Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: PNe as green galactic citizens


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Review talk presented by Karen Kwiter at the IAU Symposium 283 Planetary Nebulae: An Eye to the Future, Tenerife, Spain, 25-29 July 2011.

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Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: PNe as green galactic citizens

  1. 1. Karen Kwitter Williams College IAU 283July 26, 2011 NGC 2818 NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team
  2. 2. PN postage stamp images from HST
  3. 3. 1936 T. Page letter in Nature NGC 7027 & NGC 7662: Ar, Ne >> Earth 1939 Bowen & Wyse, Lick Obs. Bulletin NGC 6572, NGC 7027, NGC 7662: ~solar composition2006-2011 >300 refereed papers in ADS on PN abundances: familiar elements, heavier elements, s-process, molecules, dust
  4. 4. bpc.eduPéquignot & Baluteau (1994); Baluteau et al. (1995); Zhang, Dinerstein, Sterling et al.(2001, 2008); Liu et al. (2005, 2007); Sharpee et al. (2007)
  5. 5. * * reflect progenitor’s ISM*There is some evidence that nuclear processes can affectthese (Pequignot et al. 2000, Dinerstein et al. 2003; Herwig2005, Wang & Liu 2008, Milingo et al. 2010 – more later)
  6. 6. s-processaffected by star’snucleosynthesis
  7. 7. WIYN,NOAO,NSF • get 1-D information @ medium resolution; typically ≲150 lines down to ~1% x Hb  for brighter objects can get deep spectra w/high S/N; at right, in NGC 7009 Fang & Liu (2011; poster here) have identified 1170 features down to ~0.01% x Hb  but, LSS fails to fully utilize the potential of 2D detectors…
  8. 8. Milky Way: Kingsburgh & Barlow Liu & colleagues Maciel, Costa & colleagues Milanova & Koltygin Perinotto & colleaguesJuan Carlos Casado (TWAN) Stasińska & colleagues Henry, Kwitter & colleagues Magellanic Clouds: Boroson & Liebert Leisy & Dennefeld Maciel, Costa & colleagues Dopita & colleagues Stanghellini, Shaw et al. Fred Espenak Vasiliadis & colleagues.
  9. 9. exploits 2D detectors with serious multiplexing Tsamis & collaborators; Sandin & collaborators Te NGC 5882 Hb Tsamis et al. 2008 IC 3568 He II Sandin et al. 2008 [O III] 4686 4959 NGC 7662, center cFLAMES/Giraffe Argus, VLT PMAS, Calar Alto
  10. 10. Spitzer/JPL M1-42 (Pottasch et al. 2007) • Spitzer IRS provided high- quality spectra covering important ions of e.g., Ne, O, S, Ar (& Fe, Si, Mg) • Need for ICFs is reduced • Fine-structure lines have small T-dependence Pottasch, Bernard-Salas & collaborators Stanghellini, Shaw & collaborators Guzman-Ramirez & collaborators
  11. 11. HST/STIS TS-01• prominent ions of He, C, N, O [C IV] He II Stasińska et al. 2010• avoids usually large ICF(N) [N V] STIS• at right, TS01, the most O-poor PN [N IV] known (O/H~1/70 x solar)• IUE quality superseded by HST COS & STIS; as yet, small database HST/STIS Cy19 : Dufour et al. – 10 MW PNe Guerrero et al. – NGC 6543
  12. 12. • correct reduced slit fluxes for reddening• calculate Te, Ne, X+i/H+  N-level atom codes• calculate ICF’s per some recipe or model* to derive X/H: total X abundance ICF(X) = sum of observable X ions*unless you have all relevant ionization stages
  13. 13. • correct reduced slit fluxes for reddening- Whitford 1958- Miller & Mathews 1972- Savage & Mathis 1979- Seaton 1979 fl- Howarth 1983- Fitzpatrick 1999- Clayton, Cardelli & Mathis 1989 An example: For c=1, the corrected ratio of [O II] I3727/I7323 obtained using CCM vs. SM differs by ~15%, leading to ~1000K difference in the derived T[O II]…
  14. 14. • calculate: Te , Ne , X+i/H+Il(X+i)/I(Hb) Te , Ne , Abundance Software N(X+i)/N(H+) Il (X i ) N(X i )  f (Te ,N e )  C  I(Hb) N(H  )
  15. 15. on the ground… poster by Wesson; talk by Luridiana N/H…in NGC 6543, thesystematic uncertaintyintroduced by the choiceof atomic data iscomparable to or largerthan the statistical T[S II]uncertainties for sometemperatures, densitiesand abundances.R. Wesson (private communication) …not a stationary target
  16. 16. talk by Gonçalves •calculate ionization correction factors (ICFs) per a recipe or model* to derive X/H *unless you have observed all relevant ionization stages ICFs best determined using photoionization models; otherwise, exploit IP coincidences• Kingsburgh & Barlow (1994): developed a good set still used by many• Henry & Ferland are currently running sets of CLOUDY models to evaluate ICFs under a wide range of stellar T*, Ne, and Z.… so at each step we have an opportunity fordivergence, independent of measured fluxes!
  17. 17. posters by Peimberts; Fierro et al.; McNabb et al.; ADF=(X/H)ORL/(X/H)CEL R.-Garcia & Peña recent summary by Peña (2011); Bob Rubin’s talk yesterday (Liu & colleagues) (Peimbert, Torres-Peimbert & colleagues)• Yuan et al. (2011): NGC 6153 - 3D bi- • Georgiev et al. (2008): NGC 6543 abundance model with 800K NLTE star and wind model agrees inclusions best reproduces observed with ORL values for He, C, O (but spectrum not N)• Zhang (2008): NGC 7009 - high • García-Rojas et al. (2009): observed resolution line profiles suggest ORLs, several PNe with WC central stars; CELs may originate in kinematically t2 ~0.04; no evidence of cool, C-rich different regions inclusions, even when the central stars are H-deficient• Williams et al. (2008): UV absorption abundances in 3 PNe agree better with CEL than ORL abundances This is becoming testable, and will eventually be sorted out…
  18. 18. : 1D photoionization code (Stasińska 2005) : 1D photoionization code (Ferland et al. 1998) : 1D photoionization/shock code (Kewley 2001) : 1D photoionization code (Rubin et al. 1994) : Pseudo-3D photoionization code (Morriset 2005) : fully 3D Monte Carlo photoionization code (Ercolano et al. 2003): 1-D RHD code (Perinotto et al. 1998) – poster by Jacob
  19. 19. different He+ recomb coeffall abundances aremedians; error barsshow characteristicuncertainties X X
  20. 20. DISK BULGE & HALO • good agreement within uncertainties • O, Ne, Ar ≈ solar N,C > solar S < solar
  21. 21. MW Disk Magellanic Clouds
  22. 22. log(N/H) vs. log(He/H) log(N/O) vs. He/H Maciel et al. 2010 +: SMC •: LMC •: MW models: Karakas & Lattanzio 2007, 1-6 M similar behavior in all 3galaxies implies similarorigin of N, He HKB04 all recalculated, Karakas (2009): 1-6 M good T & N determinations Marigo (2001): 0.8-5 M
  23. 23. • LMC PNe show negative trend,  HBB• Type I MWPNe may also• SMC PNe do not  no HBB
  24. 24. Ne vs. O Maciel et al. 2010 + SMC LMC MW Maciel et al.: no correlation between Ne/O and O over >2 dex in O/H• Wang & Liu (2008): Ne, O production only at 12+log(O/H) < 8 (<ZSMC)• Milingo et al. (2010): some evidence for Ne production, based on on comparison with H II regions; no difference between Type I and Type II PNe• Peimbert et al. (1992); Peña et al. (this meeting): argue that the ICF for Ne (Ne/O=Ne++/O++) is inadequate at low ionization typically found in H II regions  lower limits, offering an explanation for Milingo et al.’s finding
  25. 25. posters by Henry et al. Jacob et al.Ar follows H II region Sulfur stinks!trend, but with larger Karakas: 1-6 Mscatter than Ne…
  26. 26. MW disk PNe – Maciel & Costa (2011) LMC/SMC – Stanghellini et al. (2009) Aasymm,symm - Aall filled: SMC open: LMC • Average He and N are higher for asymmetric PNe than for symmetric PNe • The opposite is true for C. • Higher O, Ne, S, Ar in asymmetric PNe  younger progenitors • SMC PNe tend to be C-rich, implying no HBB
  27. 27. talk by Karakas; poster by Sterling et al.• Sharpee et al. (2007) detected lines of Br, Kr, Se Xe, Rb, Ba, and Pb; Te & I (?); Kr, Xe enhanced• Sterling & Dinerstein (2008), detected Kr &/or Se in 81 of 120 PNe: - Non-Type I: [Se/(O)]ave= +0.36 [Kr/(O)]ave = +1.02  Kr significantly enhanced Kr - Type I PNe show little s-process enrichment - Positive correlation between s-process enrichments and C/O, as expected in TDU - No significant difference with central star type• Future progress relies heavily on knowing transition rates and collision strengths
  28. 28. poster by Delgado Inglada et al.• Delgado Inglada et al. (2009): 33 low-ionization PNe• median 12+log(Fe/H) = 5.85 (4.27 – 6.49)• depletion range [Fe/H]: -1.01 to -3.2 (=7.50; Asplund et al. 2009) - Fe > 90% depleted - Mdust/Mgas ≥ 1.3 x 10-3 - depletion scales with C/O ratio (poster) See also: Rodriguez & Rubin (2005); Stasińska & Szczerba (1999)
  29. 29. • He, C, N, O, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, s-process abundances have been determined in 10’s -100’s of PNe in the MW and MC’s.• IR & UV observations have provided some improved results.• Significant disparities result from different analysis choices.• O, Ne, and Ar are positively correlated with each other, as expected. S is problematic. In general, scatterPNe > scatterH2BCG.• C, N generally exceed solar, consistent with current LIMS model predictions including TDU; low-C PNe in the Milky Way & LMC show evidence of HBB.• Models cover the parameter space of observed abundances• s-process elements can be significantly enhanced above solar in non-Type I PNe.• Fe is significantly depleted in PNe
  30. 30. (aside from big ground & space telescopes & good spectrographs)• atomic data for more atoms, wider regimes - “normal data” for heavy atoms (Sterling poster) - low-T parameters for light atoms (Fang poster)• improved ICFs (metallicity; ionization; geometry)• more 2D abundance studies/3D modeling• abundance discrepancy resolution• coordination/testing among 5-LA programs• understanding the effect of binarity on observed abundances in CE scenario• development of a “strong-line method” when direct Te measurement not possible
  31. 31. Collaborators: Dick Henry Bruce Balick Reggie Dufour Gary Ferland Jacquelynne Milingo Dick ShawStudents: Funding Sources:Jesse Levitt ’08 NSFMatt Johnson ’07 NASAPeter O’Malley ’07 U. OklahomaJulie Skinner ’07 Williams CollegeAnne Jaskot ’08Emma Lehman ’10Tim Miller (‘G OU)
  32. 32. THE END EL FINAL