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Sexual ethics A2 philsophy and Ethics

Sexual ethics A2 Philosophy and Ethics.

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Sexual ethics A2 philsophy and Ethics

  1. 1. SEXUAL ETHICS Claudia and Charley
  2. 2. SEX IN THE OLD TESTAMENT Fidelity and monogamy were not valued highly for men as they needed power and authority. It was known for men to have one or two wives alongside a few concubines (mistress). Jacob had two wives, names Leah and Rachel alongside two concubines, and lots of children however only 12 boys listed. In Genesis god created Adam and Eve, in his image. In doing so part of their purpose was to have sex to reproduce and to enjoy it, because it is good in itself. Until the fall where the relationship between God and Humanity changed. Before this is as God was the foundation of the relationship, this is why in marriage he is the third member.
  3. 3. SEX IN THE NEW TESTAMENT Jesus allows for divorce in certain situations. “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another women commits adultery against her!- Mark 10:11 Jesus also centred relationships around God, with the greatest commandment “Love God with all your heart and love your neighbour as yourself” Paul teaches that everyone should stay celibate unless you cant resist otherwise. This is the point where you should get married. He also believed that women should be obedient to their husbands and not to speak in church
  4. 4. CHURCH They emphasised the idea of celibacy Priests stay celibate St Augustine thought that sex was a sin if it was for lust and desire rather than reproduction, as It takes away from the spiritual obligation. He thought it was a necessary evil. Aquinas saw the enjoyment in sex but also believed it had a purpose.
  5. 5. ROMAN CATHOLIC'S Very much like Natural law It is wrong to have -Premarital/extra martial se -Sex for pleasure -Homosexual acts -Use contraception -Abortion -Masturbate Divorce is never right as well because the two have become one flesh in marriage and the couple have take sacred vows in frount of God
  6. 6. PROTESTANTS Liberal Protestantism: Homosexuality isn’t seen as an issue if they are part of a loving committed relationship. If a couple love each other and are committed then they can have sex if they are in a loving relationship, it doesn’t require marriage. They also encourage sex being for pleasure rather then just reproduction. They also accept the idea that sometimes divorce can be better if the relationship is broke down. Evangelical Protestantism: They believe that sometimes divorce is a necessary evil. Sex is reserved for marriage, sex is for reproduction. Through sex and marriage a couple become one flesh.
  7. 7. HOMOSEXUALITY AND CHRISTIANS “You shall not lie with a man as with a woman; that is an abomination”- Leviticus 18:22 Protestants: they don’t like the act of homosexuality however still like the individuals as they still withhold sacred worth within them. Roman Catholic: you’re allowed to fancy the same sex however if you act upon this, this is a sin. They must commit to celibacy and chastity. Liberal approach: if it is in a relationship it is treated the same as a heterosexual relationship. God created them that way.
  8. 8. PREMARITAL SEX Traditional Christian: sex is for married couples in heterosexual relationships. Sex is part of the promise with God. Liberal: encourage marriage first but know desires to get the better of people. If the relationship is strong and committed then it is okay. Secular: sex is a decision that should be made my the couple in the relationship. This shouldn’t require marriage as women aren’t reliant on men, and there is no social stigma to marry.
  9. 9. EXTRA MARITAL SEX In the old testament adultery is wrong and is punishable by death. However Jesus saved a cheater from her death by being stoned. “Thou shall not commit adultery” - Bible Marriage is a sacred bond/union and God is the foundation, by having sex with someone else they are betraying this union. Betrays trust, and makes a mockery of this trust
  10. 10. NATURAL LAW’S APPROACH This is followed my most Catholics They allow for enjoyment of sex if the aim is for children. Contraception, abortion, homosexuality, and masturbation is all against the Primary precepts which are.. Procreation and preservation of life You should be married in order to have sex.. And if you’re infertile you should be having sex
  11. 11. UTILITARIAN’S APPROACH Greatest amount of pleasure for the greatest amount of people.. This allows for sex for pleasure. Mill views sex as a lower pleasure and you should probably go and read a book as he looks as the quality of the pleasure. Sex is a lower pleasure, reading is a higher pleasure. Bentham believes that we should maximise pleasure and therefore this could allow for extramarital sex is more pleasure if created for more people involved. Homosexuality is okay however if it becomes a norm it wont be okay as then we would die out as the human race cannot continue without sex taking place.
  12. 12. KANTIAN’S APPROACH An action can only be performed if it can e universalised therefore homosexuality isn’t accepted as it cannot be universalised as then we wouldn’t be able to continue the human race. This is the same as if sex was just for pleasure as if it was universalised this way then everyone would use contraception and we wouldn’t be able to continue the population. You cannot use someone to have sex for your own lust of pleasure as you are just using them as a means to an end Marriage is the only time we should have sex, and this was it is okay to have sex for pleasure Also sees it as moral for someone to be a prostitute as long as there is mutual consent
  13. 13. SITUATION ETHICS’ APPROACH Based around agape, what is most loving to do? Each situation should be treated with Agape. You should have sex with loving commitment so that it aligns with agape, therefore casual sex should be wrong as it is out of lust for that person ad not love for them. Sometimes it is most loving thing to allow someone to have an abortion.
  14. 14. CHRISTIAN ETHICS’ APPROACH Roman Catholics : Natural law, no nothing apart from sex in marriage for children. Evangelical Christians: sex is unifying, it brings people together in the eyes of God Natural law/situation ethics
  15. 15. VIRTUE ETHICS’ APPROACH This focuses on moral development of individuals We can develop virtuously through having sex. This is because virtue ethics includes ideas of love, friendship, companionship, faithfulness, commitment and trust. By developing sexually intimacy you develop these things, as you investigate someone. We become virtuous.