鏈結資料在圖書館的應用20131107

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Linked Data and Its Application in Library

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鏈結資料在圖書館的應用20131107

  1. 1. Linked Data for Libraries Hao-Ren Ke National Taiwan Normal University 1
  2. 2. Outline Semantic Web Overview Principles of Linked Data Web of Data – Results of Linked Data Implementation Framework Start thinking your applications Conclusion 2
  3. 3. 鏈結(開放)資料 鏈結(開放)資料 = Linked (Open) Data, L(O)D Linked Data is a set of best practices to publish and link structured data on the Web Linked data realizes Semantic Web (Web 3.0) 3
  4. 4. SEMANTIC WEB OVERVIEW 4
  5. 5. Weaving the Web – Vision of Tim Berners-Lee The first step is putting data on the Web in a form that machines can naturally understand, or converting it to that form. This creates what I call a Semantic Web (SW) – a web of data that can be processed directly or indirectly by machines -- Tim Berners-Lee Weaving the Web, Harper San Francisco, 1999 Require that there be a machineunderstandable semantics for some or all of the information presented in the WWW Berners-Lee, T. (2000). Weaving the Web: The original design and ultimate destiny of the World Wide Web. Harper Business, 1st edition. 5
  6. 6. Original Web Proposal to CERN Encompass additional metadata above and beyond what is currently in the Web. This additional metadata is needed for machines to be able to process information on the Web 6
  7. 7. Definition of Semantic Web The Semantic Web is a Web that is able to describe things in a way that computers can understand The Beatles was a popular band from Liverpool. John Lennon was a member of the Beatles. The Semantic Web is not about links between web pages. The Semantic Web describes the relationships between things and the properties of things An infrastructure enables machines to COMPREHEND semantic documents and 7 data
  8. 8. What achieves the Semantic Web? 8
  9. 9. Basic RDF Model A model for describing resources named properties property values (resource, property, value) 9
  10. 10. Meta-online Store – Findbook.tw 10
  11. 11. 虛擬聯合目錄 http://metacat.ntu.edu.tw/metacat/app 11
  12. 12. Housingmaps.com -- Mashup 12
  13. 13. PRINCIPLES OF LINKED DATA http://linkeddatabook.com/editions/1.0/# 13
  14. 14. Five Stars 14
  15. 15. Linked Data Principles A set of best practices for publishing and interlinking structured data on the Web Sharing structured data on global scale Access, Discovery, Integration Linked Data principles Use URIs as names for things. Use HTTP URIs, so that a client (machine or human reader) can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL). Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more things. 15
  16. 16. Naming Things with URIs 17
  17. 17. RDF in human-readable format Let’s Try http://biglynx.co.uk/people/matt-briggs 18
  18. 18. foaf, dc, skos, productions…: vocabulary topic_interest, title, directed: vocabulary term <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://biglynx.co.uk/people/matt-briggs"> <foaf:topic_interest rdf:resource="http://dbpedia.org/resource/Wildlife_photography"/> <foaf:name> Matt Briggs </foaf:name> <foaf:isPrimaryTopicOf rdf:resource="http://biglynx.co.uk/people/matt-briggs.rdf"/> <foaf:based_near rdf:resource="http://sws.geonames.org/3333125/"/> <foaf:based_near rdf:resource="http://dbpedia.org/resource/Birmingham"/> <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person"/> <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://biglynx.co.uk/vocab/productions#Director"/> <rel:employedBy rdf:resource="http://biglynx.co.uk/people/dave-smith"/> <productions:directed rdf:resource="http://biglynx.co.uk/productions/pacific-sharks"/> </rdf:Description> … </rdf:RDF> RDF in XML format 19
  19. 19. Including Links to Other Things Set RDF links pointing into other data sources on the Web Glue that connects data islands into a global, interconnected data space Enable applications to discover additional data sources Three types of RDF links Relationship Links Identity Links Vocabulary Links 22
  20. 20. http://dbpedia.org/page/Chien-Ming_Wang 24
  21. 21. 26
  22. 22. 28
  23. 23. WEB OF DATA – RESULTS OF LINKED DATA 29
  24. 24. LOD Data Cloud as of September 2011 30
  25. 25. Topology of the Web of Data Domain Number of datasets 25 31 49 87 41 Media Geographic Government Publications Crossdomain Life sciences 41 User20 generated content 295 Triples % (Out-)Links % 1,841,852,061 6,145,532,484 13,315,009,400 2,950,720,693 4,184,635,715 5.82 % 19.43 % 42.09 % 9.33 % 13.23 % 50,440,705 35,812,328 19,343,519 139,925,218 63,183,065 10.01 % 7.11 % 3.84 % 27.76 % 12.54 % 3,036,336,004 134,127,413 9.60 % 0.42 % 191,844,090 3,449,143 38.06 % 0.68 % 31,634,213,770 503,998,829 31
  26. 26. Cross-Domain Data DBpedia A data set automatically extracted from publicly available Wikipedia dumps. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birmingham  http://dbpedia.org/resource/Birmingham Freebase, UMBEL, YAGO, and OpenCyc 32
  27. 27. Geographic Data Geonames An open-license geographical database that publishes Linked Data about 8 million locations LinkedGeoData A Linked Data conversion of data from the OpenStreetMap project Interlinking between Geonames, LinkedGeoData, and DBpedia Linked data versions of EuroStat, World Factbook, US Census data sets 33
  28. 28. LinkedGeoData Browser 34
  29. 29. Media Data British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes http://www.bbc.co.uk/music http://bbc.openlinksw.com/ New York Times http://data.nytimes.com/ Thomas Reuters: Calais http://www.opencalais.com/ 35
  30. 30. 36
  31. 31. Libraries and Education VIAF http://viaf.org/ American LC (Subject Heading) http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85042531 OpenLibrary http://openlibrary.org/ DBLP http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/ Talis Aspire http://www.talisaspire.com/ WorldCat 37
  32. 32. VIAF 38
  33. 33. OpenLibrary 39
  34. 34. WorldCat 40
  35. 35. dblp 41
  36. 36. ACCESS, DISCOVERY, INTEGRATION 42
  37. 37. Open Metadata Registry 43
  38. 38. CKAN Registry 44
  39. 39. Linked Data SE – Falcons 45
  40. 40. Linked Data Browser -- Sig.Ma 46
  41. 41. Revyu 47
  42. 42. IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK 48
  43. 43. Plan Your Linked Data Define your model URI, resources, relationships Select or define your metadata terms Terms should be defined using an RDF-based standard (RDF or OWL) Select or define any controlled vocabularies Each list of terms will be described in an RDFcompatible format (such as SKOS) Create links from your data (terms) to related data (terms) on the Web 49
  44. 44. Schema.org 50
  45. 45. Patterns in a Nutshell 51
  46. 46. START THINKING YOUR APPLICATIONS 52
  47. 47. Publishing Linked Data Enrich the Web of Data Library catalog Digital archives 「NBINet臺灣書目控制工作小組(權威建置)」  姓 名權威、VIAF 《中文圖書分類法》、《中文主題詞表》 《全國新書資訊月刊》的書評、讀書人語,以及各 種得獎紀錄 … 53
  48. 48. Consuming Linked Data Enrich your library catalog Browse catalog by classification FRBRization Union Catalog … 54
  49. 49. Enrich your catalog 55
  50. 50. Google Knowledge Graph 56
  51. 51. Browse by Classification 圖片來源:玄奘大學圖書館 57
  52. 52. Your E-Portfolio 個人 資訊 個人 能力 職涯 規劃 目標 獎助學 金紀錄 任職 紀錄 專業 發展 專業 認證 研習 紀錄 反思 回饋 表現 評估 58
  53. 53. 59
  54. 54. Conclusion and Issues Linked Data is a set of best practices to realize Semantic Web Linked Data improves the access, discovery, and integration of Web data by using open standards Linked Data  Linked Open Data  Big Data 60
  55. 55. Conclusion and Issues (Cont.) Why is Linked Data important for libraries? People can more easily find library resources on the Web More creative applications based on library metadata Opportunities for cataloging efficiency and innovation Issues Where to find relevant datasets How to build links automatically Killer applications Quality 61

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