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CVJ531: Intro to MySQL

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MySQL

Let’s Get Relational
Tables
• Think of each table as a spreadsheet
• We define columns, also known as fields,
  which classify our data
• Each record in the table is a row
Data Types
• Varchar
  – Variable Characters, specify up to how many
    characters something will be
• Char
  – A set number of characters, good for things like
    state abbreviations
• Int
  – Whole numbers, positive or negative
Data Types
• Float
  – Floating Point, also known as a decimal
• Text
  – A huge blob of text, like a paragraph or more
• TinyInt / Bit / Boolean
  – 0 or 1, True or False
• DateTime
  – A date and time 0000-00-00 00:00:00
Data Types
• Depending on the flavor of SQL (Oracle,
  MySQL, MSSQL, PostgreSQL, etc) there are
  many more
• Don’t get overwhelmed, just think of what will
  be best in terms of sorting and lookups
User Table Example
• Username
  – Varchar
• Password
  – Varchar
• ID
  – Integer
• AccountCreated
  – DateTime

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CVJ531: Intro to MySQL

  • 2. Tables • Think of each table as a spreadsheet • We define columns, also known as fields, which classify our data • Each record in the table is a row
  • 3. Data Types • Varchar – Variable Characters, specify up to how many characters something will be • Char – A set number of characters, good for things like state abbreviations • Int – Whole numbers, positive or negative
  • 4. Data Types • Float – Floating Point, also known as a decimal • Text – A huge blob of text, like a paragraph or more • TinyInt / Bit / Boolean – 0 or 1, True or False • DateTime – A date and time 0000-00-00 00:00:00
  • 5. Data Types • Depending on the flavor of SQL (Oracle, MySQL, MSSQL, PostgreSQL, etc) there are many more • Don’t get overwhelmed, just think of what will be best in terms of sorting and lookups
  • 6. User Table Example • Username – Varchar • Password – Varchar • ID – Integer • AccountCreated – DateTime
  • 8. CRUD • Create • Retrieve • Update • Delete
  • 9. Create • INSERT is used to create a new record in the database • INSERT VALUES (username, password) INTO users (‘fluffybunny’, ‘123456’)
  • 10. Retrieve • SELECT is used to retrieve a record in the database • SELECT username, password FROM users WHERE ID = 1
  • 11. Anatomy of SELECT • SELECT [column] – The command • FROM [table] – The table you want to select from • WHERE *column+ = ‘value’ – Specifics • ORDER BY [column] [ASC/DESC] – Sort by column • LIMIT [Number] – Limit the number of records returned
  • 12. UPDATE • UPDATE is used to change record(s) in the database • UPDATE users SET username = ‘FluffyBuns’ WHERE ID = 1
  • 13. DELETE • DELETE is used to remove records from the database • DELETE FROM users WHERE ID = 1 ** if you do not specify anything in the WHERE clause, it will delete everything in that table
  • 14. Users and Groups Users Groups UserGroups ID User ID Group UserID GroupID 1 John 1 Sharks 1 2 2 Jane 2 Ducks 2 2 3 Sally 3 Lemurs 3 1 4 Ryan 4 1 5 Joe 5 3
  • 15. Joins • SELECT User, Group FROM Users JOIN UserGroups ON Users.ID = UserGroups.UserID JOIN Groups ON UserGroups.GroupID = Groups.ID WHERE Group = ‘Sharks’
  • 16. IN • SELECT User FROM Users WHERE ID IN (1,2) • SELECT User FROM Users WHERE ID IN (SELECT UserID FROM UserGroups WHERE GroupID = 2)
  • 17. BETWEEN • SELECT User FROM Users WHERE ID BETWEEN 3 AND 5
  • 18. Conditions and Operators • WHERE can also use wildcards for text – WHERE Column IS LIKE ‘%something%’ • WHERE can use more than = – WHERE ID < 4 – WHERE ID <= 4 • WHERE can combine conditions – WHERE Column = ‘A’ AND Column2 = ‘B’ – WHERE Column = ‘A’ OR Column2 = ‘B’ – WHERE (Column = ‘A’ OR Column2 = B’) AND Other = ‘C’
  • 19. Nerding Out • SQL has functions, like COUNT and SUM • SELECT Customer, SUM(Amount) FROM Orders GROUP BY Customer • SELECT COUNT(Customer) FROM Orders GROUP BY Customer
  • 20. Indexes • It’s a good habit to create a column for each table that acts as an ID • We can put an index on the ID and it can speed up the query time • Unless you’re dealing with really big datasets, you probably won’t have to worry about this
  • 21. Database Design • Design a schema for a social network – I’m cool with stretching this to something else • At a minimum it must contain: – Users – Posts – Friend Relationships – Likes • You will create a web interface for this database later