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Free will and determinism revision A2 revision


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Free Will and Determinism for Philosophy and Ethics A2

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Free will and determinism revision A2 revision

  1. 1.  Free will: the ability to make free, unhindered choices  Determinism: The idea that all actions are governed by laws outside of our control.  Soft determinism: the teaching that says we can be both determined and free, as some of our moral choices are free but aspects of our nature are determined  Predestination: also know as theological determinism. This is the belief that God already knew before all time began who would be saved and go to heaven. Therefore there is no choice.
  2. 2.  All choices are determined by other events or actions prior to the choice. They are caused by other events/actions.  Concept of free will is an illusion  We make decisions believing that we do so as we have free will when actually this apparent choice was already determined to be made  If everything is determined we are not free at all and we can therefore not be held accountable for our own actions as we didn’t choose to do so or commit those actions
  3. 3.  This suggests that we are completely free and not determined in any way shape or form.  People had rejected determinism as it rules out any responsibility that individuals have  Also known as incompatabilism due to it being incompatable with determinism  They believe that cause and effect isn’t relevant  There is no compulsion to act, so every choice is very free and this makes us responsible for performing or committing these free acts  As we chose the cause of action we must also take responsibility for it whatever the consequence as we chose to do it.  Libertarianism: this theory claims that we are morally responsible for all our actions and are free to make choices
  4. 4.  It seeks to bring freedom and accountability together with the sense that choices are predetermined by prior choices  They believe that free will and determinism are compatible with each other, hence why this theory is called compatablism  It suggests that our values, desires and prior choices can determine how we will act in certain situations.
  5. 5.  Lawyer  Famous case was loeb and leopold, loeb and leopold killed Franks with a spanner and pled guilty  Darrow said that they were predetermined by their upbringing, education, family, books, “because they were made that way”  Predetermined to commit the crime so they only got 99 years in prison, instead of the death penalty.
  6. 6.  He responded to Heisenberg  Free will is meaningless  Starts from principles of physics and causality  Nothing happens without a reason, the reason for everything is out of the control of human beings  Events are determined and anything humans do as a result of what has already happened- humans are not responsible for their actions since everything is just a chain of events
  7. 7.  Psychologist  What did he do?  Social conditioning- we learn everything, we just respond to stimulus  Action caused by society  Dog experiment
  8. 8.  Man in the room, if a man is locked in a room doesn’t now that he is locked in the room so he believes that he is free, never tries so never knows that he isnt actually free  We are born as a blank slate and develop morality by life experiences(sensory which are determined and recorded)
  9. 9.  No random actions  Determined but we have wriggle room  Causal events are determined but we have free will to choose/respond, free choice, liberty of sponanety  Freedom to choose how to acts in response to a determined event
  10. 10.  Critique of pure reason  Determinism applied to objects of knowledge not acts of will  Against Hume’s causality- argued that it is a synthetic a priori assumption- no evidence
  11. 11.  Libertarian  Uncertainty principle- nothing has a definite path.  Subatomic particles are the smallest thing, make up everything however you cannot predict what they will do, so you cant predict anything in the universe
  12. 12.  We can chose  To be human is to be free  Animals can but we can  We are completely free and undetermined
  13. 13.  Darwin…Evolution, instincts are predetermined  Nature/biological  Dawkins… DNA- selfish gene, pass on genes, we are determined to pass them on
  14. 14.  God decided if we are saved or not  Augustine and Calvin- God determines everything in history and man only has limited understanding of the plan  Augustine- God alone determines who will achieve good  Calvin- man are sinners so Predestintion must occur or no one will be saved