Design and implementation of real time security guard robot using GSM/CDMA networking
DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REAL TIME SECURITY GUARD
ROBOT USING GSM/CDMA NETWORKING
Present industry is increasingly shifting towards automation. Two
programmable controllers and robots. In order to aid the tedious work
and to serve the mankind, today there is a general tendency to develop
an intelligent operation.
The proposed system ―DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REAL
TIME SECURITY GUARD ROBOT USING GSM/CDMA NETWORKING ‖
is designed and developed to accomplish the various tasks in an adverse
environment of an industry. The intelligent using of Microcontroller ,RF
transmitter and receiver ,Pc ,Alarm. This project is an owe to the
technical advancement. This prototype system can be applied effectively
and efficiently in an expanded dimension to fit for the requirement of
industrial, research and commercial applications.
Microcontroller is the heart of the device which handles all the sub
devices connected across it. We have used as microcontroller. It has
flash type reprogrammable memory. It has some peripheral devices to
play this project perform. It also provides sufficient power to inbuilt
peripheral devices. We need not give individually to all devices. The
peripheral devices also activates as low power operation mode. These
are the advantages are appear here.
INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER
Microcontrollers are destined to play an increasingly important
role in revolutionizing various industries and influencing our day to day
life more strongly than one can imagine. Since its emergence in the early
1980's the microcontroller has been recognized as a general purpose
building block for intelligent digital systems. It is finding using diverse
area, starting from simple children's toys to highly complex spacecraft.
Because of its versatility and many advantages, the application domain
has spread in all conceivable directions, making it ubiquitous. As a
consequence, it has generate a great deal of interest and enthusiasm
among students, teachers and practicing engineers, creating an acute
education need for imparting the knowledge of microcontroller based
system design and development. It identifies the vital features
responsible for their tremendous impact; the acute educational need
created by them and provides a glimpse of the major application area.
A microcontroller is a complete microprocessor system built on a
single IC. Microcontrollers were developed to meet a need for
microprocessors to be put into low cost products. Building a complete
microprocessor system on a single chip substantially reduces the cost of
building simple products, which use the microprocessor's power to
implement their function, because the microprocessor is a natural way to
implement many products. This means the idea of using a
microprocessor for low cost products comes up often. But the typical 8bit microprocessor based system, such as one using a Z80 and 8085 is
expensive. Both 8085 and Z80 system need some additional circuits to
make a microprocessor system. Each part carries costs of money. Even
though a product design may require only very simple system, the parts
needed to make this system as a low cost product.
To solve this problem microprocessor system is implemented with
a single chip microcontroller. This could be called microcomputer, as all
the major parts are in the IC. Most frequently they are called
microcontroller because they are used they are used to perform control
The microcontroller contains full implementation of a standard
MICROPROCESSOR, ROM, RAM, I/0, CLOCK, TIMERS, and also
SERIAL PORTS. Microcontroller also called "system on a chip" or
"single chip microprocessor system" or "computer on a chip".
A microcontroller is a Computer-On-A-Chip, or, if you prefer, a
single-chip computer. Micro suggests that the device is small, and
controller tells you that the device' might be used to control objects,
processes, or events. Another term to describe a microcontroller is
embedded controller, because the microcontroller and its support circuits
are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they control.
Today microcontrollers are very commonly used in wide variety of
intelligent products. For example most personal computers keyboards
and implemented with a microcontroller. It replaces Scanning,
Denounce, Matrix Decoding, and Serial transmission circuits. Many low
cost products, such as Toys, Electric Drills, Microwave Ovens, VCR and
a host of other consumer and industrial products are based on
EVOLUTION OF MICROCONTROROLLER
Markets for microcontrollers can run into millions of units per
application. At these volumes of the microcontrollers is a commodity
items and must be optimized so that cost is at a minimum.
.Semiconductor manufacturers have produced a mind-numbing array of
designs that would seem to meet almost any need. Some of the chips
listed in this section are no longer regular production, most are current,
and a few are best termed as "smoke ware": the dreams of an aggressive
Yea No. No RA
4 Bit MC
8 bit MC
y 128 K
16 Bit MC
32 Bit MC
132 20 MHz clock, 32 bit bus,
512 byte instruction cache
Microcontrollers did you use today?
A microcontroller is a kind of miniature computer that you can
find in all kinds of Gizmos. Some examples of common, every-day
products that have microcontrollers are built-in. If it has buttons and a
digital display, chances are it also has a programmable microcontroller
Microcontrollers. Try to make a list and counting how many devices and
the events with microcontrollers you use in a typical day. Here are some
examples: if your clock radio goes off, and you hit the snooze button a
few times in the morning, the first thing you do in your day is interact
with a microcontroller. Heating up some food in the microwave oven
and making a call on a cell phone also involve operating
microcontrollers. That's just the beginning. Here are a few more
examples: Turning on the Television with a handheld remote, playing a
hand held game, Using a calculator, and Checking your digital wrist
watch. All those devices have microcontrollers inside them, that interact
with you. Consumer appliances aren't the only things that contain
microcontrollers. Moving chairs, machinery, aerospace designs and
other high-tech devices are also built with microcontrollers.
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output
port each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0
pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be
configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during
accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0 has
internal pull ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash
programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification.
External pull ups are required during program verification.
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. The
Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are
written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and
can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull ups.
Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash
programming and verification.
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. The
Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are
written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and
can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being
pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull ups. Port
2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external
program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses
16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application it uses strong
internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data
memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the
contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the
high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash
programming and verification.
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The
Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are
written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can
be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled
low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 3 also serves
the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below:
Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming
Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the
oscillator is running resets the device.
Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the
address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the
program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal
operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator
frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes.
Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to
external Data Memory.
If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR
location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or
MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the
ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external
Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program
memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program
memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two
PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data
External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to
enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations
starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is
programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be
strapped to VCC for internal program executions.
This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage
(VPP) during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP.
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal
clock operating circuit.
Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. It should be noted
that when idle is terminated by a hard ware reset, the device normally
resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine
cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip
hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the
port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected
write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction
following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a
port pin or to external memory.
ARCHITECTURE OF 89C51
ADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLERS:
If a system is developed with a microprocessor, the designer
has to go for external memory such as RAM, ROM or EPROM and
peripherals and hence the size of the PCB will be large enough to hold
all the required peripherals. But, the micro controller has got all these
peripheral facilities on a single chip so development of a similar system
with a micro controller reduces PCB size and cost of the design.
One of the major differences between a micro controller and a
microprocessor is that a controller often deals with bits , not bytes as in
the real world application, for example switch contacts can only be open
or close, indicators should be lit or dark and motors can be either turned
on or off and so forth.
INTRODUCTION TO ATMEL MICROCONTROLLER
SERIES: 89C51 Family, TECHNOLOGY: CMOS
The major Features of 8-bit Micro controller ATMEL 89C51:
8 Bit CPU optimized for control applications
Extensive Boolean processing (Single - bit Logic)
On - Chip Flash Program Memory
On - Chip Data RAM
Bi-directional and Individually Addressable I/O Lines
Multiple 16-Bit Timer/Counters
Full Duplex UART
Multiple Source / Vector / Priority Interrupt Structure
On - Chip Oscillator and Clock circuitry.
On - Chip EEPROM
SPI Serial Bus Interface
Watch Dog Timer
POWER MODES OF ATMEL 89C51 ICROCONTROLLER:
To exploit the power savings available in CMOS circuitry. Atmel’s
Flash micro controllers have two software-invited reduced power modes.
The CPU is turned off while the RAM and other on - chip
peripherals continue operating. Inn this mode current draw is reduced to
about 15 percent of the current drawn when the device is fully active.
POWER DOWN MODE:
All on-chip activities are suspended while the on – chip RAM
continues to hold its data. In this mode, the device typically draws less
than 15 Micro Amps and can be as low as 0.6 Micro Amps
POWER ON RESET:
When power is turned on, the circuit holds the RST pin high for an
amount of time that depends on the capacitor value and the rate at which
To ensure a valid reset, the RST pin must be held high long enough
to allow the oscillator to start up plus two machine cycles. On power up,
Vcc should rise within approximately 10ms. The oscillator start-up time
depends on the oscillator frequency. For a 10 MHz crystal, the
up time is typically 1ms.With the given circuit, reducing Vcc quickly to
0 causes the RST pin voltage to momentarily fall below 0V. How ever,
this voltage is internally l limited and will not harm the device.
* Logical Separation of Program and Data Memory *
All Atmel Flash micro controllers have separate address spaces for
data memory as shown in Fig 1.The logical separation
of program and data memory allows the data memory to be accessed by
8 bit addresses. Which can be more quickly stored and manipulated by
an 8 bit CPU Nevertheless 16 Bit data memory addresses can also be
generated through the DPTR register?
Program memory can only be read. There can be up to 64K bytes
of directly addressable program memory. The read strobe for external
program memory is the Program Store Enable Signal (PSEN) Data
memory occupies a separate address space from program memory. Up to
64K bytes of external memory can be directly addressed in the
external data memory space. The CPU generates read and write signals,
RD and WR, during external data memory accesses. External program
memory and external data memory can be combined by an applying the
RD and PSEN signal to the inputs of AND gate and using the output of
the fate as the read strobe to the external program/data memory.
The map of the lower part of the program memory, after reset, the
CPU begins execution from location 0000h. Each interrupt is assigned a
fixed location in program
memory. The interrupt causes the CPU to
jump to that location, where it executes the service routine. External
Interrupt 0 for example, is assigned to location 0003h. If external
Interrupt 0 is used, its service routine must begin at location 0003h. If
the I interrupt in not used its service location is available as generalpurpose program memory.
The interrupt service locations are spaced at 8 byte intervals 0003h
for External interrupt 0, 000Bh for Timer 0, 0013h for External interrupt
1,001Bh for Timer1, and so on. If an Interrupt service routine is short
enough (as is often the case in control applications) it can reside entirely
within that 8-byte interval. Longer service routines can use a jump
instruction to skip over subsequent interrupt locations. If other interrupts
are in use. The lowest addresses of program memory can be either in the
on-chip Flash or in an external memory. To make this selection, strap
the External Access (EA) pin to either Vcc or GND. For example, in the
AT89C51 with 4K bytes of on-chip Flash, if the EA pin is strapped to
Vcc, program fetches to addresses 0000h through 0FFFh are directed to
internal Flash. Program fetches to addresses 1000h through FFFFh are
directed to external memory.
The Internal Data memory is dived into three blocks namely, Refer Fig
The lower 128 Bytes of Internal RAM.
The Upper 128 Bytes of Internal RAM.
Special Function Register
Internal Data memory Addresses are always 1 byte wide, which
implies an address space of only 256 bytes. However, the addressing
modes for internal RAM can in fact accommodate 384 bytes. Direct
addresses higher than 7Fh access one memory space and indirect
addresses higher than 7Fh access a different Memory Space.
The lowest 32 bytes are grouped into 4 banks of 8 registers.
Program instructions call out these registers as R0 through R7. Two bits
in the Program Status Word (PSW) Select, which register bank, is in use.
This architecture allows more efficient use of code space, since register
instructions are shorter than instructions that use direct addressing.
The next 16-bytes above the register banks form a block of bit
addressable memory space. The micro controller instruction set includes
a wide selection of single - bit instructions and this instruction can
directly address the 128 bytes in this area. These bit addresses are 00h
through 7Fh. either directs or indirect addressing can access all of the
bytes in lower 128 bytes. Indirect addressing can only access the upper
128. The upper 128 bytes of RAM are only in the devices with 256 bytes
The Special Function Register includes Ports latches, timers,
peripheral controls etc., direct addressing can only access these register.
In general, all Atmel micro controllers have the same SFRs at the same
addresses in SFR space as the
AT89C51 and other compatible micro
controllers. However, upgrades to the AT89C51 have additional SFRs.
Sixteen addresses in SFR space are both byte and bit Addressable. The
bit Addressable SFRs are those whose address ends in 000B. The bit
addresses in this area are 80h through FFH.
In direct addressing, the operand specified by an 8-bit address field
in the instruction. Only internal data RAM and SFR’s can be directly
In Indirect addressing, the instruction specifies a register that
contains the address of the operand. Both internal and external RAM can
The address register for 8-bit addresses can be either the Stack
Pointer or R0 or R1 of the selected register Bank. The address register
for 16-bit addresses can be only the 16-bit data pointer register, DPTR.
Program memory can only be accessed via indexed addressing this
addressing mode is intended for reading look-up tables in program
memory. A 16 bit base register (Either DPTR or the Program Counter)
points to the base of the table, and the accumulator is set up with the
table entry number. Adding the Accumulator data to the base pointer
forms the address of the table entry in program memory.
Another type of indexed addressing is used in the―case jump‖
instructions. In this case the destination address of a jump instruction is
computed as the sum of the base pointer and the Accumulator data.
The register banks, which contains registers R0 through R7, can be
accessed by instructions whose Opcodes carry a 3-bit register
specification. Instructions that access the registers this way make
efficient use of code, since this mode eliminates an address byte. When
the instruction is executed, one of four banks is selected at execution
time by the row bank select bits in PSW.
REGISTER - SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION:
Some Instructions are specific to a certain register. For example
some instruction always operates on the Accumulator, so no address
byte is needed to point OT ir. In these cases, the opcode itself points to
the correct register. Instructions that register to Accumulator as A
assemble as Accumulator - specific Opcodes.
The value of a constant can follow the opcode in program memory
For example. MOV A, #100 loads the Accumulator with the decimal
number 100. The same number could be specified in hex digit as 64h.
PROGRAM STATUS WORD:
Program Status Word Register in Atmel Flash Micro controller:
CY AC F0
RS1 RS0 OV ---
Parity of Accumulator Set by Hardware to 1 if it contains an Odd
number of 1s, Otherwise it is reset to 0.
User Definable Flag
Overflow Flag Set By Arithmetic Operations
Register Bank Select
Register Bank Select
General Purpose Flag.
Auxiliary Carry Flag Receives Carry Out from
Bit 1 of Addition Operands
Carry Flag Receives Carry Out From Bit 1 of ALU Operands.
The Program Status Word contains Status bits that reflect the
current state of the CPU. The PSW shown if Fig resides in SFR space.
The PSW contains the Carry Bit, The auxiliary Carry (For BCD
Operations) the two - register bank select bits, the Overflow flag, a
Parity bit and two user Definable status Flags.
The Carry Bit, in addition to serving as a Carry bit in arithmetic
operations also serves the as the ―Accumulator‖ for a number of Boolean
Operations .The bits RS0 and RS1 select one of the four register banks.
A number of instructions register to these
through R7.The status of the RS0 and RS1 bits at execution time
determines which of the four banks is selected.
The Parity bit reflect the Number of 1s in the Accumulator .P=1 if
the Accumulator contains an even number of 1s, and P=0 if the
Accumulator contains an even number of 1s. Thus, the number of 1s in
the Accumulator plus P is always even. Two bits in the PSW are
uncommitted and can be used as general-purpose status flags.
The AT89C51 provides 5 interrupt sources: Two External
interrupts, two-timer interrupts and a serial port interrupts. The External
Interrupts INT0 and INT1 can each either level activated or transition activated, depending on bits IT0 and IT1 in Register TCON. The Flags
that actually generate these interrupts are the IE0 and IE1 bits in TCON.
When the service routine is vectored to hardware clears the flag that
generated an external interrupt only if the interrupt WA transition activated. If the interrupt was level - activated, then the external
requesting source (rather than the on-chip hardware) controls the
requested flag. Tf0 and Tf1 generate the Timer 0 and Timer 1 Interrupts,
which are set by a rollover in their respective Timer/Counter Register
(except for Timer 0 in Mode 3). When a timer interrupt is generated, the
on-chip hardware clears the flag that generated it when the service
routine is vectored to. The logical OR of RI and TI generate the Serial
Port Interrupt. Neither of these flag is cleared by hardware when the
service routine is vectored to. In fact, the service routine normally must
determine whether RI or TI generated the interrupt and the bit must be
cleared in software.
In the Serial Port Interrupt is generated by the logical OR of RI and
TI. Neither of these flag is cleared by hardware when the service routine
is vectored to. In fact, the service routine normally must determine
whether RI to TI generated the interrupt and the bit must be cleared in
IE: INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER
ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0
Enable bit = 1 enabled the interrupt
Enable bit = 0 disables it.
Global enable / disable all interrupts.
If EA = 0, no interrupt will be
If EA = 1, each interrupt source is
individually enabled to disabled by
setting or clearing its enable bit
Undefined / reserved
Timer 2 Interrupt enables Bit
Serial Port Interrupt enabled bit.
Timer 1 Interrupt enable bit.
External Interrupt 1 enable bit.
Timer 0 Interrupt enable bit.
External Interrupt 0 enable bit.
OSCILLATOR AND CLOCK CIRCUIT:
XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output respectively of an
inverting amplifier which is intended for use as a crystal oscillator in the
pierce configuration, in the frequency range of 1.2 MHz to 12 Mhz.
XTAL2 also the input to the internal clock generator.
To drive the chip with an internal oscillator, one would ground
XTAL1 and XTAL2. Since the input to the clock generator is divide by
two fillip flop there are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external
oscillator signal. However, minimum high and low times must be
The clock generator divides the oscillator frequency by 2 and
provides a tow phase clock signal to the chip. The phase 1 signal is
active during the first half to each clock period and the phase 2 signals
are active during the second half of each clock period.
A machine cycle consists of 6 states. Each stare is divided into a
phase / half, during which the phase 1 clock is active and phase 2 half.
Arithmetic and Logical operations take place during phase1 and internal
register - to register transfer take place during phase 2
TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN MICRO CONTROLLER
The manner in which the use of micro controllers is shaping our lives
is breathtaking. Today, this versatile device can be found in a variety
of control applications. CVTs, VCRs, CD players, microwave ovens,
and automotive engine systems are some of these.
A micro controller unit (MCU) uses the microprocessor as its central
processing unit (CPU) and incorporates memory, timing reference,
I/O peripherals, etc on the same chip. Limited computational
capabilities and enhanced I/O are special features.
The micro controller is the most essential IC for continuous processbased
programmable logic systems (DCS). PLC and DCS thrive on the
programmability of an MCU.
There are many MCU manufacturers. To understand and apply
general concepts, it is necessary to study one type in detail. This
specific knowledge can be used to understand similar features of
Micro controller devices have many similarities. When you look at
the differences, they are not so great either. Most common and
popular MCUs are considered to be mature and well-established
products, which have their individual adherents and devotees. There
are a number of variants within each family to satisfy most memory,
I/O, data conversion, and timing needs of end-user applications.
The MCU is designed to operate on application-oriented sensor datafor example, temperature and pressure of a blast furnace in an
industrial process that is fed through its serial or operated on under
the control of software and stored in ROM. Appropriate signals are
fed via output ports to control external devices and systems.
APPLICATIONS OF MICROCONTROLLERS
Microcontrollers are designed for use in sophisticated real time
applications such as
1. Industrial Control
2. Instrumentation and
3. Intelligent computer peripherals
They are used in industrial applications to control
Discrete and continuous process control
In missile guidance and control
In medical instrumentation
For Scanning a keyboard
Driving an LCD
For Frequency measurements
A BOMB sensor, in particular a BOMB switch is described. A component that
pertains to a system variable and is independent from the material of a trigger or
target is elected and transformed into a non-periodic signal that depends upon the
distance of the trigger. The trigger of a BOMB sensor can thus be exchanged
randomly without requiring subsequent adjustments. The impedance of an
oscillation circuit which pertains to the BOMB sensor, the impedance of an
oscillation circuit coil, the amplitude of the oscillation circuit signal or a voltage
divider ratio between the oscillation circuit and the additional resistance can be
used s system variables for instance.
A BOMB sensor for determining an approaching direction of an object is provided.
Relative detection sensitivity is established in a first detection unit and a second
detection unit such that a detection level of the first detection unit is greater than a
detection level of the second detection unit when the object approaches from a first
electrode in a direction of arranging the first electrode and a second electrode, and
that the detection level of the second detection unit is greater than the first
detection unit when the object approaches from a direction perpendicular to the
direction of arranging the first electrode and the second electrode. A BOMB
position determining section is adapted to determine the approaching direction of
the object based on the detection level of the first detection unit and the detection
level of the second detection unit.
As noted above, it is desired to provide a BOMB sensor capable of determining an
approaching direction of an object. A characteristic feature of the present invention
lies in a BOMB sensor for detecting approach of an object based on capacitance,
including: an electrode section including a first electrode and a second electrode
arranged adjacent to each other;
a detecting section including a first detection unit for detecting approach of the
object based on variations in capacitance of the first electrode, and a second
detection unit for detecting approach of the object based on variations in
capacitance of the second electrode, wherein relative detection sensitivity is
established in the first detection unit and the second detection unit such that a
detection level of the first detection unit is greater than a detection level of the
second detection unit when the object approaches from the first electrode in a
direction of arranging the first electrode and the second electrode, and that the
detection level of the second detection unit is greater than the first detection unit
when the object approaches from a direction perpendicular to the direction of
arranging the first electrode and the second electrode; and
a BOMB position determining section for determining the approaching direction of
the object based on the detection level of the first detection unit and the detection
level of the second detection unit.
With this arrangement, the BOMB position determining section is provided for
establishing the relative detection sensitivity for the first unit having the first
electrode and the second unit having the second electrode to determine the position
of the object based on the detection levels from the first unit and second unit. This
makes it possible to determine the approaching direction of the object based on the
determination results received from the BOMB position determining section
without providing the shield and the like. As a result, the BOMB sensor capable of
determining the approaching direction of the object can be easily achieved.
In the BOMB sensor of the present invention, the relative detection sensitivity may
be established by determining detection performance of the first detection unit and
the second detection unit or by determining configurations of the first electrode
and the second electrode. With such an arrangement, the relative sensitivity is
achieved in response to the mode of use or the condition in use by establishing the
detection sensitivity by the first detection unit and the second detection unit, or by
determining the configurations of the first electrode and the second electrode, or by
the combination thereof.
The BOMB sensor of the present invention may further comprise a belt-like
ground electrode provided in the electrode section and having a longitudinal
section extending along a peripheral direction of a tubular substrate, wherein the
belt-like first electrode and second electrode are arranged on the substrate along
the peripheral direction with the ground electrode between them and parallel with
the ground electrode.
With this arrangement, it is possible to form the first electrode, the ground
electrode and the second electrode on the tubular substrate in the mentioned order.
For example, it makes it possible not only to facilitate fabrication of the sensor
compared with the arrangement in which an electrode and an insulating material
are layered but also to align the arranging direction of the first electrode and the
second electrode with an axial direction of the tubular substrate. As a result, it is
possible to distinguish between the approach of the object from a direction along
the axial direction and the approach of the object from a direction perpendicular to
the axial direction.
Further, a characteristic feature of a rotational operation detecting device of the
present invention having a rotation detecting section for detecting a rotational
operation of a rotationally-operable knob about an axis, the rotational operation
detecting device comprising:
a first electrode arranged inside the knob at a distal end of the axis in a direction
along the axis; a second electrode arranged inside the knob at a proximal end of the
axis in a direction along the axis. A detection section including a first detection
unit for detecting approach of an object based on variations in capacitance of the
first electrode and a second detection unit for detecting approach of the object
based on variations in capacitance of the second electrode, wherein relative
detection sensitivity is established such that a detection level of the first detection
unit is greater than a detection level of the second detection unit when the object
approaches from the first electrode in a direction along the axis and that the
detection level of the second detection unit is greater than the first detection unit
when the object approaches from a direction perpendicular to the direction along
a BOMB position determining section for determining the approaching direction of
the object based on the detection level of the first detection unit and the detection
level of the second detection unit; and
an output control section for allowing output of signals from the rotation detection
section only when a rotational operation is detected in the rotation detection
section when the BOMB position determining section detects approach of the
object from the direction perpendicular to the axis.
With this arrangement, the detection level of the first detection unit becomes
higher than the detection level of the second detection unit when the object
approaches from the distal end along the axis of the knob. On the other hand, the
detection level of the second detection unit becomes higher than the detection level
of the first detection unit when the object approaches from the direction
perpendicular to the axis of the knob. The BOMB position determining section is
adapted to recognize the difference in detection level, thereby distinguishing
between the state where the user pinches or grips the knob to rotate the knob and
the sate the sleeve of the user's clothing or part of the user's body contacts an end
portion of the knob to rotate the knob. The output control section allows output of
signals from the rotation detection section only when it can be determined that the
user intentionally has operated the knob based on the determination results from
the BOMB position determining section. As a result, the rotational operation
detecting device is capable of disregarding operations executed unintentionally by
the user and extracting only the amount of rotation resulting from proper
Still further, the rotational operation detecting device of the present invention may
comprise a sheet-like substrate that is flexibly deformable, wherein a belt-like
ground electrode is formed on the substrate in a predetermined direction, the beltlike first electrode and second electrode being formed on the substrate with the
ground electrode between them and parallel with the ground electrode, and
wherein the substrate has a tubular shape to be fitted into the interior of the knob,
on which the belt-like ground electrode as well as the belt-like first electrode and
second electrode are arranged in a peripheral direction centering the axis.
With such an arrangement, since the sheet-like substrate with the electrodes being
formed thereon has a tubular shape to be fitted into the interior of the knob, it is not
required to form the electrode directly in the interior of the knob. As a result, the
capacitance-type sensor may be easily fabricated.
An alarm gives an audible or visual warning about a problem or
Burglar alarms, designed to warn of burglaries; this is often a silent
alarm: the police or guards are warned without indication to the
burglar, which increases the chances of catching him or her.
Alarm clocks can produce an alarm at a given time
Distributed control manufacturing systems or DCSs, found in
nuclear power plants, refineries and chemical facilities also
generate alarms to direct the operator's attention to an important
event that he or she needs to address.
Alarms in an operation and maintenance (O&M) monitoring
system, which informs the bad working state of (a particular part
of) the system under monitoring.
Safety alarms, which go off if a dangerous condition occurs.
Common public safety alarms include:
"Multiple-alarm fire", a locally-specific measure of the
severity of a fire and the fire-department reaction
community Alarm or auto dialer alarm (medical alarms)
air raid sirens
tocsins — a historical method of raising an alarm
Alarms have the capability of causing a fight-or-flight response in
humans; a person under this mindset will panic and either flee the
perceived danger or attempt to eliminate it, often ignoring rational
thought in either case. We can characterize a person in such a state as
With any kind of alarm, the need exists to balance between on the one
hand the danger of false alarms (called "false positives") — the signal
going off in the absence of a problem — and on the other hand failing to
signal an actual problem (called a "false negative"). False alarms can
waste resources expensively and can even be dangerous. For example,
false alarms of a fire can waste firefighter manpower, making them
unavailable for a real fire, and risk injury to firefighters and others as the
fire engines race to the alleged fire's location.
4.3 DRIVER CIRCUIT
In electronics, a driver is an electrical circuit or other electronic
component used to control another circuit or other component, such as a
high-power transistor. The term is used, for example, for a specialized
computer chip that controls the high-power transistors in AC-to-DC
voltage converters. An amplifier can also be considered the driver for
loudspeakers, or a constant voltage circuit that keeps an attached
component operating within a broad range of input voltages.
The following circuit will allow you to drive a 12V relay using logic
voltage (an input of 4V or greater will trip the relay). The circuit has its
own 12V power supply making it self contained but the power supply
portion can be left out if an external supply will be used. The circuit
shows an output from the power supply that can be used to power other
devices but it should be noted that the supply is unregulated and not
particularly powerful with the parts stated. The 12V DC output is
suitable for powering a few LEDs or low voltage lights but should not be
used to power other electronic boards or mot
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil
of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch
contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and
they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a
second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low
voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is
no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is
magnetic and mechanical.
The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a
12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from
lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is
usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the
relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so
these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification.
Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of
switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily
available. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires
directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the
The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch
contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the
coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch contacts. There is one set of
contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind them, making the relay
The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO:
COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of the switch.
NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off.
NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION:
In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A
current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in
an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in
the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As you are well
aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite (North and South) polarities
attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal
configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction
between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate
Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a
magnet or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or
winding with a "South" polarization).
Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (armature), stator, commutator,
field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors, the external magnetic
field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets. The stator is the stationary
part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more
permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached
commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings
(generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator.
The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the
stator (field) magnets.
The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such
that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator
magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with
the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the
next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. Given our example twopole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding,
leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, driving it to continue rotating.
In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a
very common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator.
You can imagine how with our example two-pole motor, if the rotor is exactly at
the middle of its rotation (perfectly aligned with the field magnets), it will get
"stuck" there. Meanwhile, with a two-pole motor, there is a moment where the
commutator shorts out the power supply. This would be bad for the power supply,
waste energy, and damage motor components as well. Yet another disadvantage of
such a simple motor is that it would exhibit a high amount of torque "ripple" (the
amount of torque it could produce is cyclic with the position of the rotor).
So since most small DC motors are of a three-pole design, let's tinker with the
A few things from this -- namely, one pole is fully energized at a time (but two
others are "partially" energized). As each brush transitions from one commutator
contact to the next, one coil's field will rapidly collapse, as the next coil's field will
rapidly charge up (this occurs within a few microsecond). We'll see more about the
effects of this later, but in the meantime you can see that this is a direct result of
the coil windings' series wiring:
There's probably no better way to see how an average DC motor is put together,
than by just opening one up. Unfortunately this is tedious work, as well as
requiring the destruction of a perfectly good motor.
The guts of a disassembled Mabuchi FF-030-PN motor (the same model that Solar
biotic sells) are available for (on 10 lines / cm graph paper). This is a basic 3-pole
DC motor, with 2 brushes and three commutator contacts.
The use of an iron core armature (as in the Mabuchi, above) is quite common, and
has a number of advantages. First off, the iron core provides a strong, rigid support
for the windings -- a particularly important consideration for high-torque motors.
The core also conducts heat away from the rotor windings, allowing the motor to
be driven harder than might otherwise be the case. Iron core construction is also
relatively inexpensive compared with other construction types.
But iron core construction also has several disadvantages. The iron armature has a
relatively high inertia which limits motor acceleration. This construction also
results in high winding inductances which limit brush and commutator life.
In small motors, an alternative design is often used which features a 'coreless'
armature winding. This design depends upon the coil wire itself for structural
integrity. As a result, the armature is hollow, and the permanent magnet can be
mounted inside the rotor coil. Coreless DC motors have much lower armature
inductance than iron-core motors of comparable size, extending brush and
The coreless design also allows manufacturers to build smaller motors; meanwhile,
due to the lack of iron in their rotors, coreless motors are somewhat prone to
overheating. As a result, this design is generally used just in small, low-power
motors. Beamers will most often see coreless DC motors in the form of pager
Again, disassembling a coreless motor can be instructive -- in this case, my hapless
victim was a cheap pager vibrator motor. The guts of this disassembled motor are
available (on 10 lines / cm graph paper). This is (or more accurately, was) a 3-pole
coreless DC motor.
6. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION
6.1 POWER SUPPLY
The ac voltage, typically 220V RMS, is connected to a
transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to the level of the desired
dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage
that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc
voltage. This resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage
A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the same
dc value even if the input dc voltage varies, or the load connected to the
output dc voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually obtained
using one of the popular voltage regulator IC units.
Block diagram (Power supply)
The potential transformer will step down the power supply voltage
(0-230V) to (0-6V) level. Then the secondary of the potential
transformer will be connected to the precision rectifier, which is
constructed with the help of op–amp. The advantages of using precision
rectifier are it will give peak voltage output as DC; rest of the circuits
will give only RMS output.
When four diodes are connected as shown in figure, the circuit is
called as bridge rectifier. The input to the circuit is applied to the
diagonally opposite corners of the network, and the output is taken from
the remaining two corners.
Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is
a positive potential, at point A and a negative potential at point B. the
positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4.
The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse
D2. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current
flow to pass through them; D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block
The path for current flow is from point B through D1, up through
RL, through D3, through the secondary of the transformer back to point
B. this path is indicated by the solid arrows. Waveforms (1) and (2) can
be observed across D1 and D3.
One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the
transformer reverse, forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1
and D3. Current flow will now be from point A through D4, up through
RL, through D2, through the secondary of T1, and back to point A. This
path is indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be
observed across D2 and D4. The current flow through RL is always in
the same direction. In flowing through RL this current develops a
voltage corresponding to that shown waveform (5). Since current flows
through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage, this
bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier.
One advantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave
rectifier is that with a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a
voltage output that is nearly twice that of the conventional full-wave
This may be shown by assigning values to some of the components
shown in views A and B. assume that the same transformer is used in
both circuits. The peak voltage developed between points X and y is
1000 volts in both circuits. In the conventional full-wave circuit
shown—in view A, the peak voltage from the center tap to either X or Y
is 500 volts. Since only one diode can conduct at any instant, the
maximum voltage that can be rectified at any instant is 500 volts.
The maximum voltage that appears across the load resistor is
nearly-but never exceeds-500 v0lts, as result of the small voltage drop
across the diode. In the bridge rectifier shown in view B, the maximum
voltage that can be rectified is the full secondary voltage, which is 1000
volts. Therefore, the peak output voltage across the load resistor is
nearly 1000 volts. With both circuits using the same transformer, the
bridge rectifier circuit produces a higher output voltage than the
conventional full-wave rectifier circuit.
IC voltage regulators
Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs.
Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator
amplifier, control device, and overload protection all in a single IC. IC
units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed
negative voltage, or an adjustably set voltage. The regulators can be
selected for operation with load currents from hundreds of mill amperes
to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings from mill watts to
tens of watts.
Circuit diagram (Power supply)
A fixed three-terminal voltage regulator has an unregulated dc
input voltage, Vi, applied to one input terminal, a regulated dc output
voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected to
The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages
from 5 to 24 volts. Similarly, the series 79 regulators provide fixed
negative regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts.
The microcontroller circuit is connected with reset circuit, crystal
oscillator circuit; LCD circuit the reset circuit is the one which is an
external interrupt which is designed to reset the program. And the crystal
oscillator circuit is the one used to generate the pulses to microcontroller
and it also called as the heart of the microcontroller here we have used
12mhz crystal which generates pulses up to 12000000 frequency which
is converted it machine cycle frequency when divided by 12 which is
equal to 1000000hz to find the time we have to invert the frequency so
that we get one micro second for each execution of the instruction.
The LCD that is liquid crystal display which is used to display the what
we need the LCD has fourteen pins in which three pins for the command
and eight pins for the data. If the data is given to LCD it is write
command which is configured by the programmer otherwise it is read
command in which data read to microcontroller the data pins are given
to the to port0 and command pins are given to the port2.
Other than these pin a one pin configured for the contrast of the LCD.
Thus the microcontroller circuit works
DRIVER CIRCUIT WITH RELAY:
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through
the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and
changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays
have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover)
switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can
be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery
circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no
electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is
magnetic and mechanical.
The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically
30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays
designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot
provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small
IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum
output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices
can supply relay coils directly without amplification.
This circuit is designed to control the load. The load may be motor
or any other load. The load is turned ON and OFF through relay. The
relay ON and OFF is controlled by the pair of switching transistors (BC
547). The DPDT relay is connected in the Q2 transistor collector
terminal. A Relay is nothing but electromagnetic switching device which
consists of six pins. They are two set of Common, Normally close (NC)
and Normally open (NO) pins.
The relay common pin is connected to supply voltage. The
normally open (NO) pin connected to load. When high pulse signal is
given to base of the Q1 transistors, the transistor is conducting and
shorts the collector and emitter terminal and zero signals is given to base
of the Q2 transistor. So the relay is turned OFF state.
When low pulse is given to base of transistor Q1 transistor,
the transistor is turned OFF. Now 12v is given to base of T2 transistor so
the transistor is conducting and relay is energized. Hence the common
terminal and NO terminal of relay are shorted. Now load gets the supply
voltage through relay.
Voltage Signal from
Microcontroller or PC
The circuit is designed to control the buzzer. The buzzer ON and OFF is
controlled by the NPN transistor (BC 547). The buzzer is connected in the
transistor collector terminal.
When high pulse signal is given to base of the transistors it will be turned on
and now alarm get ground so it will be on.
If low pulse is given to the NPN transistor base means it will be off and also
alarm goes to the off state.
Voltage Signal from
Microcontroller or PC
6.5 MOTOR FORWARD AND REVERSE CONTROL
DC MOTOR FORWARD REVERSE CONTROL
Circuit working Description:
This circuit is designed to control the motor in the forward and
reverse direction. It consists of two relays named as relay1, relay2. The
relay ON and OFF is controlled by the pair of switching transistors. A
Relay is nothing but electromagnetic switching device which consists of
three pins. They are Common, Normally close (NC) and normally open
(NO). The common pin of two relay is connected to positive and
negative terminal of motor through snubber circuit respectively. The
relays are connected in the collector terminal of the transistors T2 and
When high pulse signal is given to either base of the T1 or T3
transistors, the transistor is conducting and shorts the collector and
emitter terminal and zero signals is given to base of the T2 or T4
transistor. So the relay is turned OFF state.
When low pulse is given to either base of transistor T1 or
T3 transistor, the transistor is turned OFF. Now 12v is given to base of
T2 or T4 transistor so the transistor is conducting and relay is turn ON.
The NO and NC pins of two relays are interconnected so only one relay
can be operated at a time.
The series combination of resistor and capacitor is called as
snubber circuit. When the relay is turn ON and turn OFF continuously,
the back emf may fault the relays. So the back emf is grounded through
the snubber circuit.
When relay 1 is in the ON state and relay 2 is in the OFF state,
the motor is running in the forward direction.
When relay 2 is in the ON state and relay 1 is in the OFF state,
the motor is running in the reverse direction.
7. PCB DESIGN
Design and Fabrication of Printed circuit boards
Printed circuit boards, or PCBs, form the core of electronic
equipment domestic and industrial. Some of the areas where PCBs are
intensively used are computers, process control, telecommunications and
The manufacturing process consists of two methods; print and
etch, and print, plate and etch. The single sided PCBs are usually made
using the print and etch method. The double sided plate through – hole
(PTH) boards are made by the print plate and etch method.
The production of multi layer boards uses both the methods. The
inner layers are printed and etch while the outer layers are produced by
print, plate and etch after pressing the inner layers.
The software used in our project to obtain the schematic layout is
Here the schematic transformed in to the working positive/negative
films. The circuit is repeated conveniently to accommodate
economically as many circuits as possible in a panel, which can be
operated in every sequence of subsequent steps in the PCB process.
This is called penalization. For the PTH boards, the next operation is
PCB drilling is a state of the art operation. Very small holes are
drilled with high speed CNC drilling machines, giving a wall finish with
less or no smear or epoxy, required for void free through hole plating.
The heart of the PCB manufacturing process. The holes drilled in
the board are treated both mechanically and chemically before
depositing the copper by the electro less copper platting process.
Once a multiplayer board is drilled and electro less copper
deposited, the image available in the form of a film is transferred on to
the out side by photo printing using a dry film printing process. The
boards are then electrolytic plated on to the circuit pattern with copper
and tin. The tin-plated deposit serves an etch resist when copper in the
unwanted area is removed by the conveyor’s spray etching machines
with chemical etch ants. The etching machines are attached to automatic
dosing equipment, which analyses and controls etch ants concentrations
Since a PCB design may call for very close spacing between
conductors, a solder mask has to be applied on the both sides of the
circuitry to avoid the bridging of conductors. The solder mask ink is
applied by screening. The ink is dried, exposed to UV, developed in a
mild alkaline solution and finally cured by both UV and thermal energy.
HOT AIR LEVELLING:
After applying the solder mask, the circuit pads are soldered using
the hot air leveling process. The bare bodies fluxed and dipped in to a
molten solder bath. While removing the board from the solder bath, hot
air is blown on both sides of the board through air knives in the
machines, leaving the board soldered and leveled. This is one of the
common finishes given to the boards. Thus the double sided plated
through whole printed circuit board is manufactured and is now ready
for the components to be soldered.
8 SOFTWARE TOOLS
8.1 KIEL C COMPILER:
Kiel development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture
support every level of software developer from the professional
applications engineer to the student just learning about embedded
The industry-standard Kiel C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Debuggers,
Real-time Kernels, Single-board Computers, and Emulators support all
8051 derivatives and help you get your projects completed on schedule
The Kiel 8051 Development Tools are designed to solve the
complex problems facing embedded software developers.
When starting a new project, simply select the microcontroller you
use from the Device Database and the µVision IDE sets all compiler,
assembler, linker, and memory options for you.
Numerous example programs are included to help you get started
with the most popular embedded 8051 devices.
The Kiel µVision Debugger accurately simulates on-chip peripherals
(I²C, CAN, UART, SPI, Interrupts, I/O Ports, A/D Converter, D/A
Converter, and PWM Modules) of your 8051 device.
Simulation helps you understand hardware configurations and
avoids time wasted on setup problems. Additionally, with simulation,
you can write and test applications before target hardware is
When you are ready to begin testing your software application with
target hardware, use the MON51, MON390, MONADI, or
FlashMON51 Target Monitors, the ISD51 In-System Debugger, or
the ULINK USB-JTAG Adapter to download and test program code
on your target system.
It's been suggested that there are now as many embedded systems in
everyday use as there are people on planet Earth. Domestic appliances
from washing machines to TVs, video recorders and mobile phones,
now include at least one embedded processor. They are also vital
components in a huge variety of automotive, medical, aerospace and
military systems. As a result, there is strong demand for programmers
with 'embedded' skills, and many desktop developers are moving into
Embedded C is designed for programmers with desktop experience in C,
C++ or Java who want to learn the skills required for the unique
challenges of embedded systems.
The book and CD-ROM include the following key features:
The Kiel hardware simulator for the popular 8051 microcontroller is on
the CD-ROM so that readers can try out examples from the book - and
create new ones - without requiring additional hardware.
All code is written in C, so no assembly language is required. Industrystandard C compiler from Kiel software is included on the CD-ROM,
along with copies of code examples from the book to get you up and
running very quickly.
Key techniques required in all embedded systems are covered in detail,
including the control of port pins and the reading of switches.
A complete embedded operating system is presented, with full source
code on the CD-ROM.
Achieve outstanding application performance on Intel processors using
Intel® C Compiler for Windows*, including support for the latest Intel
multi-core processors. For out-of-the-box productivity, Intel C Compiler
plugs into the Microsoft Visual Studio* development environment for
IA-32 and features a preview plug-in to the Microsoft Visual Studio
This chapter provides information about the C compiler, including
operating environments, standards conformance, organization of the
compiler, and C-related programming tools.
There are a number of tools available to aid in developing, maintaining,
and improving your C programs. The two most closely tied to C, c scope
and lint, are described in this book. In addition, a man page exists for
each of these tools. Refer to the preface of this book for a list of all the
associated man pages.
1. Robots that are agile and autonomous are well-suited for jobs that are
"dull, dirty, and dangerous" and will significantly change the way we
2. Future uses for such robots include urban combat, sniper detection,
explosive "sniffers," nuclear/biological/chemical sensing, mapping, and
service as weapons platforms. Ms. Greiner explained that robots could
provide innovative, flexible, and "persistent" solutions to evolving
threats and problems.
3. Applications in disaster-relief situations such as hurricanes, tsunamis,
or floods, where they could rescue survivors, deliver food, water, and
medical supplies, or even help establish an emergency communications
network for emergency personnel.
4. In short, Robots have advantages over humans in areas such as
strength, size, mobility, expendability, and the types of environments in
which they can work
Used in counter-terrorism and detection narcotics for the inspection of
explosives and trafficking drug, with the advantages of on-site evidence.
Used in Customs, postal services, airports, stations and ports for security
checks on suspicious items. Also used in confidential unit, security
departments and other public places for the inspection of suspicious
The progress in science & technology is a non-stop process. New things and new
technology are being invented. As the technology grows day by day, we can
imagine about the future in which thing we may occupy every place.
The proposed system based on Atmel microcontroller is found to
be more compact, user friendly and less complex, which can readily be
used in order to perform. Several tedious and repetitive tasks. Though it
is designed keeping in mind about the need for industry, it can extended
for other purposes such as commercial & research applications. Due to
the probability of high technology (Atmel microcontroller) used this
―7TH SENSE MULTIPURPOSE ROBOT‖ system is fully software
controlled with less hardware circuit. The feature makes this system is
the base for future systems.
The principle of the development of science is that ―nothing is
impossible‖. So we shall look forward to a bright & sophisticated world.
MILL MAN J and HAWKIES C.C. ―INTEGRATED
ELECTRONICS‖ MCGRAW HILL, 1972
Publishers, New Delhi, 2000
―THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED
SYSTEM‖ by Mohammad Ali Mazda.
―NDAYISENGA JEAN CLAUDE ‖ PERIYAR UNIV