Fact-finding commission sent to the Philippines by newly
elected U.S president Warren Harding in March 1921,
which concluded that Filipinos were not ready for
independence from the United States.
In 1931, Woodrow Wilson had appointed the liberal Francis
B. Harrison was convinced that the best method of
preparing Filipinos for independence was to give them as
wide a latitude as possible in managing their internal
affairs. Passage of the Jones Act in 1916, which announced
the U,.S intention of granting Philippine independence,
encouraged Harrison in his policy of replacing Americans
in the Philippines civil service with Filipinos.
Republicans in the United States argued that Harrison’s
policy of Filipinization was premature and that the
takeover of jobs by Filipinos resulted only in a marked
deterioration of services. To support disposition, Harding
sent out Gen. Leonard Wood and W. Cameron Forbes. The
two reported in Oct. 1921. That the islands were not
preferred for independence and that many educated
Filipinos wish to remain under the American tutelage.
News of the Wood- Forbes report was received with anger
in the Philippines. Wood, who served as a governor general
for the next 6 years, though an honest and efficient
administrator, remained highly unpopular with Filipinos.
is a chief of staff of the United States Army. Military
Governor of the Cuba and Governor General of the
He fought in Cuba during the Spanish-American war.
President Harding wanted General Wood to be
the next governor-general of the Philippines.
Wood was reluctant to accept the position at first
but was later persuaded to take on the task of
governing the country.
Leonard Wood antagonized Manuel L. Quezon
and Sergio Osmeña, the two most powerful
Manuel L. Quezon
President of the Senate Assembly
President of the Commonwealth
Sergio S. Osmeña
Speaker of the First Philippine Assembly
Nationalista Party- Political leadership should be
exercised collectively, that no one person should
dictate policies but instead all should participate in
Unipersonalistas- leadership should be exercised by
one person, not by group.
1922- election on the issue between Osmeña and
Quezon was clarified.
Quezon’ group (colectivistas) won more seats than
• Democrata Party, Third Party was successfully challenge
both colectivistas and unipersonalistas
Jones Law- Strong opposition from the Filipino
Wood deviated from Harrison’s policy of giving
Filipino greater participation in the government.
Manuel L . Quezon became the most prominent
political leader of the Filipinos who had a quarrel with
the governor (Wood)
American detective in Manila Police Department (by the
name RAY CONLEY)- the cause of quarrel
Manila Mayor Ramon Fernandez- suspended Conley
for allegedly accepting bribes and committing acts of
Secretary of the Interior , Jose P. Laurel- approved the
suspension. He wants Conley to be investigated
administratively as well as Wood wants Conley be
brought to trail.
• Conley was found not guilty so Wood ordered Laurel
to reinstate Conley in his position and pay him back
wages covering the period of his suspension.
• Conley retired and got his retirement pay .
• Quezon took advantage to Conley case so they attack
Wood and branded him as anti- Filipino. They accused
Wood of interfering even the smallest detail of
governance in order curtail the rights of Filipinos.
Filipino members of the cabinet and that members of
Council of state resigned.
Mass resignation- Cabinet Crisis
Board of Control Case
One of the causes of the conflicts between Wood and
the Filipino Leaders.
Composed of the governor-general, the Senate
President, and the Speaker of the House.
It manage the affairs of government corporations.
It is abolished by Wood
Another source of conflict between Wood and the
Filipino political leaders.
Quezon and Osmeña accused Wood of exercising his
Veto power without any restriction.
Wood was accused as anti- Filipino and against the
interest of the Filipino people.
• The conflict with Wood ended only with his death.
1919- first parliamentary mission was sent to U.S during the
administration of Woodrow Wilson. Lead by Manuel
April 1922- second parliamentary mission was present on
Washington lead by Osmena and Quezon. Like the first
mission, the second mission achieved nothing.
In the succeeding years, particularly in 1922-1928 and 1930,
the Philippine independence missions were a failure.
In 1930, an Independence Congress met in Manila and
passed a resolution favoring the early grant of Indepence
to the Philippines.
It is called the Os-Rox Mission. It wasinstructed by the
Legislature to work for the early grant of the Philippine
independence.They are the three American groups
that were favorable to Philippine Independence. They
were the American Farm Group, American Labor
leaders. And the isolationist.
The Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act was the first US law
passed for the decolonization of the Philippines. It was
the result of the Os-Rox Mission led by Sergio Osmeña
and Manuel Roxas .
Become an cat that states that the end of a ten- year
period, to be named as the Commonwealth Period.
Philippine independence will be granted.
When Quezon was informed about the passage of the
Hare-Hawes- Cutting Law, he thought that it was not a
good law. He was therefore obliged to work against the
approval by the Legislature.
He worked hard for the law to be rejected by the
Philippine Legislature. Quezon reorganized the
Legislature so as to weed out the supporters of the
Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law, who also happened to be
the suppoters of Osmeña and Roxas.
Late in 1933, Quezon realized that the chances of
having a better law passed were nil. Faced with
embarrassment, Quezon worked with Milliard Tydings
and Representative John McDuffie to have the HareHawes-Cutting Law reenacted with practically little
Tydings- McDuffie Act- signed by President Roosevelt
on March 24, 1934 with one revision: “the retention of
naval reservations and fueling stations” instead of
“the retention of military and other reservations.
The Tydings-McDuffie Act provided for the framing of
a constitution for the Commonwealth government.
July 10, 1934- election the constitutional convection.
July 30, 1934- the Constitutional Convection was
inagurated with Claro M. Recto, as a scholar, lawyer,
poet, and parliamentarian, as president.
February 8, 1935 , the convection approved the
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, after reading the
Constitution and seeing that there were no
objectionable provisions included, approved it on
March 23, 1935.
May 14, 1935 , the Filipino people approved the
constitution in the plebiscite.
June 16, 1935 , an election was held. Quezon and
Osmeña ran in the sam ticket and won as the
Nov. 15, 1935 , the Commonwealth was inagurated in
front of the Legislative Building in Manila.
The issue concerning wommen suffrage in the
Philippines was settled in a special plebiscite held on
April 30, 1937. Ninety percent of voters were in favor of
the measure. In compliance with the 1935
Constitution, the National Assembly passed a law
which extended right of suffrage to women.
1902- Clemencia Lopez appealed for the Philippine
independence while studying in the U.S
Pensionadas- U.S scholars
By 1920’s and 1930’s a number of womenhad become
teachers, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other
La Gota de Leche – Led by Concepcion Felix
La Asociaciόn Feminista Filipina- formed with Concepcion
Felix, Paz Mendoza Guazon, Rosa Sevilla Alvero, Sofia
de Veyra, Natividad de Almeda, Pilar Hidalgo.
In 1906, La Concolaciόn Feminista Ilonga by Pura
Villanueva Kalaw was established to fight for womens
right to vote and to run for public office.
Schools they founded and managed:
1900- Instituto de Mujeres
1907- Centro Escolar de Senorita
1919- Philippine Women’s College
September 15, 1937 – Women Suffrage law was finally
signed by President Quezon after 15 decades of
steadfast struggle with substantial gains.
Claudine B. Castro
Jessica S. Tagalog