SEX IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
Fidelity and monogamy were not valued highly for men as they
needed power and authority.
It was known for men to have one or two wives alongside a few
Jacob had two wives, names Leah and Rachel alongside two
concubines, and lots of children however only 12 boys listed.
In Genesis god created Adam and Eve, in his image. In doing so part
of their purpose was to have sex to reproduce and to enjoy it,
because it is good in itself. Until the fall where the relationship
between God and Humanity changed. Before this is as God was the
foundation of the relationship, this is why in marriage he is the third
SEX IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
Jesus allows for divorce in certain situations.
“Whoever divorces his wife and marries another women commits
adultery against her!- Mark 10:11
Jesus also centred relationships around God, with the greatest
commandment “Love God with all your heart and love your neighbour
Paul teaches that everyone should stay celibate unless you cant resist
otherwise. This is the point where you should get married. He also
believed that women should be obedient to their husbands and not to
speak in church
They emphasised the idea of celibacy
Priests stay celibate
St Augustine thought that sex was a sin if it was for lust and desire
rather than reproduction, as It takes away from the spiritual obligation.
He thought it was a necessary evil.
Aquinas saw the enjoyment in sex but also believed it had a purpose.
Very much like Natural law
It is wrong to have
-Premarital/extra martial se
-Sex for pleasure
Divorce is never right as well because the two have become one flesh in
marriage and the couple have take sacred vows in frount of God
Liberal Protestantism: Homosexuality isn’t seen as an issue if they are
part of a loving committed relationship. If a couple love each other
and are committed then they can have sex if they are in a loving
relationship, it doesn’t require marriage. They also encourage sex
being for pleasure rather then just reproduction. They also accept the
idea that sometimes divorce can be better if the relationship is broke
Evangelical Protestantism: They believe that sometimes divorce is a
necessary evil. Sex is reserved for marriage, sex is for reproduction.
Through sex and marriage a couple become one flesh.
“You shall not lie with a man as with a woman; that is an
abomination”- Leviticus 18:22
Protestants: they don’t like the act of homosexuality however still like
the individuals as they still withhold sacred worth within them.
Roman Catholic: you’re allowed to fancy the same sex however if you
act upon this, this is a sin. They must commit to celibacy and chastity.
Liberal approach: if it is in a relationship it is treated the same as a
heterosexual relationship. God created them that way.
Traditional Christian: sex is for married couples in heterosexual
relationships. Sex is part of the promise with God.
Liberal: encourage marriage first but know desires to get the better of
people. If the relationship is strong and committed then it is okay.
Secular: sex is a decision that should be made my the couple in the
relationship. This shouldn’t require marriage as women aren’t reliant on
men, and there is no social stigma to marry.
EXTRA MARITAL SEX
In the old testament adultery is wrong and is punishable by death.
However Jesus saved a cheater from her death by being stoned.
“Thou shall not commit adultery” - Bible
Marriage is a sacred bond/union and God is the foundation, by
having sex with someone else they are betraying this union.
Betrays trust, and makes a mockery of this trust
NATURAL LAW’S APPROACH
This is followed my most Catholics
They allow for enjoyment of sex if the aim is for children.
Contraception, abortion, homosexuality, and masturbation is all
against the Primary precepts which are..
Procreation and preservation of life
You should be married in order to have sex.. And if you’re infertile you
should be having sex
Greatest amount of pleasure for the greatest amount of people.. This
allows for sex for pleasure.
Mill views sex as a lower pleasure and you should probably go and
read a book as he looks as the quality of the pleasure. Sex is a lower
pleasure, reading is a higher pleasure.
Bentham believes that we should maximise pleasure and therefore this
could allow for extramarital sex is more pleasure if created for more
Homosexuality is okay however if it becomes a norm it wont be okay
as then we would die out as the human race cannot continue without
sex taking place.
An action can only be performed if it can e universalised therefore
homosexuality isn’t accepted as it cannot be universalised as then we
wouldn’t be able to continue the human race.
This is the same as if sex was just for pleasure as if it was universalised
this way then everyone would use contraception and we wouldn’t be
able to continue the population.
You cannot use someone to have sex for your own lust of pleasure as
you are just using them as a means to an end
Marriage is the only time we should have sex, and this was it is okay to
have sex for pleasure
Also sees it as moral for someone to be a prostitute as long as there is
Based around agape, what is most loving to do?
Each situation should be treated with Agape.
You should have sex with loving commitment so that it aligns with
agape, therefore casual sex should be wrong as it is out of lust for that
person ad not love for them.
Sometimes it is most loving thing to allow someone to have an
Roman Catholics : Natural law, no nothing apart from sex in marriage
Evangelical Christians: sex is unifying, it brings people together in the
eyes of God
Natural law/situation ethics
VIRTUE ETHICS’ APPROACH
This focuses on moral development of individuals
We can develop virtuously through having sex. This is because virtue
ethics includes ideas of love, friendship, companionship, faithfulness,
commitment and trust.
By developing sexually intimacy you develop these things, as you
investigate someone. We become virtuous.