Emotional dimensions in_transformative_learning_processes_of_novice_teachers

499 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
499
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Emotional dimensions in_transformative_learning_processes_of_novice_teachers

  1. 1. Emotional dimensions in transformative learning processes of novice teachers. A qualitative study Loretta Fabbri & Claudio Melacarne, University of Siena - Maura Striano, University of Naples Federico II. fabbri@unisi.it - claudio.melacarne@unisi.it - maura.striano@unina.it Abstract The qualitative study has involved 100 novice teachers attending a two year training course inTeacher College at the Universities of Florence and Siena and has been focused on the analysis oftransformative learning processes (Mezirow, 1990; 1991) occurring during the practicum withinthe interaction among novice and expert teachers using a narrative inquiry approach (Connelly &Clandinin, 1995). Novice teachers have been asked to write a professional short narrative about a problematicexperience in their training framed as “critical incident” (Brookfield, 1990). Narratives have beencollected in order to identify transformative processes and turning points in the construction ofteacher’s professional epistemology focusing on their epistemic and emotional involvement.Narratives have been processed both by statistic classification and qualitative analysis using aprocess of methodological and investigator triangulation. Contents1. Scientific background2. Theoretical framework3. Study questions4. Research focus and objectives5. Methodology6. A first quantitative analysis: the focus of the reflective action7. The qualitative analysis 7.1. Unsaid emotions. I do what I feel like doing. I learn as a professional by observation, by trial and errors. Emotions are imbedded in the practices. No cognitive apprenticeship occurs 7.2. Helplessness. I won’t do as you teach me. 7.3. Emotions are an “individual thing”. I learn by opposition because I feel that what you propose is not right 7.4. Exploring reflectively emotional relationships with students and colleagues 7.5. Socializing emotions8. Critical points9. Essential references 1
  2. 2. 1. Scientific background In the last thirty years educational research has been increasingly focused on the relationshipamong knowledge construction processes, emotions and practices in educational and professionalcontexts, according to a constructivist paradigm.Within this framework, a growing body of research has examined the relationship between teachers’epistemological beliefs and the practice of teaching (King, Kitchener, 1994). The understanding ofteachers’ beliefs systems about teaching and learning is particularly informative about the mannerin which their classroom practice is constructed. Some studies, in detail, have focused on how inservice teachers’ beliefs are deeply linked to their practices and have reported that teachers whohold constructivist beliefs are more likely to explore student alternate conceptions of phenomena;have a richer repertoire of teaching strategies; and are more likely to use teaching strategies toinduce conceptual change (Arredondo and Rucinski, 1996, Hasweh 1996). Other studies have beenfocused on the epistemological differences in pre-service teachers, finding that pre-service teacherswith naïve epistemological beliefs tend to have a simplistic view of classroom problems and solvethem by drawing on some past personal experience, while pre-service teachers with moresophisticated epistemological beliefs are more likely to see complexity in classroom problems andreflectively seek out alternative viewpoints, including those of the child, family and school, beforedeciding on a course of action (White, 2000). In particular, some studies have been focused on teachers’ personal and “folk”epistemologies and psychologies, showing that individuals with relativistic beliefs are more able toconceive teaching as a facilitating process rather than a process for knowledge transmission; thestudy of teachers’ folk psychology show how teachers understand their pupils’ learning and howthis knowledge influences their teaching practices: teachers who believe that the focus in theirteaching should be on pupils’ behaviour rather than thinking look at learning as a reproduction andat teaching as a process of transmission, while teachers who look at their pupils as at competentthinkers, consider their learning a process of interpretation and interpret teaching as a constructivistendeavour (Brownlee, 2001, 2003; Olson and Bruner 1996). In this framework, research on childrenlearning show that children in constructivist child-centred environments compared with children indirective teaching environments increase motivation, decrease stress and increase problem solvingand language skills (Daniels & Shumow, 2003). Recent research has investigated the nature of earlychildhood teachers’ epistemological beliefs and its relationship with practice. exploring the natureof epistemological beliefs of childcare workers as a mediating factor in the nature and quality ofpractice (Brownlee, Berthelsen, & Boulton-Lewis, 2004; Brownlee and Berthelsen, 2006). Within this framework, two conceptual constructs are particularly relevant to the study andanalysis of professional practices: the construct of “personal epistemology” (Hofer, Pintrich, 2001)which refers to personal epistemological beliefs reflecting an individual’s views about whatknowledge is, how knowledge is gained, and the degree of certainty with which knowledge can beheld; and the construct of “professional epistemology” which refers to the use of different forms ofrationality in knowledge construction and transfer in the course of professionals’ actions andpractices (Schön, 1983; 1987). The development of personal and professional epistemologies can be understood n aconstructivist framework referring to theories of adult learning which portray it as a process ofconceptual change. In particular, transformative learning theory explains adult learning as a processwhich occurs through deep transformations in the frame of references adults use to give meaning topersonal and professional experiences and involves epistemic, sociolinguistic and psychologicaldimensions; this means that change of the frames of reference used to give meaning to theirexperiences and involves deep epistemological changes (Mezirow, 1991; 2002). In this perspective,teachers epistemological changes can be viewed as changes in the “epistemic perspectives” they useto frame and reframe their personal and professional experience according to “transformativelearning" theory. 2
  3. 3. 2. Theoretical framework A research framework which integrates the constructs of personal epistemology, professionalepistemology and transformative learning is particularly useful to understand the relation betweenteachers’ knowledge, practices and emotions for two reasons: 1) a first reason is that teachers administrate learning and teaching processes and these processesare influenced by beliefs, representation, theories (tacit theories, naïve theories, common sensetheories) teachers use to interpret their personal and professional experiences and professionalpractices change according to a transformative process regarding the frames of reference of thesebeliefs, representations, theories. 2) a second reason is that professional epistemologies are always linked to personalepistemologies where emotions play a central role in the construction of beliefs, representations,theories regarding various dimensions of teacher’s self; emotions, thus, are deeply involved in theway teachers give meaning to their professional practices. Emotions are very different in noviceand expert teacher and have a central role in the development of professional epistemologies. Professional epistemologies are developed through a process which implies deepepistemological change which can be understood using the construct of “transformative learning”(Mezirow, 1991; 2002). Assumptions on what’s the natural learning process, how the othersteachers value our work, or what’s the correct way to plan the curriculum, are implicit knowledgeand are usually very different from expert teachers’ practice but are a strong frame of referencenovice teachers would use to frame their practicum and training experiences, since those are pivotalelements that mediate their interpretations of reality. Novice teachers’ uncritically assimilatedmeaning perspectives, can this determine what, how, and why they feel and act in their classroompractice as observers and as practitioners. Promoting change is adult education and training is extremely challenging and can besustained through reflective devices (Schön, 1983; 1987; 1991¸Mezirow, 1990, 1991; Brookfield,1990). Which help the learner think through choices posed by the learning situation, explains itstheoretical context, provides supplementary information relevant to the professionals transition,makes referrals, and leads group discussion. The use of a a critical reflective practicum (Schön,1987; Mezirow, 1990) in teachers’college activities is thus particularly supportive ofepistemological change as well as of emotional awareness in novice teachers. The construction of a professional identity is strictly connected to theconstruction/deconstruction of a personal identity and in this complex process, epistemic and socio-linguistic meaning perspectives change together with psychological perspectives. Emotions play astrong role in the construction and development of professional epistemologies and personal growthand changes have a deep impact in the framing and reframing of professional identities and roles.The acknowledgment of the emotional dimension involved in teachers’ professional epistemologyconstruction through reflective devices is thus extremely important to help novice teachers inbecoming critically aware of the frames of reference they use to give meaning to their experiencesand practices and helps them to develop a reflective competence. The emotional dimensioninvolved in teachers’ framing and reframing their practices according to their personalepistemologies has thus become a central focus of the tutoring activity in the Teacher College’scurriculum. 3. Study questions Novice teachers participate to the classroom experience and the training activity in schoolwithout any form of previous professional knowledge and competences and are challenged todevelop a reflective competence. They use their personal frames of references (Mezirow, 1991) andpersonal epistemologies (Hofer & Pintrich, 2001) to frame their first experiences of legitimate 3
  4. 4. peripheral participation to professional practices (Lave, Wenger, 1991) and this use implies deepemotional involvement. Moreover, the practicum experience and the challenges that the encounterwith a different frame of reference provided by the expert teacher- whose practices are observedand reflected upon- lead the novice teacher to a deep reframing of their meaning perspectives, anposes a strong focus on their emotions. Novice teachers come to learn and to develop their professional identity and epistemologythrough a deep process of framing and reframing the professional experiences they participate induring the practicum, and thus it is extremely important to promote a reflective awareness of thisprocess as well as of the impact the frame of references they would use has on their professionalpractices. Therefore, there are two important questions to answer: what kind of emotional dimension doesthe novices’ experience involve? And how it is possible to help novice teachers in developing aneffective awareness of their frames of reference and of their emotions, assuming a critical point ofview about the educational experience they are involved and developing a reflective competence.? 4. Research focus and objectives The empirical research focus is on the interplay of the tacit emotional dimension and the tacitknowledge and epistemology involved in the development of professional identities andepistemologies in novice teachers through transformative learning and reflective processes. The unit of analysis is thus the practicum experience as it is framed and reframed by noviceteachers’ beliefs, epistemologies, feelings and emotions. The objective is to understand which kind of emotions are involved in the transformation ofepistemic, sociolinguistic and psychological frames of references in novice teachers’ practicumexperiences in order to support them with reflective devices useful to promote transformativelearning. 5. Methodology The research has been developed within a qualitative framework using a narrative inquiryapproach (Connelly & Clandinin, 2001). The qualitative study has involved 100 novice teachers attending a two year training course inTeacher College at the Universities of Florence and Siena and has been focused on the analysis oftransformative learning processes (Mezirow, 1990; 1991) occurring during the practicum within theinteraction among novice and expert teachers. Novice teachers have been asked to provide narratives of their practicum experiences; inparticular, they have been asked to write a short narrative about a problematic experience in theirtraining framed as “critical incident” (Brookfield, 1990). Critical incidents have been used widelyin educational research (Killen and McKee, 1983), ever since Flanagan (1954) initial formulation sof the method. The researcher using critical incidents gives learners a set of instructions thatidentifies the kind of incident to be described and asks for details of the time, place, and actors in-volved in the incident and the reasons why the event was so significant. In this framework, criticalincidents are particularly useful to explore personal and professional assumptions andepistemologies and to understand personal and professional change and growth focusing on apersonal and emotional dimension. Professional short narratives -produced by novice teachers- have been collected in order toidentify transformative processes and turning points in the construction of teacher’s professionalepistemology and to focus on their emotional involvement. Professional narratives focused, inparticular, on situations which have triggered deep change in the way the novices perceive andrepresent their professional identity and roles and on the new perspectives they come to use in orderto reframe their professional identity. 4
  5. 5. Narratives have been processed both by statistic classification and qualitative analysis using aprocess of triangulation. A first analysis of the narratives has been developed by a statistic classification of the narratives’central topic. It has been useful to draw a preliminary framework about the focus of novice teachers‘problems. A second process of analysis has been developed using a qualitative methodology. Narrativeshave been analyzed according to a triadic matrix, useful to identify the intersection of epistemic,psychological and emotional, socio-linguistic meaning perspectives (Mezirow, 1991) and theirchange in the construction of professional identities. The analysis of narratives has been done usinginvestigator triangulation involving multiple researchers (two internal and one external to theresearch framework) and considering the pre-service teachers themselves part of the data analysisand interpretation process. 6. A first quantitative analysis: the focus of the reflective action Narratives have first analysed using a quantitative approach. The outcomes of this process showthat the main part of the problems novice teachers come to face during their practicum are focusedon the relationship between teacher and students. About 59% of the total amount of problems andissues portrayed in the professional narratives refer to the difficulty to establish a “good”relationship with the students in the class, orwith a single student, with a little group of Learningstudents. Relationship Only 10% of the narratives collected is Evaluationexplicitly focused on teacher’s professionaland personal beliefs, emotions as well as on Professional selfteachers’ motivations which lead to theidentification of a “professional self”.We have used the construct of “professionalself” in order to focus on the difficultrelationship occurring in the interplay of theperception of the self and the representation ofthe professional role emerging during the 10%practicum experience as well as during 3% 28%reflective processes. So, only 10% of thenarratives is explicitly focused on theprofessional self or on novice teachers’personal ad existential issues and dilemmas.It is very interesting to note that therelationship among teachers is rarelyconsidered in the narratives. This implies that 59%the relationship between expert and noviceteachers in the practicum -which has a strongpart in the process of professional identity andepistemology construction- is rarely reflectedupon. Novice teachers tend to focus on and toportray the relationship teacher/pupil orteacher/class more than the relationshipnovice/expert teacher, but this relationship (which is mainly an epistemological confront ofdifferent frames of reference, is mostly implicitly portrayed in the narratives. 5
  6. 6. About 28% of the narratives are focused on the definition or understanding of learning processesoccurring in the classroom and have a strong epistemological focus. Learning is a central issue inteachers’ practice. Narratives are very useful to explore implicit theories about learning which aredeeply imbedded in the practicum experience, in particular, the narratives analysed are mainlyfocused on the relationship between motivation an learning in different educational contexts andhave thus a strong focus on the emotional dimension. Only 3% of the narratives has been focused on the difficulties and the problems in the practice oflearning assessment and evaluation. According to this first level of analysis, it is possible to assume that professional identity andepistemology is being constructed and developed within mainly three problematic areas which leadto specific learning interests for novice teachers.- A didactical-relational-communicative area: here teachers are committed to solve problems such as: “How can I solve the problem to establish a good communicative climate in order to mediate and transfer effectively new knowledge structures?”; “Which kind of knowledge, competences, strategies, tools do I need to manage effectively a class of students?”.- A personal-introspective area: “Why did I choose to become a teacher?” - “What does it mean to be a good teacher?”.- Learning theories area: “What does learning mean?” - “Which strategies ands methodologies should I use in order to support learning?”.7. The qualitative analysisThe qualitative analysis shows how novice teachers construct their professional identity referring totheir practicum experiences where epistemological and emotional dimensions are deeplyinterconnected. Beliefs, representations, implicit theories, emotions frame and reframe theirexperiences and change as personal frames of reference are being transformed.7.1. Unsaid emotions. I do what I feel like doing. I learn as a professional by observation, bytrial and errors. Emotions are imbedded in the practices. No cognitive apprenticeship occurs A first theory about professional identity and epistemology could be synthesized in the idea thattraining and practicum are mainly to be understood as experiences which lead to professionalpractices and not as a full immersion in professional experiences and practices. Novice teachers experience practicum by encountering or facing by observation the differentways expert teachers have to organize and manage classroom practice but they are not involved init, even if they experiment strong feelings and emotions to frame the new experience. No events andsituations portraying the expert teacher as a scaffolder of a facilitator of a cognitive apprenticeshipthrough reflection. Novice teachers have themselves activated several reflective processes on theirexperience which have not been supported by a further reflection facilitated by the expert teacher.This shows how in the practicum there is still a strong separation between the experiential contextand the process of reflection in situation. The following narrative is particularly explicative . In my fist experience as a teacher I have faced the case of a difficult girl; no information has beenpreviously provided by the school…After several challenging provocations, to which I haveresponded in a strong way, one day I have asked the girl to go out of the classroom since she hadrefused to perform and exercise in front of the class like all her classmates had previously done.The girl has left the classroom, but then I have found her crying . After some lessons the girl has drop-outed from the course (a support course). 6
  7. 7. I have been very sorry about this because I believe it has been a great mistake I have made and Ifelt I have been incapable to deal with the situation.After several years and after Teacher College I can tell that today I would react in a different wayand maybe I would control my rage and try to understand the student’s motivations and findpossible solutions. This story portrays a classical apprenticeship experience. The novice teacher learns fromexperience but is not supported in reflecting on the experience and in exploring different possiblesolutions negotiated with the expert teacher. No discussion on the episode has occurred. Theemotions of frustration and rage have a strong role in the construction/deconstruction of theprofessional identity and epistemology but have not been analysed in the practicum setting itself.7.2. Helplessness. I won’t do as you teach me.Emotions are an “individual thing”. I learn by opposition because I feel that what youpropose is not right In a critical incident, the problematic experience activates a reflection on different focuses ofprofessional development experience. A particularly interesting focus is on the relationship betweennovice perspectives and export teacher perspectives. In some occasions the novice teachers does notagree on the theoretical and methodological framework used by the expert teacher and activatesprocesses of construction of an individual professional point of view by opposition, supported byemotions of dislike. The case does not portray a practicum contexts where narratives and verbalexchanges, knowledge sharing and negotiation between novice and expert teacher have occurred..Novice students in Teachers’College mostly learn by observing and reflecting on an individual andpersonal basis. The narratives have sometimes portrayed episodes where novice and expert teachersduring the practicum have experienced reciprocal syntony, respect and appreciation, but it isrelevant that no narrative has been focused on problems emerging in the relationship novice/expert,i.e. on relational, communicative, disagreement problems. Professional competence can be taughtand learnt through participation, but cognitive apprenticeship is a practice not yet considered in thepracticum. It is very interesting to look at the following narrative. The novice teacher reflects byhimself, poses himself some questions, but is not asking them to the expert teacher.My tutor had given the students an assessment test on language structures. This test involved twoexercises regarding two structures that the teacher had not previously explained to the class.Students have rightly pointed this out to the teacher and she said that those structures are not easyto acknowledge.[…]Evaluating the test has been very difficult, for me because I have been not fairto the studens. I felt I was in a deep crisis. How is it possible to ask the students to perform aboutsomething that has not been previously explained?. If loyalty and consistency are missing, how canwe think we can encourage and motivate the students? If we do not listen to them and consider theirdifficulties, that have been explained and were justified because of the unfairness of the testsituation, how can we ask respect from them? At the end, this experience has left in me a trace ofbitterness and many doubts. The novice teacher experiences the practicum as a space where his ideas come to face a crisis. Hispersonal epistemology regarding learning assessment, professional ethics and professionalresponsibility deeply contrast with the experience and pose and implicit question: “is the expertteacher wrong or should I review my ideas because they are naïve?”. This issue is very powerfuland involves a great deal of emotion. The first professional experiences mostly challenge personal and intimate dimensions more thanprofessional and practical competence which the novice teacher is not jet provided with. 7
  8. 8. Narratives portray the practicum as an experience, and do not focus on the professional problemthrough analysis of the different variables implied or with a deep involvement and participation inthe professional experience. In any case, the practicum is not experienced as a place where noviceteacher can negotiate competences, i.e. relational competences, or personal theories on learning.Novice teachers are involved in observation first, then in a “limited and controlled” participation toclassroom practice focusing on particular activities. Problems arise from practice in two differentforms: problems regarding emotional implications of didactics (how should interact with students,how should I manage assessment? How can I motivate the students?) and epistemological problems(should I revise my theories of learning and teaching?).7.3. Exploring reflectively emotional relationships with students and colleagues Narratives have portrayed a widespread convincement that a determining factor facilitatingknowledge construction and learning processes is the capability to manage relationships with aparticular focus on the emotional dimension. Novice teachers feel and believe that a “goodrelationship” grounds a “good learning” even if they would not explain why and how. This noviceteacher’s narrative is explicative.….Though this experience I have understood how it is important to have a good classroom climatefor learning. At the end of this support activity the girl not only improved her academicperformance, but has become more mature affectively and emotionally: she has become more selfconfident and has developed critical capacities. .This experience has been fundamental to me because I could understand the relationship betweencognitive and affective dimensions of learning and the necessity to create a classroom environmentsupportive and eliciting spontaneous performances from the students. Relationship has thus a central role and is understood both as direct relationship between teacher-classroom or teacher-single student as well as a climate, a general feeling which reassures students. A good relationship and a good “classroom climate” give the opportunity to make mistakes and to be understood? From the narratives collected novice students seem deeply convinced of the necessity to develop a relationship grounded on respect and reciprocal esteem. In cases where novice teachers focused on the competence of teachers for special needs students this factor is considered to be essential to activate a good learning process. The following narrative shows how from her point of view classroom climate deeply influences academic performances. It is interesting to note that professional development requires experience but also excitement.This experienced has put away from me the terror to teach in a junior high school and has lead meto understand that it is possible to motivate students, to elicit their interest, to make them beautifulto your eyes even if- of course-this implies fatigue, but you can be supported by experience andexcitement.7.4. Socializing emotions Another understanding of the relationships between learning and emotions is present in thefollowing narrative. The novice teacher tells us how “aggressive behaviours” are often the byproduct of a frenetic climate, with no opportunity to exchange ideas, opinions, stories or personalnarratives. The implicit theory recalls a vygotskijan view of learning processes and uses themetaphor of the class as a “social” context. In particular, class is understood as a space where it isnot possible anymore to tell stories, to meet different point of view and narrative 8
  9. 9. …I have also learned to listen, to define spaces where the kids can tell their experiences or whatmakes them upset or whatever they may need to tell, because I have noticed that forced rythms towhich they are submitted force them not to stop and their aggressiveness comes out of this. … Another novice writes: I believe that any time I get into a class it i an educational experience for me because the time Ispend with kids to which I teach is useful to learn how to build relationships with them, tounderstand them and help them in their formative process. I speak about my experience as ateacher and not as a novice teacher referring to the practicum because I believe that continuity inthe relationship with kids is fundamental to build up a better and deeper personal relationship. A strong attention for relational and emotional dimensions of teaching is not accompanied by areflection about which strategies would be more useful to manage learning-teaching processesbesides “empathy” or “grounding a good relationship”. No mention is made to specific experiences where group work, project work, direct involvementin specific learning experiences or audio-visual devices supported activities have provided good orbad results. Maybe it is because novice teachers are still building up their professional identity, butthis seems to be very poorly grounded if it seems to be mainly focused only on the construction ofan educational relationship.. The following narrative points out this issue: This experience has lead me to understand that in teaching its is important the way you deal with learning contents; that is the methodology for teaching is fundamental, it is not enough to have a good knowledge of the contents, but it is of primary importance to motivate the kids and in order to do this it is important to build up a relationship based on esteem and strong affects. Besides the affective and emotional dimension, the focus on didactical action shows theimportance to understand students knowledge structures. Teaching can not occur if it is not insertedin student’s personal knowledge system and most of all grounded in the motivation that leadstudents to become active epistemic actors. 8. Critical points The study of novice teachers narratives has evidenced some critical points that are extremelyrelevant in the development of a multifaceted professional competence in Teacher College, While there is a strong focus on the necessity that the teacher builds up a competence useful tomanage both personal emotions in class as well as the emotions of the class and of the singlestudents, there is also the risk of misunderstanding of the teacher’s role interpretation., also becauseteachers’ relational competences are not clearly understood and focused on. Moreover, a strong focus on relationship as the basis of learning tends to minimizeepistemological issues and problems related to curriculum development and content mediationwithin learning/teaching processes. Practicum experiences if not considered as professional competence building setting both bynovice as by expert teachers, and if not provided of a reflective structure useful to confront,mediate, negotiate meaning perspectives tend to confirm personal frames of references or, whenthey are perceived as disorienting, there is not the opportunity to activate critical reflectiveprocesses. Moreover, novice experiment strong emotions but they have no opportunity to makemeaning of them. 9
  10. 10. The use of critical incidents and of professional narratives has shown that whenever noviceteachers are lead to reflect on their experiences and practices they may become critically aware oftheir beliefs, representations, theories, emotions and use them as a pivotal device to build upreflective competence, which we can consider as a core competence for teaching.9. Essential referencesAltrichter, H., Posch, P. & Somekh, B. (1996), Teachers investigate their work; An introduction to the methods of action research. London: Routledge.Arredondo, D. E., & Rucinski, T. T. (1996), Epistemological beliefs of Chilean educators and school reform efforts. Paper presented at the Tercer Encuentro National de Enfoques Cognitivos Actuales en Educacion. Santiago, Chile.Berthelsen, D., Brownlee, J. & Boulton-Lewis, G. (2002), Caregivers epistemological beliefs in toddler programs in Early Child Development and Care, pp. 1-14.Bogdan, R. C. & Biklen, S. K. (1992), Qualitative research in education: An introduction to theory and methods (2nd ed.), Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Brookfield S. (1990), Using critical incidents to explore learners’ assumption, in Mezirow J and Associates, Fostering critical reflection in adulthood, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 177-193.Brownlee J. (2003), Changes in Primary School Teachers’ Beliefs about Knowing: a longitudinal study in Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 87-98.Brownlee, J. (2001), Knowing and learning in teacher education: A theoretical framework of core and peripheral epistemological beliefs in Asia Pacific Journal of Teacher Education & Development, 4 (1), pp. 167-190.Brownlee, J., Berthelsen, D., & Boulton-Lewis, G. (2004), Working with toddlers in child care: Personal epistemologies and practice. in European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 12(1), pp. 55-70.Brownlee, J.Berthelsen, D, (2006), Personal epistemology and relational pedagogy in early childhood teacher education programs in Early Years: Journal of International Research and Development, 26(13), Number 1/March, pp. 17-29.Clandinin D.J., Connelly F. M. (1998), Personal Experience Methods, in Denzin N., Lincoln Y.S., Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials, London: Sage, pp.150-178.Clandinin D.J., Connelly F.M (2000), Narrative Inquiry. Experience and Story in Qualitative Research, San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Clandinin D.J.,Connelly F. M.(1991), Narrative and story in Practice and Research, in Schön D. (Ed.), The reflective turn. Case Studies In and On Educational Practice, New York: Teachers College Press, pp.258-283.Cohen, L., & Manion, L. (1986), Research methods in education. London: Croom Helm.Colton, A., & Sparks-Langer, G. (1993), A conceptual framework to guide the development of teacher reflection and decision making, in Journal of Teacher Education, 44, pp.45-56.Connelly F.M. Clandinin D.J. (1995), Teachers Professional Knowledge Landscapes, New York: Teachers College Press.Connelly, F.M., & Clandinin, D.J. (1988), Teachers as curriculum planners: Narratives of experience. New York: Teachers College Press.Cornell Way E. (1991), Knowledge representation and metaphor, Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers.Daniels D., Shumow L. (2003), Child development and classroom teaching: a review of the literature and implications for educating teachers in Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Vol. n 5, January, pp- pp. 495-526 (32).Denzin, N. (1978), Sociological Methods: A Sourcebook, NY: McGraw Hill, 2nd ed.Educational Research, pp. 72-101.Entwistle, N. (1998), Approaches to learning and forms of understanding, in B. Dart & G. Boulton 10
  11. 11. Fabbri L. (2007), Comunità di pratiche e apprendimento riflessivo, Milano: Guerini Studio.Fang, Z. (1996), A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices, in Educational Researcher, 38, pp.47-65.Flanagan, J. C. (1954), The critical incident technique, in Psychological Bulletin, 51, 4, pp. 327- 359.Hasweh, M.H. (1996), Effects of science teachers’ epistemological beliefs in teaching, in Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(1), pp. 47–63.Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995), Facilitating reflection: Issues and research, in Forum of Education, 50, pp.49 -65.Hofer B. K., Pintrich P. R. (eds) (2001), Personal Epistemology: The Psychology of Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing, Mahawah, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Killen, R., and McKee, A. (1983), Critical incidents in teaching: An approach to teacher decision- making.Newcastle College of Advanced Education, Newcastle: Australia.King P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994), Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Knowles, M. S. (1980), The Modern Practice of Adult Education. Andragogy versus pedagogy, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall/Cambridge.Lave J., Wenger E. (1991), Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge: University of Cambridge.Lewis (Eds.), Teaching and learning in higher education Melbourne: Australian Council forLieblich A., Mashiach R.T., Zilber T. (1998), Narrative Research. Reading, Analysis and Interpretation, London: Sage.Lincoln Y.S. e Guba E.G. (1985), Naturalistic Inquiry, Beverly Hills: CA, Sage.Manning P.K., Cullum -Swan B. (1998), Narrative, Content and Semiotic Analyis, in Denzin N., Lincoln Y.S., Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials, London: Sage, pp. 246-275.Maykut, P., & Morehouse, R. (1994), Beginning qualitative research. A philosophic and practical guide. London: The Falmer Press.Melacarne C. (2006), La formazione nei contesti della cura. Una esperienza di ricerca sulle epistemologie professionali degli infermieri, Lecce: Pensa Multimedia.Mezirow & Associated (eds) (2002), Learning to think like an adult: Core concepts of transformation theory, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Mezirow J. and associates (1990), Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood. A Guide to Transformative and Emancipatory Learning, San Francisco, Jossey Bass.Mezirow J., (1991), Transformative dimensions of adult learning, San Francisco, Jossey Bass,Mezirow, J. (1998), Postmodern critique of transformation theory: a response to Pietrykowski, and Transformative learning and social action; a response to Inglis, in Adult education quarterly, 49 (Fall), pp. 65-67 and pp.70-72.Olson D. R., Bruner J. S. (1996), Folk psychology and folk pedagogy, in Olson D. R., Torrance N. (1996), The handbook of education and human development. New models of learning, teaching and schooling., Cambridge, Massachusetts, Blackwell Publishers,Pajares, M. F. (1992), Teacher beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. s in Review of Educational Research, 62, pp. 307-332.Perry, W. G. (1970), Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Perry, W. G. (1981), Cognitive and ethical growth: The making of meaning. In Chickering A. W. (Ed.), The Modern American College San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 76-116.Pietrykowski, B. (1998), Modern and postmodern tensions in adult education theory: a response to Jack Mezirow, in Adult education quarterly, 49 (Fall), pp. 67-70.Polanyi, M. (1958/1974), Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post- Critical Philosophy, Chicago, University of Chicago Press. 11
  12. 12. Rokeach, M. (1968), Beliefs, attitudes and values. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.Rossi B. (2008), Pedagogia delle organizzazioni, Milano: Guerini Studio.Ruddick, S. N. Goldberger, J. Tarule, B. Clinchy, & M. Belenky (eds) (1996), Knowledge, difference and power New York: Basic Books, pp. 248-273.Schommer, M. A. (1994), Synthesising epistemological belief research: Tentative understandings and provocative confusions in Educational Psychology Review, 6, pp. 293-319.Schön, D. A. (1983), The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action, London: Temple Smith.Schön, D. A. (1987), Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Schön, D. A. (eds) (1991), The Reflective Turn: Case studies in and on educational practice, New York: Teachers College Press.Schraw G., Sinatra G.M (2004), Epistemological Development and Its Impact on Cognition in Academic Domains in Contemporary Educational Psychology Volume 29, Issue 2, April, pp. 95- 102.Smith L.M. (1998), Biographical Method, in Denzin N.K., Lincoln Y.S., Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, London: Sage, pp. 184-225.Sternberg R. J., Horvath J. A. (eds) (1999), Tacit knowledge in professional practice, Mahwah; London : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Striano M. (2001), La razionalità riflessiva nell’agire educativo, Napoli: Liguori.Sutton, R. E., Cafarelli, A., Lund, R., Schurdell, D., & Bischel, S. (1996), A developmental constructivist approach to preservice teachersways of knowing. In «Teaching and Teacher Education»12, pp. 413-427.Tennant M. (1998), Adult education as a technology of the self in International journal of lifelong education, 17 (Nov.-Dec.), pp. 364-376.Tennant, M. (1993), Perspective transformation and adult development in Adult education quarterly 44 (Fall), pp. 34-42.Tirosh D. (eds) (1994), Implicit and explicit knowledge, Norwood : Ablex Publishing Corp.Wenger E. (1998), Communities of Practice. Learning, Meaning and Identity, Cambridge Mass: Cambridge University Press.White, B.C. (2000), Preservice teachers’ epistemology viewed through perspectives on problematic classroom situations, in Journal of Education for Teaching, 26 (3), pp. 279–305. 12

×