Chapter 18 The Campaign for Independence


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Chapter 18 The Campaign for Independence

  1. 1.  Fact-finding commission sent to the Philippines by newly elected U.S president Warren Harding in March 1921, which concluded that Filipinos were not ready for independence from the United States.  In 1931, Woodrow Wilson had appointed the liberal Francis B. Harrison was convinced that the best method of preparing Filipinos for independence was to give them as wide a latitude as possible in managing their internal affairs. Passage of the Jones Act in 1916, which announced the U,.S intention of granting Philippine independence, encouraged Harrison in his policy of replacing Americans in the Philippines civil service with Filipinos.
  2. 2.  Republicans in the United States argued that Harrison’s policy of Filipinization was premature and that the takeover of jobs by Filipinos resulted only in a marked deterioration of services. To support disposition, Harding sent out Gen. Leonard Wood and W. Cameron Forbes. The two reported in Oct. 1921. That the islands were not preferred for independence and that many educated Filipinos wish to remain under the American tutelage.  News of the Wood- Forbes report was received with anger in the Philippines. Wood, who served as a governor general for the next 6 years, though an honest and efficient administrator, remained highly unpopular with Filipinos.
  3. 3.  LEONARD WOOD  is a chief of staff of the United States Army. Military Governor of the Cuba and Governor General of the Philippines.  He fought in Cuba during the Spanish-American war.
  4. 4.  President Harding wanted General Wood to be the next governor-general of the Philippines. Wood was reluctant to accept the position at first but was later persuaded to take on the task of governing the country.  Leonard Wood antagonized Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña, the two most powerful political leaders.
  5. 5. Manuel L. Quezon President of the Senate Assembly President of the Commonwealth
  6. 6. Sergio S. Osmeña Speaker of the First Philippine Assembly
  7. 7.  1921- Collectives  Nationalista Party- Political leadership should be exercised collectively, that no one person should dictate policies but instead all should participate in their formulation.  Unipersonalistas- leadership should be exercised by one person, not by group.  1922- election on the issue between Osmeña and Quezon was clarified.
  8. 8.  Quezon’ group (colectivistas) won more seats than Osmeña’s group.  1925 • Democrata Party, Third Party was successfully challenge both colectivistas and unipersonalistas
  9. 9.  Jones Law- Strong opposition from the Filipino political leaders.  Wood deviated from Harrison’s policy of giving Filipino greater participation in the government.  1923  Manuel L . Quezon became the most prominent political leader of the Filipinos who had a quarrel with the governor (Wood)  American detective in Manila Police Department (by the name RAY CONLEY)- the cause of quarrel
  10. 10.  Manila Mayor Ramon Fernandez- suspended Conley for allegedly accepting bribes and committing acts of immorality. Secretary of the Interior , Jose P. Laurel- approved the suspension. He wants Conley to be investigated administratively as well as Wood wants Conley be brought to trail.
  11. 11. Jose P. Laurel
  12. 12. • Conley was found not guilty so Wood ordered Laurel to reinstate Conley in his position and pay him back wages covering the period of his suspension. • Conley retired and got his retirement pay . • Quezon took advantage to Conley case so they attack Wood and branded him as anti- Filipino. They accused Wood of interfering even the smallest detail of governance in order curtail the rights of Filipinos.
  13. 13.  Filipino members of the cabinet and that members of Council of state resigned.  Mass resignation- Cabinet Crisis
  14. 14.  Board of Control Case  One of the causes of the conflicts between Wood and the Filipino Leaders.  Composed of the governor-general, the Senate President, and the Speaker of the House.  It manage the affairs of government corporations.  It is abolished by Wood
  15. 15.  Veto Power  Another source of conflict between Wood and the Filipino political leaders.  Quezon and Osmeña accused Wood of exercising his Veto power without any restriction.  Wood was accused as anti- Filipino and against the interest of the Filipino people.  1927 • The conflict with Wood ended only with his death.
  16. 16.  1919- first parliamentary mission was sent to U.S during the administration of Woodrow Wilson. Lead by Manuel Quezon  April 1922- second parliamentary mission was present on Washington lead by Osmena and Quezon. Like the first mission, the second mission achieved nothing.  In the succeeding years, particularly in 1922-1928 and 1930, the Philippine independence missions were a failure.  In 1930, an Independence Congress met in Manila and passed a resolution favoring the early grant of Indepence to the Philippines.
  17. 17. It is called the Os-Rox Mission. It wasinstructed by the Legislature to work for the early grant of the Philippine independence.They are the three American groups that were favorable to Philippine Independence. They were the American Farm Group, American Labor leaders. And the isolationist.
  18. 18.  The Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act was the first US law passed for the decolonization of the Philippines. It was the result of the Os-Rox Mission led by Sergio Osmeña and Manuel Roxas .  Become an cat that states that the end of a ten- year period, to be named as the Commonwealth Period. Philippine independence will be granted.
  19. 19.  When Quezon was informed about the passage of the Hare-Hawes- Cutting Law, he thought that it was not a good law. He was therefore obliged to work against the approval by the Legislature.  He worked hard for the law to be rejected by the Philippine Legislature. Quezon reorganized the Legislature so as to weed out the supporters of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law, who also happened to be the suppoters of Osmeña and Roxas.
  20. 20.  Late in 1933, Quezon realized that the chances of having a better law passed were nil. Faced with embarrassment, Quezon worked with Milliard Tydings and Representative John McDuffie to have the HareHawes-Cutting Law reenacted with practically little change.  Tydings- McDuffie Act- signed by President Roosevelt on March 24, 1934 with one revision: “the retention of naval reservations and fueling stations” instead of “the retention of military and other reservations.
  21. 21.  The Tydings-McDuffie Act provided for the framing of a constitution for the Commonwealth government.  July 10, 1934- election the constitutional convection.  July 30, 1934- the Constitutional Convection was inagurated with Claro M. Recto, as a scholar, lawyer, poet, and parliamentarian, as president.
  22. 22. Claro M. Recto
  23. 23.  February 8, 1935 , the convection approved the Constitution.  President Franklin D. Roosevelt, after reading the Constitution and seeing that there were no objectionable provisions included, approved it on March 23, 1935.  May 14, 1935 , the Filipino people approved the constitution in the plebiscite.
  24. 24.  June 16, 1935 , an election was held. Quezon and Osmeña ran in the sam ticket and won as the president, respectively.  Nov. 15, 1935 , the Commonwealth was inagurated in front of the Legislative Building in Manila.
  25. 25.  The issue concerning wommen suffrage in the Philippines was settled in a special plebiscite held on April 30, 1937. Ninety percent of voters were in favor of the measure. In compliance with the 1935 Constitution, the National Assembly passed a law which extended right of suffrage to women.  1902- Clemencia Lopez appealed for the Philippine independence while studying in the U.S
  26. 26.  Pensionadas- U.S scholars  By 1920’s and 1930’s a number of womenhad become teachers, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other professionals.  La Gota de Leche – Led by Concepcion Felix  La Asociaciόn Feminista Filipina- formed with Concepcion Felix, Paz Mendoza Guazon, Rosa Sevilla Alvero, Sofia de Veyra, Natividad de Almeda, Pilar Hidalgo.
  27. 27.  In 1906, La Concolaciόn Feminista Ilonga by Pura Villanueva Kalaw was established to fight for womens right to vote and to run for public office.  Schools they founded and managed:  1900- Instituto de Mujeres  1907- Centro Escolar de Senorita  1919- Philippine Women’s College
  28. 28.  September 15, 1937 – Women Suffrage law was finally signed by President Quezon after 15 decades of steadfast struggle with substantial gains.
  29. 29. @claudineeeeeeee @claudineeeeeeeeee Prepared by: Claudine B. Castro Jessica S. Tagalog