Design and implementation of real time security guard robot using GSM/CDMA networking

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This is my "Design and implementation of real time security guard robot using GSM/CDMA networking " final year project.NDAYISENGA JEAN CLAUDE at PERIYAR UNIVERSITY .

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Design and implementation of real time security guard robot using GSM/CDMA networking

  1. 1. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REAL TIME SECURITY GUARD ROBOT USING GSM/CDMA NETWORKING
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Present industry is increasingly shifting towards automation. Two principle components of today’s industrial automations are programmable controllers and robots. In order to aid the tedious work and to serve the mankind, today there is a general tendency to develop an intelligent operation. The proposed system ―DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REAL TIME SECURITY GUARD ROBOT USING GSM/CDMA NETWORKING ‖ is designed and developed to accomplish the various tasks in an adverse environment of an industry. The intelligent using of Microcontroller ,RF transmitter and receiver ,Pc ,Alarm. This project is an owe to the technical advancement. This prototype system can be applied effectively and efficiently in an expanded dimension to fit for the requirement of industrial, research and commercial applications. Microcontroller is the heart of the device which handles all the sub devices connected across it. We have used as microcontroller. It has flash type reprogrammable memory. It has some peripheral devices to play this project perform. It also provides sufficient power to inbuilt peripheral devices. We need not give individually to all devices. The peripheral devices also activates as low power operation mode. These are the advantages are appear here.
  3. 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM
  4. 4. BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION MICROCONTROLLER
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER Microcontrollers are destined to play an increasingly important role in revolutionizing various industries and influencing our day to day life more strongly than one can imagine. Since its emergence in the early 1980's the microcontroller has been recognized as a general purpose building block for intelligent digital systems. It is finding using diverse area, starting from simple children's toys to highly complex spacecraft. Because of its versatility and many advantages, the application domain has spread in all conceivable directions, making it ubiquitous. As a consequence, it has generate a great deal of interest and enthusiasm among students, teachers and practicing engineers, creating an acute education need for imparting the knowledge of microcontroller based system design and development. It identifies the vital features responsible for their tremendous impact; the acute educational need created by them and provides a glimpse of the major application area. MICROCONTROLLER A microcontroller is a complete microprocessor system built on a single IC. Microcontrollers were developed to meet a need for microprocessors to be put into low cost products. Building a complete microprocessor system on a single chip substantially reduces the cost of building simple products, which use the microprocessor's power to
  6. 6. implement their function, because the microprocessor is a natural way to implement many products. This means the idea of using a microprocessor for low cost products comes up often. But the typical 8bit microprocessor based system, such as one using a Z80 and 8085 is expensive. Both 8085 and Z80 system need some additional circuits to make a microprocessor system. Each part carries costs of money. Even though a product design may require only very simple system, the parts needed to make this system as a low cost product. To solve this problem microprocessor system is implemented with a single chip microcontroller. This could be called microcomputer, as all the major parts are in the IC. Most frequently they are called microcontroller because they are used they are used to perform control functions. The microcontroller contains full implementation of a standard MICROPROCESSOR, ROM, RAM, I/0, CLOCK, TIMERS, and also SERIAL PORTS. Microcontroller also called "system on a chip" or "single chip microprocessor system" or "computer on a chip". A microcontroller is a Computer-On-A-Chip, or, if you prefer, a single-chip computer. Micro suggests that the device is small, and controller tells you that the device' might be used to control objects, processes, or events. Another term to describe a microcontroller is
  7. 7. embedded controller, because the microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they control. Today microcontrollers are very commonly used in wide variety of intelligent products. For example most personal computers keyboards and implemented with a microcontroller. It replaces Scanning, Denounce, Matrix Decoding, and Serial transmission circuits. Many low cost products, such as Toys, Electric Drills, Microwave Ovens, VCR and a host of other consumer and industrial products are based on microcontrollers. EVOLUTION OF MICROCONTROROLLER Markets for microcontrollers can run into millions of units per application. At these volumes of the microcontrollers is a commodity items and must be optimized so that cost is at a minimum. .Semiconductor manufacturers have produced a mind-numbing array of designs that would seem to meet almost any need. Some of the chips listed in this section are no longer regular production, most are current, and a few are best termed as "smoke ware": the dreams of an aggressive marketing department.
  8. 8. Sl.N Manufactur Chip Yea No. No RA o er Designatio r of n Pin I/ s of M RO Other M Feature s O 4 Bit MC 1 Texas . TMS 1000 Instruments Mid 28 23 64 1K 197 LED Display 0 2 Hitachi HMCS 40 - 28 10 32 512 . 10 bit ROM 3 Toshiba TLCS 47 - 42 35 128 2K . Serial bit I/O 8 bit MC 1 Intel 8048 . 197 40 27 64 1K 6 External Memor y 8K 2 Intel 8051 198 0 40 32 128 4K External Memor
  9. 9. y 128 K 3 Motorola 6081 . 197 - 31 128 2K 52 40 256 8K 7 4 Motorola 68HC11 . 198 5 Serial Port, ADC, 5 Zilog Z8 - 40 32 128 2K . External Memor y 128K, 16 Bit MC 1 Intel 80C196 - 68 40 232 8K . External Memor y 64K, Serial Port, ADC, WDT, PWM 2 Hitachi H8/532 - 84 65 1K 32K External
  10. 10. . Memor y 1M, Serial Port, ADC, PWM 3 National HPC16164 - . 68 52 512 16K External Memor y 64K, ADC, WDT, PWM 32 Bit MC 1 Intel . 80960 - 132 20 MHz clock, 32 bit bus, 512 byte instruction cache
  11. 11. APPLICATION Microcontrollers did you use today? A microcontroller is a kind of miniature computer that you can find in all kinds of Gizmos. Some examples of common, every-day products that have microcontrollers are built-in. If it has buttons and a digital display, chances are it also has a programmable microcontroller brain. Every-Day the devices used by ourselves that contain Microcontrollers. Try to make a list and counting how many devices and the events with microcontrollers you use in a typical day. Here are some examples: if your clock radio goes off, and you hit the snooze button a few times in the morning, the first thing you do in your day is interact with a microcontroller. Heating up some food in the microwave oven and making a call on a cell phone also involve operating microcontrollers. That's just the beginning. Here are a few more examples: Turning on the Television with a handheld remote, playing a hand held game, Using a calculator, and Checking your digital wrist watch. All those devices have microcontrollers inside them, that interact with you. Consumer appliances aren't the only things that contain microcontrollers. Moving chairs, machinery, aerospace designs and other high-tech devices are also built with microcontrollers.
  12. 12. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MICROCONTROLLER
  13. 13. PIN DIAGRAM 89C51
  14. 14. PIN DESCRIPTION VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull ups are required during program verification. Port 1
  15. 15. Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the
  16. 16. high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below: Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. ALE/PROG
  17. 17. Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is
  18. 18. programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hard ware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory. ARCHITECTURE OF 89C51
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLERS: 1. If a system is developed with a microprocessor, the designer has to go for external memory such as RAM, ROM or EPROM and peripherals and hence the size of the PCB will be large enough to hold all the required peripherals. But, the micro controller has got all these peripheral facilities on a single chip so development of a similar system with a micro controller reduces PCB size and cost of the design. One of the major differences between a micro controller and a microprocessor is that a controller often deals with bits , not bytes as in the real world application, for example switch contacts can only be open or close, indicators should be lit or dark and motors can be either turned on or off and so forth. INTRODUCTION TO ATMEL MICROCONTROLLER SERIES: 89C51 Family, TECHNOLOGY: CMOS The major Features of 8-bit Micro controller ATMEL 89C51:  8 Bit CPU optimized for control applications  Extensive Boolean processing (Single - bit Logic) Capabilities.  On - Chip Flash Program Memory  On - Chip Data RAM  Bi-directional and Individually Addressable I/O Lines
  20. 20.  Multiple 16-Bit Timer/Counters  Full Duplex UART  Multiple Source / Vector / Priority Interrupt Structure  On - Chip Oscillator and Clock circuitry.  On - Chip EEPROM  SPI Serial Bus Interface  Watch Dog Timer POWER MODES OF ATMEL 89C51 ICROCONTROLLER: To exploit the power savings available in CMOS circuitry. Atmel’s Flash micro controllers have two software-invited reduced power modes. IDLE MODE: The CPU is turned off while the RAM and other on - chip peripherals continue operating. Inn this mode current draw is reduced to about 15 percent of the current drawn when the device is fully active. POWER DOWN MODE:
  21. 21. All on-chip activities are suspended while the on – chip RAM continues to hold its data. In this mode, the device typically draws less than 15 Micro Amps and can be as low as 0.6 Micro Amps POWER ON RESET: When power is turned on, the circuit holds the RST pin high for an amount of time that depends on the capacitor value and the rate at which it charges. To ensure a valid reset, the RST pin must be held high long enough to allow the oscillator to start up plus two machine cycles. On power up, Vcc should rise within approximately 10ms. The oscillator start-up time depends on the oscillator frequency. For a 10 MHz crystal, the start- up time is typically 1ms.With the given circuit, reducing Vcc quickly to 0 causes the RST pin voltage to momentarily fall below 0V. How ever, this voltage is internally l limited and will not harm the device. MEMORY ORGANIZATION: * Logical Separation of Program and Data Memory * All Atmel Flash micro controllers have separate address spaces for program and data memory as shown in Fig 1.The logical separation of program and data memory allows the data memory to be accessed by 8 bit addresses. Which can be more quickly stored and manipulated by
  22. 22. an 8 bit CPU Nevertheless 16 Bit data memory addresses can also be generated through the DPTR register? Program memory can only be read. There can be up to 64K bytes of directly addressable program memory. The read strobe for external program memory is the Program Store Enable Signal (PSEN) Data memory occupies a separate address space from program memory. Up to 64K bytes of external memory can be directly addressed in the external data memory space. The CPU generates read and write signals, RD and WR, during external data memory accesses. External program memory and external data memory can be combined by an applying the RD and PSEN signal to the inputs of AND gate and using the output of the fate as the read strobe to the external program/data memory. PROGRAM MEMORY: The map of the lower part of the program memory, after reset, the CPU begins execution from location 0000h. Each interrupt is assigned a fixed location in program memory. The interrupt causes the CPU to jump to that location, where it executes the service routine. External Interrupt 0 for example, is assigned to location 0003h. If external Interrupt 0 is used, its service routine must begin at location 0003h. If the I interrupt in not used its service location is available as generalpurpose program memory.
  23. 23. The interrupt service locations are spaced at 8 byte intervals 0003h for External interrupt 0, 000Bh for Timer 0, 0013h for External interrupt 1,001Bh for Timer1, and so on. If an Interrupt service routine is short enough (as is often the case in control applications) it can reside entirely within that 8-byte interval. Longer service routines can use a jump instruction to skip over subsequent interrupt locations. If other interrupts are in use. The lowest addresses of program memory can be either in the on-chip Flash or in an external memory. To make this selection, strap the External Access (EA) pin to either Vcc or GND. For example, in the AT89C51 with 4K bytes of on-chip Flash, if the EA pin is strapped to Vcc, program fetches to addresses 0000h through 0FFFh are directed to internal Flash. Program fetches to addresses 1000h through FFFFh are directed to external memory. DATA MEMORY: The Internal Data memory is dived into three blocks namely, Refer Fig  The lower 128 Bytes of Internal RAM.  The Upper 128 Bytes of Internal RAM.  Special Function Register Internal Data memory Addresses are always 1 byte wide, which implies an address space of only 256 bytes. However, the addressing modes for internal RAM can in fact accommodate 384 bytes. Direct
  24. 24. addresses higher than 7Fh access one memory space and indirect addresses higher than 7Fh access a different Memory Space. The lowest 32 bytes are grouped into 4 banks of 8 registers. Program instructions call out these registers as R0 through R7. Two bits in the Program Status Word (PSW) Select, which register bank, is in use. This architecture allows more efficient use of code space, since register instructions are shorter than instructions that use direct addressing. The next 16-bytes above the register banks form a block of bit addressable memory space. The micro controller instruction set includes a wide selection of single - bit instructions and this instruction can directly address the 128 bytes in this area. These bit addresses are 00h through 7Fh. either directs or indirect addressing can access all of the bytes in lower 128 bytes. Indirect addressing can only access the upper 128. The upper 128 bytes of RAM are only in the devices with 256 bytes of RAM. The Special Function Register includes Ports latches, timers, peripheral controls etc., direct addressing can only access these register. In general, all Atmel micro controllers have the same SFRs at the same addresses in SFR space as the AT89C51 and other compatible micro controllers. However, upgrades to the AT89C51 have additional SFRs. Sixteen addresses in SFR space are both byte and bit Addressable. The
  25. 25. bit Addressable SFRs are those whose address ends in 000B. The bit addresses in this area are 80h through FFH. ADDRESSING MODES: DIRECT ADDRESSING: In direct addressing, the operand specified by an 8-bit address field in the instruction. Only internal data RAM and SFR’s can be directly addressed. INDIRECT ADDRESSING: In Indirect addressing, the instruction specifies a register that contains the address of the operand. Both internal and external RAM can indirectly address. The address register for 8-bit addresses can be either the Stack Pointer or R0 or R1 of the selected register Bank. The address register for 16-bit addresses can be only the 16-bit data pointer register, DPTR. INDEXED ADDRESSING: Program memory can only be accessed via indexed addressing this addressing mode is intended for reading look-up tables in program memory. A 16 bit base register (Either DPTR or the Program Counter) points to the base of the table, and the accumulator is set up with the table entry number. Adding the Accumulator data to the base pointer forms the address of the table entry in program memory.
  26. 26. Another type of indexed addressing is used in the―case jump‖ instructions. In this case the destination address of a jump instruction is computed as the sum of the base pointer and the Accumulator data. REGISTER INSTRUCTION: The register banks, which contains registers R0 through R7, can be accessed by instructions whose Opcodes carry a 3-bit register specification. Instructions that access the registers this way make efficient use of code, since this mode eliminates an address byte. When the instruction is executed, one of four banks is selected at execution time by the row bank select bits in PSW. REGISTER - SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION: Some Instructions are specific to a certain register. For example some instruction always operates on the Accumulator, so no address byte is needed to point OT ir. In these cases, the opcode itself points to the correct register. Instructions that register to Accumulator as A assemble as Accumulator - specific Opcodes. IMMEDIATE CONSTANTS: The value of a constant can follow the opcode in program memory For example. MOV A, #100 loads the Accumulator with the decimal number 100. The same number could be specified in hex digit as 64h.
  27. 27. PROGRAM STATUS WORD: Program Status Word Register in Atmel Flash Micro controller: CY AC F0 RS1 RS0 OV --- P PSW 7 PSW 6 PSW 5 PSW 4 PSW 0 PSW 1 PSW 2 PSW 3 PSW 0: Parity of Accumulator Set by Hardware to 1 if it contains an Odd number of 1s, Otherwise it is reset to 0. PSW1: User Definable Flag PSW2: Overflow Flag Set By Arithmetic Operations
  28. 28. PSW3: Register Bank Select PSW4: Register Bank Select PSW5: General Purpose Flag. PSW6: Auxiliary Carry Flag Receives Carry Out from Bit 1 of Addition Operands PSW7: Carry Flag Receives Carry Out From Bit 1 of ALU Operands. The Program Status Word contains Status bits that reflect the current state of the CPU. The PSW shown if Fig resides in SFR space. The PSW contains the Carry Bit, The auxiliary Carry (For BCD Operations) the two - register bank select bits, the Overflow flag, a Parity bit and two user Definable status Flags. The Carry Bit, in addition to serving as a Carry bit in arithmetic operations also serves the as the ―Accumulator‖ for a number of Boolean Operations .The bits RS0 and RS1 select one of the four register banks.
  29. 29. A number of instructions register to these RAM locations as R0 through R7.The status of the RS0 and RS1 bits at execution time determines which of the four banks is selected. The Parity bit reflect the Number of 1s in the Accumulator .P=1 if the Accumulator contains an even number of 1s, and P=0 if the Accumulator contains an even number of 1s. Thus, the number of 1s in the Accumulator plus P is always even. Two bits in the PSW are uncommitted and can be used as general-purpose status flags. INTERRUPTS The AT89C51 provides 5 interrupt sources: Two External interrupts, two-timer interrupts and a serial port interrupts. The External Interrupts INT0 and INT1 can each either level activated or transition activated, depending on bits IT0 and IT1 in Register TCON. The Flags that actually generate these interrupts are the IE0 and IE1 bits in TCON. When the service routine is vectored to hardware clears the flag that generated an external interrupt only if the interrupt WA transition activated. If the interrupt was level - activated, then the external requesting source (rather than the on-chip hardware) controls the requested flag. Tf0 and Tf1 generate the Timer 0 and Timer 1 Interrupts, which are set by a rollover in their respective Timer/Counter Register (except for Timer 0 in Mode 3). When a timer interrupt is generated, the on-chip hardware clears the flag that generated it when the service
  30. 30. routine is vectored to. The logical OR of RI and TI generate the Serial Port Interrupt. Neither of these flag is cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. In fact, the service routine normally must determine whether RI or TI generated the interrupt and the bit must be cleared in software. In the Serial Port Interrupt is generated by the logical OR of RI and TI. Neither of these flag is cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. In fact, the service routine normally must determine whether RI to TI generated the interrupt and the bit must be cleared in software. IE: INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER EA - ET2 ES ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 Enable bit = 1 enabled the interrupt Enable bit = 0 disables it.
  31. 31. Symbol EA Position IE. Function Global enable / disable all interrupts. If EA = 0, no interrupt will be Acknowledge. If EA = 1, each interrupt source is individually enabled to disabled by setting or clearing its enable bit - IE.6 Undefined / reserved ET2 IE.5 Timer 2 Interrupt enables Bit ES IE.4 Serial Port Interrupt enabled bit. ET1 IE.3 Timer 1 Interrupt enable bit. EX1 IE.2 External Interrupt 1 enable bit.
  32. 32. ET0 IE.1 Timer 0 Interrupt enable bit. EX0 IE.0 External Interrupt 0 enable bit. OSCILLATOR AND CLOCK CIRCUIT: XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output respectively of an inverting amplifier which is intended for use as a crystal oscillator in the pierce configuration, in the frequency range of 1.2 MHz to 12 Mhz. XTAL2 also the input to the internal clock generator. To drive the chip with an internal oscillator, one would ground XTAL1 and XTAL2. Since the input to the clock generator is divide by two fillip flop there are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external oscillator signal. However, minimum high and low times must be observed. The clock generator divides the oscillator frequency by 2 and provides a tow phase clock signal to the chip. The phase 1 signal is active during the first half to each clock period and the phase 2 signals are active during the second half of each clock period.
  33. 33. CPU TIMING: A machine cycle consists of 6 states. Each stare is divided into a phase / half, during which the phase 1 clock is active and phase 2 half. Arithmetic and Logical operations take place during phase1 and internal register - to register transfer take place during phase 2 TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN MICRO CONTROLLER The manner in which the use of micro controllers is shaping our lives is breathtaking. Today, this versatile device can be found in a variety of control applications. CVTs, VCRs, CD players, microwave ovens, and automotive engine systems are some of these. A micro controller unit (MCU) uses the microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU) and incorporates memory, timing reference, I/O peripherals, etc on the same chip. Limited computational capabilities and enhanced I/O are special features. The micro controller is the most essential IC for continuous processbased applications pharmaceutical in industries automobile, steel, like and chemical, electrical, refinery, employing programmable logic systems (DCS). PLC and DCS thrive on the programmability of an MCU. There are many MCU manufacturers. To understand and apply general concepts, it is necessary to study one type in detail. This
  34. 34. specific knowledge can be used to understand similar features of other MCUs. Micro controller devices have many similarities. When you look at the differences, they are not so great either. Most common and popular MCUs are considered to be mature and well-established products, which have their individual adherents and devotees. There are a number of variants within each family to satisfy most memory, I/O, data conversion, and timing needs of end-user applications. The MCU is designed to operate on application-oriented sensor datafor example, temperature and pressure of a blast furnace in an industrial process that is fed through its serial or operated on under the control of software and stored in ROM. Appropriate signals are fed via output ports to control external devices and systems.
  35. 35. APPLICATIONS OF MICROCONTROLLERS Microcontrollers are designed for use in sophisticated real time applications such as 1. Industrial Control 2. Instrumentation and 3. Intelligent computer peripherals They are used in industrial applications to control  Motor  Moving chariots  Discrete and continuous process control  In missile guidance and control  In medical instrumentation  Oscilloscopes  Telecommunication  Automobiles  For Scanning a keyboard  Driving an LCD  For Frequency measurements  Period Measurements
  36. 36. BOMB SENSOR
  37. 37. A BOMB sensor, in particular a BOMB switch is described. A component that pertains to a system variable and is independent from the material of a trigger or target is elected and transformed into a non-periodic signal that depends upon the distance of the trigger. The trigger of a BOMB sensor can thus be exchanged randomly without requiring subsequent adjustments. The impedance of an oscillation circuit which pertains to the BOMB sensor, the impedance of an oscillation circuit coil, the amplitude of the oscillation circuit signal or a voltage divider ratio between the oscillation circuit and the additional resistance can be used s system variables for instance. A BOMB sensor for determining an approaching direction of an object is provided. Relative detection sensitivity is established in a first detection unit and a second detection unit such that a detection level of the first detection unit is greater than a detection level of the second detection unit when the object approaches from a first electrode in a direction of arranging the first electrode and a second electrode, and that the detection level of the second detection unit is greater than the first detection unit when the object approaches from a direction perpendicular to the direction of arranging the first electrode and the second electrode. A BOMB position determining section is adapted to determine the approaching direction of the object based on the detection level of the first detection unit and the detection level of the second detection unit. As noted above, it is desired to provide a BOMB sensor capable of determining an approaching direction of an object. A characteristic feature of the present invention lies in a BOMB sensor for detecting approach of an object based on capacitance, including: an electrode section including a first electrode and a second electrode arranged adjacent to each other;
  38. 38. a detecting section including a first detection unit for detecting approach of the object based on variations in capacitance of the first electrode, and a second detection unit for detecting approach of the object based on variations in capacitance of the second electrode, wherein relative detection sensitivity is established in the first detection unit and the second detection unit such that a detection level of the first detection unit is greater than a detection level of the second detection unit when the object approaches from the first electrode in a direction of arranging the first electrode and the second electrode, and that the detection level of the second detection unit is greater than the first detection unit when the object approaches from a direction perpendicular to the direction of arranging the first electrode and the second electrode; and a BOMB position determining section for determining the approaching direction of the object based on the detection level of the first detection unit and the detection level of the second detection unit. With this arrangement, the BOMB position determining section is provided for establishing the relative detection sensitivity for the first unit having the first electrode and the second unit having the second electrode to determine the position of the object based on the detection levels from the first unit and second unit. This makes it possible to determine the approaching direction of the object based on the determination results received from the BOMB position determining section without providing the shield and the like. As a result, the BOMB sensor capable of determining the approaching direction of the object can be easily achieved. In the BOMB sensor of the present invention, the relative detection sensitivity may be established by determining detection performance of the first detection unit and the second detection unit or by determining configurations of the first electrode
  39. 39. and the second electrode. With such an arrangement, the relative sensitivity is achieved in response to the mode of use or the condition in use by establishing the detection sensitivity by the first detection unit and the second detection unit, or by determining the configurations of the first electrode and the second electrode, or by the combination thereof. The BOMB sensor of the present invention may further comprise a belt-like ground electrode provided in the electrode section and having a longitudinal section extending along a peripheral direction of a tubular substrate, wherein the belt-like first electrode and second electrode are arranged on the substrate along the peripheral direction with the ground electrode between them and parallel with the ground electrode. With this arrangement, it is possible to form the first electrode, the ground electrode and the second electrode on the tubular substrate in the mentioned order. For example, it makes it possible not only to facilitate fabrication of the sensor compared with the arrangement in which an electrode and an insulating material are layered but also to align the arranging direction of the first electrode and the second electrode with an axial direction of the tubular substrate. As a result, it is possible to distinguish between the approach of the object from a direction along the axial direction and the approach of the object from a direction perpendicular to the axial direction. Further, a characteristic feature of a rotational operation detecting device of the present invention having a rotation detecting section for detecting a rotational operation of a rotationally-operable knob about an axis, the rotational operation detecting device comprising:
  40. 40. a first electrode arranged inside the knob at a distal end of the axis in a direction along the axis; a second electrode arranged inside the knob at a proximal end of the axis in a direction along the axis. A detection section including a first detection unit for detecting approach of an object based on variations in capacitance of the first electrode and a second detection unit for detecting approach of the object based on variations in capacitance of the second electrode, wherein relative detection sensitivity is established such that a detection level of the first detection unit is greater than a detection level of the second detection unit when the object approaches from the first electrode in a direction along the axis and that the detection level of the second detection unit is greater than the first detection unit when the object approaches from a direction perpendicular to the direction along the axis; a BOMB position determining section for determining the approaching direction of the object based on the detection level of the first detection unit and the detection level of the second detection unit; and an output control section for allowing output of signals from the rotation detection section only when a rotational operation is detected in the rotation detection section when the BOMB position determining section detects approach of the object from the direction perpendicular to the axis. With this arrangement, the detection level of the first detection unit becomes higher than the detection level of the second detection unit when the object approaches from the distal end along the axis of the knob. On the other hand, the detection level of the second detection unit becomes higher than the detection level of the first detection unit when the object approaches from the direction perpendicular to the axis of the knob. The BOMB position determining section is
  41. 41. adapted to recognize the difference in detection level, thereby distinguishing between the state where the user pinches or grips the knob to rotate the knob and the sate the sleeve of the user's clothing or part of the user's body contacts an end portion of the knob to rotate the knob. The output control section allows output of signals from the rotation detection section only when it can be determined that the user intentionally has operated the knob based on the determination results from the BOMB position determining section. As a result, the rotational operation detecting device is capable of disregarding operations executed unintentionally by the user and extracting only the amount of rotation resulting from proper operations. Still further, the rotational operation detecting device of the present invention may comprise a sheet-like substrate that is flexibly deformable, wherein a belt-like ground electrode is formed on the substrate in a predetermined direction, the beltlike first electrode and second electrode being formed on the substrate with the ground electrode between them and parallel with the ground electrode, and wherein the substrate has a tubular shape to be fitted into the interior of the knob, on which the belt-like ground electrode as well as the belt-like first electrode and second electrode are arranged in a peripheral direction centering the axis. With such an arrangement, since the sheet-like substrate with the electrodes being formed thereon has a tubular shape to be fitted into the interior of the knob, it is not required to form the electrode directly in the interior of the knob. As a result, the capacitance-type sensor may be easily fabricated.
  42. 42. ALARM An alarm gives an audible or visual warning about a problem or condition. Alarms include:  Burglar alarms, designed to warn of burglaries; this is often a silent alarm: the police or guards are warned without indication to the burglar, which increases the chances of catching him or her.  Alarm clocks can produce an alarm at a given time  Distributed control manufacturing systems or DCSs, found in nuclear power plants, refineries and chemical facilities also generate alarms to direct the operator's attention to an important event that he or she needs to address.  Alarms in an operation and maintenance (O&M) monitoring system, which informs the bad working state of (a particular part of) the system under monitoring.  Safety alarms, which go off if a dangerous condition occurs. Common public safety alarms include: o tornado sirens o fire alarms  "Multiple-alarm fire", a locally-specific measure of the severity of a fire and the fire-department reaction required.
  43. 43. o car alarms o community Alarm or auto dialer alarm (medical alarms) o air raid sirens o personal alarm o tocsins — a historical method of raising an alarm Alarms have the capability of causing a fight-or-flight response in humans; a person under this mindset will panic and either flee the perceived danger or attempt to eliminate it, often ignoring rational thought in either case. We can characterize a person in such a state as "alarmed". With any kind of alarm, the need exists to balance between on the one hand the danger of false alarms (called "false positives") — the signal going off in the absence of a problem — and on the other hand failing to signal an actual problem (called a "false negative"). False alarms can waste resources expensively and can even be dangerous. For example, false alarms of a fire can waste firefighter manpower, making them unavailable for a real fire, and risk injury to firefighters and others as the fire engines race to the alleged fire's location.
  44. 44. 4.3 DRIVER CIRCUIT In electronics, a driver is an electrical circuit or other electronic component used to control another circuit or other component, such as a high-power transistor. The term is used, for example, for a specialized computer chip that controls the high-power transistors in AC-to-DC voltage converters. An amplifier can also be considered the driver for loudspeakers, or a constant voltage circuit that keeps an attached component operating within a broad range of input voltages. The following circuit will allow you to drive a 12V relay using logic voltage (an input of 4V or greater will trip the relay). The circuit has its own 12V power supply making it self contained but the power supply portion can be left out if an external supply will be used. The circuit shows an output from the power supply that can be used to power other devices but it should be noted that the supply is unregulated and not particularly powerful with the parts stated. The 12V DC output is suitable for powering a few LEDs or low voltage lights but should not be used to power other electronic boards or mot
  45. 45. RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch
  46. 46. contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch contacts. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind them, making the relay DPDT. The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO:  COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of the switch.  NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off.  NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.
  47. 47. DC MOTORS: PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION: In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite (North and South) polarities
  48. 48. attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South" polarization). Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors, the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets.
  49. 49. The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. Given our example twopole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, driving it to continue rotating. In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. You can imagine how with our example two-pole motor, if the rotor is exactly at the middle of its rotation (perfectly aligned with the field magnets), it will get "stuck" there. Meanwhile, with a two-pole motor, there is a moment where the commutator shorts out the power supply. This would be bad for the power supply, waste energy, and damage motor components as well. Yet another disadvantage of such a simple motor is that it would exhibit a high amount of torque "ripple" (the amount of torque it could produce is cyclic with the position of the rotor).
  50. 50. So since most small DC motors are of a three-pole design, let's tinker with the workings of one via an interactive animation (JavaScript required):
  51. 51. A few things from this -- namely, one pole is fully energized at a time (but two others are "partially" energized). As each brush transitions from one commutator contact to the next, one coil's field will rapidly collapse, as the next coil's field will rapidly charge up (this occurs within a few microsecond). We'll see more about the effects of this later, but in the meantime you can see that this is a direct result of the coil windings' series wiring: There's probably no better way to see how an average DC motor is put together, than by just opening one up. Unfortunately this is tedious work, as well as requiring the destruction of a perfectly good motor.
  52. 52. The guts of a disassembled Mabuchi FF-030-PN motor (the same model that Solar biotic sells) are available for (on 10 lines / cm graph paper). This is a basic 3-pole DC motor, with 2 brushes and three commutator contacts. The use of an iron core armature (as in the Mabuchi, above) is quite common, and has a number of advantages. First off, the iron core provides a strong, rigid support for the windings -- a particularly important consideration for high-torque motors. The core also conducts heat away from the rotor windings, allowing the motor to be driven harder than might otherwise be the case. Iron core construction is also relatively inexpensive compared with other construction types. But iron core construction also has several disadvantages. The iron armature has a relatively high inertia which limits motor acceleration. This construction also results in high winding inductances which limit brush and commutator life. In small motors, an alternative design is often used which features a 'coreless' armature winding. This design depends upon the coil wire itself for structural integrity. As a result, the armature is hollow, and the permanent magnet can be mounted inside the rotor coil. Coreless DC motors have much lower armature inductance than iron-core motors of comparable size, extending brush and commutator life.
  53. 53. The coreless design also allows manufacturers to build smaller motors; meanwhile, due to the lack of iron in their rotors, coreless motors are somewhat prone to overheating. As a result, this design is generally used just in small, low-power motors. Beamers will most often see coreless DC motors in the form of pager motors. Again, disassembling a coreless motor can be instructive -- in this case, my hapless victim was a cheap pager vibrator motor. The guts of this disassembled motor are available (on 10 lines / cm graph paper). This is (or more accurately, was) a 3-pole coreless DC motor.
  54. 54. OVERALL CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
  55. 55. 6. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 6.1 POWER SUPPLY Block diagram The ac voltage, typically 220V RMS, is connected to a transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to the level of the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation. A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies, or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually obtained using one of the popular voltage regulator IC units. TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER FILTER IC REGULATOR Block diagram (Power supply) LOAD
  56. 56. Working principle Transformer The potential transformer will step down the power supply voltage (0-230V) to (0-6V) level. Then the secondary of the potential transformer will be connected to the precision rectifier, which is constructed with the help of op–amp. The advantages of using precision rectifier are it will give peak voltage output as DC; rest of the circuits will give only RMS output. Bridge rectifier When four diodes are connected as shown in figure, the circuit is called as bridge rectifier. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network, and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is a positive potential, at point A and a negative potential at point B. the positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse D2. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current
  57. 57. flow to pass through them; D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. The path for current flow is from point B through D1, up through RL, through D3, through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. this path is indicated by the solid arrows. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3. One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverse, forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. Current flow will now be from point A through D4, up through RL, through D2, through the secondary of T1, and back to point A. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. The current flow through RL is always in the same direction. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown waveform (5). Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage, this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. One advantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave rectifier is that with a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a voltage output that is nearly twice that of the conventional full-wave circuit. This may be shown by assigning values to some of the components shown in views A and B. assume that the same transformer is used in
  58. 58. both circuits. The peak voltage developed between points X and y is 1000 volts in both circuits. In the conventional full-wave circuit shown—in view A, the peak voltage from the center tap to either X or Y is 500 volts. Since only one diode can conduct at any instant, the maximum voltage that can be rectified at any instant is 500 volts. The maximum voltage that appears across the load resistor is nearly-but never exceeds-500 v0lts, as result of the small voltage drop across the diode. In the bridge rectifier shown in view B, the maximum voltage that can be rectified is the full secondary voltage, which is 1000 volts. Therefore, the peak output voltage across the load resistor is nearly 1000 volts. With both circuits using the same transformer, the bridge rectifier circuit produces a higher output voltage than the conventional full-wave rectifier circuit. IC voltage regulators Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, and overload protection all in a single IC. IC units provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or an adjustably set voltage. The regulators can be selected for operation with load currents from hundreds of mill amperes
  59. 59. to tens of amperes, corresponding to power ratings from mill watts to tens of watts. Circuit diagram (Power supply) A fixed three-terminal voltage regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage, Vi, applied to one input terminal, a regulated dc output voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the third terminal connected to ground. The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts. Similarly, the series 79 regulators provide fixed negative regulated voltages from 5 to 24 volts.
  60. 60.  For ICs, microcontroller, LCD --------- 5 volts  For alarm circuit, op-amp, relay circuits ---------- 12 volts 6.2 MICRO CONTROLLER MICROCONTROLLER CIRCUIT
  61. 61. The microcontroller circuit is connected with reset circuit, crystal oscillator circuit; LCD circuit the reset circuit is the one which is an external interrupt which is designed to reset the program. And the crystal oscillator circuit is the one used to generate the pulses to microcontroller and it also called as the heart of the microcontroller here we have used 12mhz crystal which generates pulses up to 12000000 frequency which is converted it machine cycle frequency when divided by 12 which is equal to 1000000hz to find the time we have to invert the frequency so that we get one micro second for each execution of the instruction. The LCD that is liquid crystal display which is used to display the what we need the LCD has fourteen pins in which three pins for the command and eight pins for the data. If the data is given to LCD it is write command which is configured by the programmer otherwise it is read command in which data read to microcontroller the data pins are given to the to port0 and command pins are given to the port2. Other than these pin a one pin configured for the contrast of the LCD. Thus the microcontroller circuit works
  62. 62. DRIVER CIRCUIT WITH RELAY: Relay: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no
  63. 63. electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. Circuit description: This circuit is designed to control the load. The load may be motor or any other load. The load is turned ON and OFF through relay. The relay ON and OFF is controlled by the pair of switching transistors (BC 547). The DPDT relay is connected in the Q2 transistor collector terminal. A Relay is nothing but electromagnetic switching device which consists of six pins. They are two set of Common, Normally close (NC) and Normally open (NO) pins. The relay common pin is connected to supply voltage. The normally open (NO) pin connected to load. When high pulse signal is given to base of the Q1 transistors, the transistor is conducting and
  64. 64. shorts the collector and emitter terminal and zero signals is given to base of the Q2 transistor. So the relay is turned OFF state. When low pulse is given to base of transistor Q1 transistor, the transistor is turned OFF. Now 12v is given to base of T2 transistor so the transistor is conducting and relay is energized. Hence the common terminal and NO terminal of relay are shorted. Now load gets the supply voltage through relay. Voltage Signal from Transistor Q1 Transistor Q2 Relay Microcontroller or PC 1 on off 0 off on off on
  65. 65. Circuit description: The circuit is designed to control the buzzer. The buzzer ON and OFF is controlled by the NPN transistor (BC 547). The buzzer is connected in the transistor collector terminal. When high pulse signal is given to base of the transistors it will be turned on and now alarm get ground so it will be on. If low pulse is given to the NPN transistor base means it will be off and also alarm goes to the off state.
  66. 66. Voltage Signal from Transistor Buzzer Microcontroller or PC 1 on on 0 off off 6.5 MOTOR FORWARD AND REVERSE CONTROL DC MOTOR FORWARD REVERSE CONTROL
  67. 67. Circuit working Description: This circuit is designed to control the motor in the forward and reverse direction. It consists of two relays named as relay1, relay2. The relay ON and OFF is controlled by the pair of switching transistors. A Relay is nothing but electromagnetic switching device which consists of three pins. They are Common, Normally close (NC) and normally open (NO). The common pin of two relay is connected to positive and negative terminal of motor through snubber circuit respectively. The relays are connected in the collector terminal of the transistors T2 and T4. When high pulse signal is given to either base of the T1 or T3 transistors, the transistor is conducting and shorts the collector and emitter terminal and zero signals is given to base of the T2 or T4 transistor. So the relay is turned OFF state. When low pulse is given to either base of transistor T1 or T3 transistor, the transistor is turned OFF. Now 12v is given to base of T2 or T4 transistor so the transistor is conducting and relay is turn ON. The NO and NC pins of two relays are interconnected so only one relay can be operated at a time.
  68. 68. The series combination of resistor and capacitor is called as snubber circuit. When the relay is turn ON and turn OFF continuously, the back emf may fault the relays. So the back emf is grounded through the snubber circuit.  When relay 1 is in the ON state and relay 2 is in the OFF state, the motor is running in the forward direction.  When relay 2 is in the ON state and relay 1 is in the OFF state, the motor is running in the reverse direction. 7. PCB DESIGN Design and Fabrication of Printed circuit boards 7.1 INTRODUCTION: Printed circuit boards, or PCBs, form the core of electronic equipment domestic and industrial. Some of the areas where PCBs are intensively used are computers, process control, telecommunications and instrumentation.
  69. 69. 7.2 MANUFATCURING: The manufacturing process consists of two methods; print and etch, and print, plate and etch. The single sided PCBs are usually made using the print and etch method. The double sided plate through – hole (PTH) boards are made by the print plate and etch method. The production of multi layer boards uses both the methods. The inner layers are printed and etch while the outer layers are produced by print, plate and etch after pressing the inner layers. 7.3 SOFTWARE: The software used in our project to obtain the schematic layout is MICROSIM. 7.4 PANELISATION: Here the schematic transformed in to the working positive/negative films. The circuit is repeated conveniently to accommodate
  70. 70. economically as many circuits as possible in a panel, which can be operated in every sequence of subsequent steps in the PCB process. This is called penalization. For the PTH boards, the next operation is drilling. 7.5 DRILLING: PCB drilling is a state of the art operation. Very small holes are drilled with high speed CNC drilling machines, giving a wall finish with less or no smear or epoxy, required for void free through hole plating. 7.6 PLATING: The heart of the PCB manufacturing process. The holes drilled in the board are treated both mechanically and chemically before depositing the copper by the electro less copper platting process. 7.7 ETCHING:
  71. 71. Once a multiplayer board is drilled and electro less copper deposited, the image available in the form of a film is transferred on to the out side by photo printing using a dry film printing process. The boards are then electrolytic plated on to the circuit pattern with copper and tin. The tin-plated deposit serves an etch resist when copper in the unwanted area is removed by the conveyor’s spray etching machines with chemical etch ants. The etching machines are attached to automatic dosing equipment, which analyses and controls etch ants concentrations 7.8 SOLDERMASK: Since a PCB design may call for very close spacing between conductors, a solder mask has to be applied on the both sides of the circuitry to avoid the bridging of conductors. The solder mask ink is applied by screening. The ink is dried, exposed to UV, developed in a mild alkaline solution and finally cured by both UV and thermal energy.
  72. 72. HOT AIR LEVELLING: After applying the solder mask, the circuit pads are soldered using the hot air leveling process. The bare bodies fluxed and dipped in to a molten solder bath. While removing the board from the solder bath, hot air is blown on both sides of the board through air knives in the machines, leaving the board soldered and leveled. This is one of the common finishes given to the boards. Thus the double sided plated through whole printed circuit board is manufactured and is now ready for the components to be soldered.
  73. 73. 8 SOFTWARE TOOLS 8.1 KIEL C COMPILER: Kiel development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture support every level of software developer from the professional applications engineer to the student just learning about embedded software development. The industry-standard Kiel C Compilers, Macro Assemblers, Debuggers, Real-time Kernels, Single-board Computers, and Emulators support all 8051 derivatives and help you get your projects completed on schedule The Kiel 8051 Development Tools are designed to solve the complex problems facing embedded software developers.  When starting a new project, simply select the microcontroller you use from the Device Database and the µVision IDE sets all compiler, assembler, linker, and memory options for you.
  74. 74.  Numerous example programs are included to help you get started with the most popular embedded 8051 devices.  The Kiel µVision Debugger accurately simulates on-chip peripherals (I²C, CAN, UART, SPI, Interrupts, I/O Ports, A/D Converter, D/A Converter, and PWM Modules) of your 8051 device.  Simulation helps you understand hardware configurations and avoids time wasted on setup problems. Additionally, with simulation, you can write and test applications before target hardware is available.  When you are ready to begin testing your software application with target hardware, use the MON51, MON390, MONADI, or FlashMON51 Target Monitors, the ISD51 In-System Debugger, or the ULINK USB-JTAG Adapter to download and test program code on your target system. It's been suggested that there are now as many embedded systems in everyday use as there are people on planet Earth. Domestic appliances from washing machines to TVs, video recorders and mobile phones, now include at least one embedded processor. They are also vital
  75. 75. components in a huge variety of automotive, medical, aerospace and military systems. As a result, there is strong demand for programmers with 'embedded' skills, and many desktop developers are moving into this area. Embedded C is designed for programmers with desktop experience in C, C++ or Java who want to learn the skills required for the unique challenges of embedded systems. The book and CD-ROM include the following key features: 8.2 Simulator: The Kiel hardware simulator for the popular 8051 microcontroller is on the CD-ROM so that readers can try out examples from the book - and create new ones - without requiring additional hardware. All code is written in C, so no assembly language is required. Industrystandard C compiler from Kiel software is included on the CD-ROM, along with copies of code examples from the book to get you up and running very quickly. Key techniques required in all embedded systems are covered in detail, including the control of port pins and the reading of switches. A complete embedded operating system is presented, with full source code on the CD-ROM.
  76. 76. Achieve outstanding application performance on Intel processors using Intel® C Compiler for Windows*, including support for the latest Intel multi-core processors. For out-of-the-box productivity, Intel C Compiler plugs into the Microsoft Visual Studio* development environment for IA-32 and features a preview plug-in to the Microsoft Visual Studio .NET environment This chapter provides information about the C compiler, including operating environments, standards conformance, organization of the compiler, and C-related programming tools. There are a number of tools available to aid in developing, maintaining, and improving your C programs. The two most closely tied to C, c scope and lint, are described in this book. In addition, a man page exists for each of these tools. Refer to the preface of this book for a list of all the associated man pages.
  77. 77. 10. ADVANTAGES 1. Robots that are agile and autonomous are well-suited for jobs that are "dull, dirty, and dangerous" and will significantly change the way we live. 2. Future uses for such robots include urban combat, sniper detection, explosive "sniffers," nuclear/biological/chemical sensing, mapping, and service as weapons platforms. Ms. Greiner explained that robots could provide innovative, flexible, and "persistent" solutions to evolving threats and problems. 3. Applications in disaster-relief situations such as hurricanes, tsunamis, or floods, where they could rescue survivors, deliver food, water, and medical supplies, or even help establish an emergency communications network for emergency personnel. 4. In short, Robots have advantages over humans in areas such as strength, size, mobility, expendability, and the types of environments in which they can work
  78. 78. 11. APPLICATION Used in counter-terrorism and detection narcotics for the inspection of explosives and trafficking drug, with the advantages of on-site evidence. Used in Customs, postal services, airports, stations and ports for security checks on suspicious items. Also used in confidential unit, security departments and other public places for the inspection of suspicious items.
  79. 79. CONCLUSION The progress in science & technology is a non-stop process. New things and new technology are being invented. As the technology grows day by day, we can imagine about the future in which thing we may occupy every place. The proposed system based on Atmel microcontroller is found to be more compact, user friendly and less complex, which can readily be used in order to perform. Several tedious and repetitive tasks. Though it is designed keeping in mind about the need for industry, it can extended for other purposes such as commercial & research applications. Due to the probability of high technology (Atmel microcontroller) used this ―7TH SENSE MULTIPURPOSE ROBOT‖ system is fully software controlled with less hardware circuit. The feature makes this system is the base for future systems. The principle of the development of science is that ―nothing is impossible‖. So we shall look forward to a bright & sophisticated world.
  80. 80. 13. REFERENCES MILL MAN J and HAWKIES C.C. ―INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS‖ MCGRAW HILL, 1972 ROY CHOUDHURY INTEGRATED D, SHAIL CIRCUIT‖, New JAIN, Age ―LINEAR International Publishers, New Delhi, 2000 ―THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEM‖ by Mohammad Ali Mazda. WEBSITES: http://www.atmel.com/ http://www.microchip.com/ www.8052.com http://www.beyondlogic.org http://www.ctv.es/pckits/home.html http://www.aimglobal.org/ ―NDAYISENGA JEAN CLAUDE ‖ PERIYAR UNIV

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