Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pigments and painting


Published on

A slideshow prepared for 3rd/4th grade students in order to get them close to some of the materials used in arts.

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Pigments and painting

  1. 1. Pigments Before the Industrial Revolution (1760-1840), the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technically limited. Most of the pigments in use were earth and mineral pigments, or pigments of biological origin. Pigments from unusual sources such as botanical materials, animal waste, insects, and mollusks were harvested and traded over long distances. Pigments and painting Some colors were costly or impossible to mix with the range of pigments that were available. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their expense.
  2. 2. Prehistoric times Naturally occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. They used charcoal and mineral ochre, blood, egg, animal fat to create the images, often diluting these pigments to produce variations in intensity and creating an impression of chiaroscuro. They also exploited the natural contours in the cave walls to give their subjects a three-dimensional effect.
  3. 3. The Milkmaid, by Johannes Vermeer (c. 1658). Vermeer was generous in his choice of expensive pigments, including Indian Yellow, Lapis lazuli, and Carmine, as shown in this vibrant painting.
  4. 4. Ultramarine blue Ultramarine is a deep blue color and a pigment which was originally made by grinding the semi-precious mineral lapis lazuli into a powder. Ultramarine is the most complex of the mineral pigments; it contains a blue cubic mineral called lazurite.
  5. 5. Ultramarine blue Lapis lazuli Mineral pigments were also traded over long distances; the best sources of lapis were remote. Ultramarinus (Lat) = beyond the sea (imported from Asia).
  6. 6. Indian Yellow Dutch and Flemish painters of the 17th and 18th centuries favored it for its luminescent qualities, and often used it to represent sunlight.
  7. 7. Indian Yellow Cow piss? Regarding the exact origins there are many wild stories. It is said that Indian Yellow was once produced by collecting the urine of cattle that had been fed only mango leaves. The urine would be collected and dried, producing foul-smelling hard dirty yellow balls of the raw pigment, called "purree‖. Since mango leaves are nutritionally inadequate for cattle, the practice of harvesting Indian Yellow was eventually declared to be inhumane. It is not exactly clear when Indian yellow was first introduced into Europe. It is known, however, that between the 15th and 18th century brown, rather pungent balls were imported into Europe from Asia. Once they were broken open they revealed a wonderful warm yellow powder. By grinding and mixing the balls with a binding agent such as egg, oil or gum, the characteristic golden yellow, transparent paint was produced. The origins of the pigment lay somewhere in Persia, China or India. Modern hues of Indian Yellow are made from synthetic pigments.
  8. 8. Carmine Red The name Carmine probably comes from the Arabic word ‗Chamra‘, which means red and from which the word crimson also derives. It had been used since ancient times by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans in order to dye fabrics. In the Middle Ages the term scarlet was introduced. Due to its high price, only rich people -church leaders, sovereigns and other dignitaries- could permit themselves a Carmine red gown or cloak.
  9. 9. Carmine Red Miracle of the Slave by Tintoretto (c. 1548). The son of a master dyer, Tintoretto used Carmine Red Lake pigment, to achieve dramatic color effects. These days the characteristic dark red is therefore made from a stable, synthetic pigment. Do you know where Carmine used to come from?
  10. 10. Carmine Red Cochineal Beetle Spain's conquest of a New World introduced new pigments and colors to peoples on both sides of the Atlantic. Carmine, a dye and pigment derived from a parasitic insect found in Central and South America, attained great status and value in Europe. Produced from harvested, dried, and crushed cochineal beetle, carmine could be, and still is, used in fabric dye, food dye, body paint, or in its solid lake form, almost any kind of paint or cosmetic. Video:
  11. 11. How paint is made Since historic times painters explored the environment for suitable pigments: chalk, charcoal, the dye of berries, crustaceans, and minerals extracted from the ground. For these materials (pigments) to be formed into paint, they needed to be mixed with a medium to bind them as a liquid. Effective media were resins, gums -such as gum arabic, still used to bind watercolors today -and wax. A tempera paint made from egg was the dominant medium in the Middle Ages until the 15th century, when oil painting came to the fore. Oils and watercolors dominated until the advent of acrylic in the 1940s.
  12. 12. Painting All paints require a binding medium that can hold pigments in suspension and permits successful application to prepared supports—walls, wood panels, vellum, paper, or stretched fabric (canvas). Early forms of paint consisted of pigment bound by a water-based glue called size, made from animal skins. Alternatives were gums and resins extracted from trees, the white and yolk of eggs, and beeswax. From the 15th to the 20th century the dominant medium was vegetable—usually linseed— oil. Egg tempera Painters on panel used egg yolk mixed with pigment and a little water. This was the principal painting medium before the arrival of oil paint. Although tempera is quick-drying, building up the colors of a painting was a slow process. Panels were prepared with layers of gesso, a mixture of size and chalk to form a smooth surface. The paint was applied over a prepared drawing. Gradations of color had to be built up slowly, by means a series of carefully juxtaposed applications of paint. Egg tempera (video) Entombment of Christ, Russian icon, 15th century Tempera on panel.
  13. 13. Fresco Fresco (the Italian word for ―fresh‖) refers to the method of painting in which pigments, mixed solely with water, are painted directly onto a freshly laid lime-plaster ground. The liquid paint is absorbed into the plaster and as the plaster dries the pigments are bound within the fabric of the wall surface. Fresco was practiced by the Minoans, the ancient Greeks, and the Romans long before its use by Michelangelo and other painters during the Renaissance.
  14. 14. The Creation of Adam is a fresco painting by Michelangelo, forming part of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted c.1511–1512. It illustrates the Biblical creation narrative from the Book of Genesis in which God breathes life into Adam, the first man.
  15. 15. Oil painting Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried oil paint film. Oil paints have been used in Europe since the 12th century for simple decoration, but were not widely adopted as an artistic medium until the early 15th century. Vegetable oil—principally walnut, poppy, and linseed—had been used as a medium for painting for some time before the Renaissance, but was more popular in northern Europe than in Italy. The oldest known oil paintings date from 650 AD, found in 2008 in caves in Afghanistan's Bamiyan Valley, "using walnut and poppy seed oils."
  16. 16. Oil painting
  17. 17. Oil painting It was the skill of Flemish painters such as Jan Van Eyck at the beginning of the 15th century (1410) that convinced the Venetians and subsequently other Italians and the rest Europe that oils were the best medium for easel painting, especially portraits. The advantages of oil paint are its strength and flexibility. The paint can be applied in many ways from thin glazes, diluted with turpentine, to thick impasto. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might even remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew. This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a certain time while the paint is wet, but after a while, the hardened layer must be scraped. Video: beautiful paintings The Arnolfini Marriage is an oil painting on oak panel (1434) by Jan van Eyck.
  18. 18. Oil painting For centuries before the invention of the paint tube, artists used to store their paints in… pig bladders! When the artist was ready to use the paint, they would puncture a hole in the bladder and squeeze out the desired amount of paint. They would have to mend the hole when finished and the whole process was quite messy.
  19. 19. Oil painting: A revolution John G. Rand., a little-known American portrait painter, living in London in 1841, struggled to keep his oil paints from drying out before he could use them. He invented the oil paint tube in 1841, as the primary packaging of paints for transport and storage. This invention was slow to be accepted by many French artists (it added considerably to the price of paint), but when it caught on it was exactly what the Impressionists needed to escape from the confines of the studio, to take their inspiration directly from the world around them and commit it to canvas, particularly the effect of natural light.
  20. 20. Freedom Portability Escape from the confines of the studio For the first time it was practical to produce a finished painting at a café, at the beach, in the countryside! New colors! Industrial Revolution, advances, chemical discoveries, production
  21. 21. ―Don‘t paint bit by bit, but paint everything at once by placing tones everywhere.‖ Camille Pissarro
  22. 22. Pigments by chemical composition Metallic and carbon • Cadmium pigments: cadmium yellow, cadmium red, cadmium green, cadmium orange • Carbon pigments: carbon black (including vine blac, lamp black), ivory black (bone char) • Chromium pigments: chrome yellow and chrome green • Cobalt pigments: cobalt violet, cobalt blue, cerulean blue, aureolin (cobalt yellow) • Copper pigments: Azurite, Han purple, Han blue, Egyptian blue, Malachite, Paris green, Phthalocyanine Blue BN, Phthalocyanine Green G, verdigris, viridian • Iron oxide pigments: sanguine, caput mortuum, oxide red, red ochre, Venetian red, Prussian blue • Clay earth pigments (iron oxides): yellow ochre, raw sienna, burnt sienna, raw umber, burnt umber. • Lead pigments: lead white, cremnitz white, Naples yellow, red lead • Mercury pigments: vermilion • Titanium pigments: titanium yellow, titanium beige, titanium white, titanium black • Ultramarine pigments: ultramarine, ultramarine green shade • Zinc pigments: zinc white, zinc ferrite Biological and organic • Biological origins: alizarin (synthesized), alizarin crimson (synthesized), gamboge, cochineal red, rose madder, indigo, Indian yellow, Tyrian purple Non biological organic: quinacridone, magenta, phthalo green, phthalo blue, pigment red 170
  23. 23. Acrylics 1934 the first usable acrylic resin dispersion was developed by German chemical company BASF, which was patented by Rohm and Haas. The synthetic paint was first used in 1940s, combining some of the properties of oil and watercolor (commercially available in the 1950s). Otto Rohm invented acrylic resin, which quickly transformed into acrylic paint. Prior to the 19th century, artists mixed their own paints, which allowed them to achieve the desired color and thickness and to control the use of fillers, if any. While suitable media and raw pigments are available for the individual production of acrylic paint, hand mixing may not be practical due to the fast drying time and other technical issues. The advantage of acrylics is that they are water-soluble when wet, but dry quickly to a durable surface. They can be used in transparent applications like watercolors or in thick, impasto applications like oil paints. Artistic Movements in the Later 20th Century Artists were beginning to explore movements and forms such as pop culture, photorealism, abstract expressionism, and pop art. Acrylics were the ideal medium for these art forms; media could be mixed, different textures and consistencies could be achieved (by mixing sand, water, or other elements into the paint), colors could be transparent or opaque, and artists could work much more quickly due to its substantially faster drying time. In essence, the arrival of acrylic painting opened up a whole new wave of creativity and possibility in the modern art world that to this day is still a strong influence in artistic forms and trends.
  24. 24. Watercolor Both watercolor and gouache paints are bound in gum arabic and are water soluble. Watercolor is transparent; Gouache is opaque. Watercolor uses the brightness of the paper or other support to generate a distinctive luminescence. Light passes through overlaid transparent washes and is reflected back from the support—for example, white paper.
  25. 25. Watercolor
  26. 26. Brushes Paint brushes are traditionally made from animal hair, stiff brushes from hog‘s bristles, finer ones from squirrel or sable hair. Both kinds are now produced using synthetic fibers. Video:
  27. 27. Whenever you paint, you‘re basically holding a stick with some animal hair secured at the end and smearing around crushed up rocks and oil on a piece of wood or cotton fiber!