...
Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Detritivores,  like giant earthworms, feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding...
Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Detritivores,  like giant earthworms, feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding...
 
<ul><li>The mold is consuming this fruit </li></ul>
<ul><li>The “blue” in blue </li></ul><ul><li>cheese is from mold. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Milk is turned into yogurt by bacteria that consumes the milk.  The bacteria gives off a waste product that is sli...
Beyond Consumer Categories <ul><ul><li>Organisms in nature often do not stay inside the categories we put them in. </li></...
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Miller section 3.2 (producers & consumers)

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Miller section 3.2 (producers & consumers)

  1. 1. Lesson Overview 3.2 Energy, Producers, and Consumers
  2. 2. Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>What are primary producers? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>What are primary producers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary producers are the first producers of energy-rich compounds that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are later used by other organisms. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>Organisms need energy for growth, reproduction, and metabolic processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No organism can create energy—organisms can only use energy from other sources. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>For most life on Earth, sunlight is the ultimate energy source. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For some organisms, however, chemical energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds serves as the ultimate energy source for life processes. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>Plants, algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and convert it into forms that living cells can use. These organisms are called autotrophs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs are also called primary producers. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Primary Producers <ul><ul><li>Primary producers store energy in forms that make it available to other organisms that eat them, and are therefore essential to the flow of energy through the biosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, plants obtain energy from sunlight and turn it into nutrients that can be eaten and used for energy by animals such as a caterpillar. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Energy From the Sun <ul><ul><li>The best-known and most common primary producers harness solar energy through the process of photosynthesis. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Energy From the Sun <ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis captures light energy and uses it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates. This process adds oxygen to the atmosphere and removes carbon dioxide. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Energy From the Sun <ul><ul><li>Plants are the main photosynthetic producers on land. Algae fill that role in freshwater ecosystems and the sunlit upper ocean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic bacteria, most commonly cyanobacteria, are important primary producers in tidal flats and salt marshes. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Life Without Light <ul><ul><li>Biologists have discovered thriving ecosystems around volcanic vents in total darkness on the deep ocean floor. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Life Without Light <ul><ul><li>Deep-sea ecosystems depend on primary producers that harness chemical energy from inorganic molecules such as hydrogen sulfide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of chemical energy to produce carbohydrates is called chemosynthesis. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Consumers <ul><ul><li>How do consumers obtain energy and nutrients? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Consumers <ul><ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Consumers <ul><ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul>Also referred to as HETEROTROPHS
  16. 17. Consumers <ul><ul><li>Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy and nutrients </li></ul></ul>Also referred to as HETEROTROPHS other
  17. 18. Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Consumers are classified by the ways in which they acquire energy and nutrients. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Carnivores kill and eat other animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catching and killing prey can be difficult and requires energy, but meat is rich in nutrients and energy and is easy to digest. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. <ul><ul><li>Herbivores obtain energy and nutrients by eating plant material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They generally spend a great deal of their day eating in order to get enough nutrients as much of the plant matter they eat is indigestible. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><ul><li>Scavengers consume the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of other causes. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><ul><li>Omnivores are animals whose diets naturally include a variety of different foods that usually include both plants and animals. Humans, bears, and pigs are omnivores. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 29. Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Detritivores, like giant earthworms, feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding them into smaller pieces. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 30. Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Detritivores, like giant earthworms, feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding them into smaller pieces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>little particles of decaying matter </li></ul></ul>
  24. 31. Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Detritivores, like giant earthworms, feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding them into smaller pieces. Detritivores commonly digest decomposers that live on, and in, detritus particles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers , such as bacteria and fungi, feed by chemically breaking down organic matter. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 32. Types of Consumers <ul><ul><li>Detritivores, like giant earthworms, feed on detritus particles, often chewing or grinding them into smaller pieces. Detritivores commonly digest decomposers that live on, and in, detritus particles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers , such as bacteria and fungi, feed by chemically breaking down organic matter. </li></ul></ul>They secrete enzymes that digest and liquify organic matter outside their body cells so that they can absorb it.
  26. 34. <ul><li>The mold is consuming this fruit </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>The “blue” in blue </li></ul><ul><li>cheese is from mold. </li></ul>
  28. 36. <ul><li>Milk is turned into yogurt by bacteria that consumes the milk. The bacteria gives off a waste product that is slightly acidic which thickens the milk proteins and gives yogurt its tangy flavor. </li></ul>
  29. 37. Beyond Consumer Categories <ul><ul><li>Organisms in nature often do not stay inside the categories we put them in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, some carnivores will scavenge if they get the chance. Many aquatic animals eat a mixture of algae, bits of animal carcasses, and detritus particles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to expand upon consumer categories by discussing the way that energy and nutrients move through ecosystems. </li></ul></ul>

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