“analysis of the continuous chains in normal
spoken language and conversation as
compared with the typical linguistic analysis
of individual phonemes analyzed in
isolation”Brown and Kondo-Brown (2006a)
Aspect of connected speech
• Weak forms are pronounced more quickly and at lower
volume in comparison to the stressed syllables.
went hotel booked room two nights
father best friend.
I went to the hotel and booked a room for two nights for my
father and his best friend.
Aspect of connected speech
Weak forms are pronounced more quickly and at lower volume in comparison to
the stressed syllables.
went hotel booked room two nights father best friend.
I went to the hotel and booked a room for two nights
for my father and his best friend.
/aɪ ˈwent tə ðə həʊ ˈtel ən ˈbʊkt ə ˈru:m fə ˈtu: ˈnaɪts fə
maɪ ˈfɑ:ðər ən hɪz ˈbest ˈfrend/
Find the reduced forms of the words.
1. It's for you.
2. It takes a lot of time.
3. How about a cup of tea.
4. What are you doing tonight?
5. What time will you arrive at Victoria?
6. I was going to tell you.
7. The leisure center is closed for a
8. The airport is not far from the capital
9. The book is about pronunciation.
10. We need more financial support.
11. You need to pay attention all the
12. It is a very thorough report.
• How sounds modify each other when they
BEFORE A VELAR
| ˈɡʊd ˈɡɝːl
ðət ˈkɪd |
Identify rules of assimilation
He’s a rather fat boy.
He’s bringing his own car.
He’s a very good boy.
I really love this shiny one over here.
Can you see that girl over there?
We found this little cheese shop in
She’s a very good girl.
Would you like a cup of tea?
You went to France last year, didn’t
• t and d when appear in consonant clusters
– We arrived the next day
– When we reached Paris we stopped for lunch
• Complex consonant clusters
– She acts like she owns the place
– George the Sixth’s throne
• Shwa can disappear in unstressed syllables
– I think we should call the police
– That’s an interesting idea
Alveolar consonants /t/ and /d/ when ‘sandwiched’ between two
consonants (CONS – t/d – CONS), e.g.
LINKING AND INTRUSION
• When two vowels meet, speakers link them in
(1) Type 1 – Consonant-to-Vowel Linking: an͜
error; is͜ awesome; give͜ in
(2) Type 2 – Consonant-to-Same-Consonant
Linking: some͜ music; Sue’s͜ snake;
(3) Type 3 – Consonant-Stop-to-Other-ConsonantStop Linking: enthusiastic͜ dad; adept
(4) Type 4 – Consonant-to-Similar-Consonant1
(5) Type 5 – Vowel-to-Vowel Linking: so͜ exciting;
diagonal; go͜ in; play͜ out
• Consonant to vowel linking – when the first word ends with a consonant
sound and the second word begins with a vowel sound. E.g. Fried egg / a
box oveggs / cupov tea /doyer? We change the sounds to make it flow!
• Vowel to vowel linking –when the first word ends in a vowel and the next
words begins with a vowel sound. We add a ‘w’ or ‘y’ sound.E.g.’ go in’ /
say it/do it/two eggs/ hiya! / cudyer?
• Consonant to consonant linking – when the first word ends in a
consonant and the next one begins with a consonant sound. We don’t
hear both separately, we just hear one. E.g. We only hear one /t/ E.g. A
bit tired /lot to do
Speakers with non-rothic accents will introduce /r/ to ease the
– Princess Diana was a victim of media explotation
– The media are to blame
– It’s a question of law and order
– I saw it happen
Linking /j/ and /w/
• I agree, wholeheartedly
• I think, therefore I am
I am, therefore I ought to be
• Go on! Go in!
• Are you inside?
• Who is that?
• You are
• I scream
• The clock keeps ticking
• The kids keep sticking things on the wall
• That’s my train
• It might rain
• Can I have some more ice?
• Can I have some more rice?
• Two words combine to the extent they
become one word