Picture 1972 At Volvo Trucks, we have been working for a long time to do our very best to limit the environmental effects of the products we make and the production plants where we operate. In fact, Volvos’ very first environmental policy was formulated at the time of the UN Conference on the Environment in Stockholm back in 1972. There Volvo President Pehr G Gyllenhammar declared that: “We are a part of the problem. But also a part of the solution.” And that: “Volvo now considers its responsibility to be not only to ensure that the products are practical as transport units but also that they function in the widest perspective – in our environment .”
Picture Trucks When it comes to goods haulage, the truck’s role has become increasingly important. Within the EU, roughly 70% of all goods are transported by truck, and in many other countries the proportion is even higher. The truck is playing an increasingly important role in the transport world. Its benefits can be summarised in terms of speed – deliveries “from door to door” at the right time and to the right place, flexibility – the truck is easy to tailor to suit changing logistical requirements as regards delivery frequency, payload, loading and unloading and transport distances, and transport efficiency . Source: Volvo Annual Returns 2002 (Eurostat, UIK, ECMTand national statistics.)
Picture LCA – So lets look at The Life Cycle Assessment If we examine a truck’s environmental effect throughout its lifecycle, we see that around 90% is traced to the usage phase. This is partly because of the consumption of fossil fuel, which is a finite resource, and partly because of exhaust emissions that either contribute to worsening of air quality or to global warming – or both. So - let us begin by taking a closer look at global warming. Source: &quot;VTEC study of Project 2285&quot;
Picture 20-25% The transport sector as a whole accounts for 20-25% of the total use of fossil fuels and thus for a roughly equivalent proportion of emissions of fossil carbon dioxide. Road traffic accounts for about 15 %. Investments have been made totalling more than 40 billion dollars a year in countermeasures, primarily technological development, that may help cut emissions. Increases Total emissions of carbon dioxide are continuing to increase, a result of the steady increase in the demand for transportation. In order to reverse this trend, it is necessary for politicians, social planners, companies and other players to jointly agree on long-term goals and effective measures. Source: Automotive products and greenhouse gas emissions, OECD environmental data compendium 1999
Picture In-depth analysis, Global Warming Statistics Since the end of the 19th century the mean temperature of the Earth has increased by 0.6 degrees Celsius. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, anticipates a continued rise in global warming by 1.4 to 5.9 degrees to the year 2100. This is a temperature rise that is greater and more rapid than anything since the Ice Age ended more than 10,000 years ago.
Picture In-depth analysis, Global Warming Kyoto A climate conference in Kyoto, Japan, resulted in the Kyoto Protocol, with the aim of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% by the year 2012, compared to 1990 levels. The Kyoto Protocol was an important breakthrough for international cooperation on climate issues but the reductions that were agreed on are far from sufficient to stop global warming. In March 2007, the EU adopted a unilateral decision to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 percent up to year 2020 compared with 1990 levels.
Picture Reduction Within the EU, road traffic emissions of nitrogen oxides have dropped by over 30% during the past decade, although transport itself has increased by 20 percent during the same period. This has brought about a significant improvement in air quality in many cities. Similar development can be seen in countries such as the US and Japan. Welcome From the viewpoint of Volvo, we welcome tougher new legislation. With the resources for engine development that we have within the Volvo Group, we have better opportunity than most others for meeting strict emissions requirements well before they come into force, which gives us an important competitive edge on the market. Source: Volvo Miljöredovisning 2000 (Auto Oil 2)
Picture NO X (Nitrogen Oxides) and particles For heavy diesel vehicles, the main focus is on nitrogen oxides and particulates. During the past 20 years, emissions of these substances from new trucks have dropped by 80 and 98% respectively (Euro 4).
Picture NO X and particles With Euro 5 which is being introduced in Europe in 2009, emissions of nitrogen oxides will be reduced still further. And with the new demands we can expect in about 2012 or 2013, emissions from a new truck will be about 100 times lower than they were in 1980. This means in other words that 100 trucks will produce lower emissions from their exhaust systems than one single truck did 25 or 30 years previously. To reach that target, the main need is for more widespread access to higher-quality fuel. Source: Auto Oil 2
Picture Coordination Globally there is greater harmonisation of legislation and test methods. In order to achieve quick improvements at reasonable cost, it is important to also utilise the full potential available with today’s technology. We need not only better engines and cleaner fuels, but also greater streamlining of the entire transport apparatus. This requires comprehensive investments in infrastructure, logistics systems and vehicles, and it involves a number of different players.
Picture In-depth analysis, Emissions Effects on health Exhaust emissions from diesel engines contain a range of different chemical pollutants, many of which are hazardous to human beings. We inhale these pollutants as we breathe. Much of their effect is actually on the respiratory system, but many of them also have other effects such as the risk of cancer. It has also been demonstrated that allergies can be worsened by air pollution. Children, asthmatics and people with respiratory or cardiovascular disorders are most sensitive to the health effects of air pollution. NO 2 - Also contributes to the creation of ground level ozone.
Picture In-depth analysis, Emissions Environmental effects Nitrogen oxides (NOx). Contribute to acidification and over-fertilisation of soil and water, which ultimately harms plants and affects the productivity of crops. Hydrocarbons (HC). Contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Sulphur dioxides (SO2). Contribute to acidification of soil and water.
Picture In-depth analysis, Emissions Standards A sharpening of the emission standards will be enforced all over the world. The leading efforts will come from the world’s rich countries. The gap between the most and the least stringent standards will decrease. Less developed countries will try to implement more stringent standards at a fast pace. These figures in this slide represent the current best assessment of emission levels in three important areas.
Picture Oil Roughly 60 percent of all oil produced per year is used by the transport sector. Of that, by far the lion’s share is used by road-based transportation. Many researchers feel that the production of new oil will not be able to keep pace with increased demand. And that we already have or are about to pass the breaking point – what is known in the oil industry as peak oil. In the long term, therefore, dependency on oil has to be broken. However, it is no easy matter to replace the enormous quantities of oil we are talking about.
Picture Volvo So what is Volvo doing for the environment? Well, as you have seen, many of the environmental problems I have taken up are complex in nature and require broad cross-border cooperation if we are to solve them. However, as one of the biggest players in our industry, we naturally have our responsibility – not just with regard to our own products and operations, but also when it comes to influencing others to adopt a stance and pursue a direction in which we believe. Influence That is why Volvo is playing an active role in the environmental debate, participating in a number of renowned international organs to this end. We support the intentions stated in the Kyoto Protocols, and are signatories to the UN’s Global Compact. What is more, we are involved in in-depth cooperation with universities and technical colleges. As part of our bid to support and encourage interdisciplinary research into the environment, we have presented an environmental prize every year since the early ’nineties.
Picture Holistic approach Volvo’s aim is to be ranked as the best in our industry in terms of environmental care. We therefore apply a holistic approach to environmental issues that encompasses every aspect of our trucks’ lifecycle, where we aim to prevent and minimise environmental effects in all phases – from product development to ultimate scrapping.
Picture Chemicals By using assessments in the product development process, engineers can early on see how alternative materials and processes might affect the environment. In order to reduce the use of environmentally hazardous substances, for instance, we have created a database featuring detailed information on about 6,000 chemical products. Some chemicals are entirely forbidden within Volvo and have been placed on our black list. Others that may only be used to a limited extent have been put on our grey list. For example, we have phased out the use of brominated flame-retardant agents from fabrics and plastics. Non-asbestos brake linings have been standard on Volvo’s trucks for many years now. We also have environmental guidelines for product development, featuring advice and instructions on how the environmental burden can be reduced already from the engineering stage. We also carry out environmental assessments of the chemicals used in aftermarket applications.
Picture Volvo FH One of the most noticeable results of our work can be seen with regard to the latest model Volvo FH. It is made in a factory that is certified according to ISO 14001. The materials used in its construction come from suppliers who meet our strict environmental standards. Their contents are checked for accordance with our lists of banned and limited chemicals. It is painted in the world’s cleanest paint shop. It contains 33% reused material, and it can be recycled to more than 90%.
Picture Fuel And if we make a comparison with a truck that performed a corresponding haulage assignment back in 1980, we see that fuel consumption has decreased by about 30%. And at the same time, emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates are down by 80 and 98% respectively (Euro 4).
Picture EPD In order to meet the wishes of everyone who wants to see how our products actually affect the environment, Volvo has developed an environmental declaration – the first truck maker to do so. It offers open and factual information on material choice, energy consumption, emissions and so on. It is intended primarily as an aid to those companies that want to detail the environmental effects of their haulage operations for their customers.
Picture The engine We have achieved a reduction in fuel consumption partly through the development of engines and transmissions, and partly by reducing rolling and air resistance. The ever-cleaner exhaust emissions are primarily a result of increasingly advanced engine technology. The engine in the Volvo FH is the Volvo D13, one of the most modern diesel power units in the world. The transmission is the Volvo I-Shift, an automatic gear changing system which, thanks to optimised changes, contributes to lower fuel consumption.
Picture Air deflector The air deflector package you see here also plays an important role in this context. As I said before, however, the single most important component when it comes to both fuel consumption and emissions is the engine. That is why I thought we would take a closer look at it. Movie: Aerodynamic tests are carried out in wind tunnel.
Picture Within Volvo we believe in the development of the diesel engine and in particular the diesel process. We have chosen to adopt an integrated approach…. That is; to improve the quality of diesel fuels by influencing oil companies, to develop the diesel engine and finally to improve after treatment of exhaust gases.
Picture Volvo D13 This is a Volvo D13, an in-line six-cylinder diesel engine with a single cylinder head and four valves per cylinder, equipped with a turbocharger and Intercooler. It is one of the most efficient diesel engines in the world. Movie: This film shows Volvo’s 16-litre D16D engine.
Picture Efficiency rating The diesel engine is today the totally dominating power source in heavy commercial vehicles. Its superior efficiency is due to combustion under high pressure and at high temperatures. The maximum efficiency rating of a modern diesel engine – in other words how well it manages to convert the fuel’s energy content into useful work – is about 45% with room for further improvement. Turbo-charged power development along with the engine-braking power of diesel drive technology, as well as the long service life and reliability of diesel engines, are further points in their favour.
Picture Emissions When it comes to emissions, the main exhaust by-products of the diesel engine are nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and particles. However, the diesel engine also emits carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC). These substances account for a very small part of the exhaust emissions from a present-day diesel engine. And they will be reduced even more in forthcoming years as emissions legislation is toughened still further.
Picture Difficult problem Engine manufacturers have succeeded in reducing emissions through constant improvements in diesel engine technology, for instance through optimisation of the combustion chamber, advanced engine management and new injection systems, while at the same time cutting fuel consumption. For each stage in this process of advancement, however, the problem becomes increasingly difficult to solve. This is because diesel engines are faced with a “trilemma” between nitrogen oxides, particulates and fuel consumption: measures for reducing nitrogen oxide emission increase emissions of particulates, while at the same time raising fuel consumption. Conversely, if fuel consumption is lowered, for instance, nitrogen oxide emission increases as a result.
Picture Challenge Diesel engine development is thus faced with the challenge of reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides and particulates, while at the same time maintaining fuel consumption at a constant level or, ideally, even reducing it. This conflict of aims makes the development task increasingly complex. In order to meet the recently introduced and forthcoming tough emissions laws, some form of exhaust after-treatment is required. To this end, the engines are designed either for low nitrogen oxide emission or low particulate emission; in each case, the other critical exhaust component is subsequently either removed or reduced.
Picture NO X In the diesel engine, the fuel undergoes spontaneous ignition in a heterogeneous air-fuel environment, whereby peak temperatures of around 2,400 degrees Celsius are reached in the combustion chamber. At these temperatures, nitrogen oxides are formed from the nitrogen that is found in the air and the fuel. Optimization of the injection process within the engine and exhaust gas recirculation limit this formation of nitrogen oxides. Peak combustion temperatures are lowered and nitrogen oxide emissions reduced (together with noise emission levels) by delayed injection of the main volume of fuel.
Picture EGR As an alternative or supplement to this process, a portion of the exhaust gas can be cooled and routed back to the induced air; this also smoothens the combustion temperature peaks. This method is known as EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). Volvo offers several engine alternatives with EGR.
Picture SCR Volvo’s preferred technology for reducing NO X emissions is SCR – Selective Catalytic Reduction – which is fitted downstream of the engine. SCR makes use of ammonia, which is produced on board the vehicle from AdBlue, a non-toxic, easy-to-handle aqueous urea solution, to break down nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 ) into harmless molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) and water.
Picture PM Despite the excess air, combustion in the diesel engine gives rise to carbon particles owing to incomplete combustion, though for the most part they are subsequently oxidized. In particular during acceleration, when temporary enrichment of the air-fuel mixture occurs, soot particles are formed despite oxidation. These particles, consisting of carbon compounds, have a diameter of approx. 0.00005 millimetres (0.05 µm) and serve as points of concentration for the hydrocarbons from the fuel and lubricants to adhere and accumulate; water and sulphates also form on the surface.
Picture Filters As well as measures carried out within the engine for the prevention of particulate formation (for example increased injection pressure or post-injection for improved oxidation), particulate filtering can also be carried out downstream of the engine. This is the case in engines fitted with EGR. Engines fitted with SCR do not require a filter (Euro 4 and Euro 5). Volvo also offers a filter for retro-fitting to older trucks (Euro 2 and Euro 3). It is a particle filter of the type shown in the picture. It uses a technology known as the “continuously regenerating trap”. The exhaust gas flows through a porous filter structure. This process can reduce particulate emissions by 90%. Usage in commercial vehicle transport requires the availability of sulphur-free diesel fuel (< 10 ppm).
Picture Effective By using SCR technology to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, the engine can be optimised for as complete combustion as possible, resulting in extremely low particle levels and very good fuel efficiency.
Picture Urea The SCR system in the vehicle comprises an additional tank for the aqueous urea solution (AdBlue), an electronic metering unit for the reducing agent and a ceramic catalytic converter that can be accommodated in the silencer. To reduce the nitrogen oxides, the aqueous urea solution is added to the catalytic converter as a precursor substance for the required ammonia. The ratio of urea to diesel fuel is about 6:100; the precise metering is controlled by the engine electronics. Urea is a non-toxic, colourless, odourless, crystallizing liquid readily soluble in water; it was discovered back in 1729. It is recovered either from salt ammonium cyanate or from a reaction of carbon dioxide with ammonia at 150°C under high pressure (50 to 100 bar). Urea is used in the chemical industry, for example in textile refinement and in the manufacture of paper, insulating material, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. Network Installation of SCR technology in series production vehicles calls for a comprehensive supply network for the reducing agent. For commercial vehicles, special pumps need to be provided for filling the separate urea tank.
Picture Developments In addition to the newly developed post-engine components, the engine itself is undergoing significant modifications. This is necessary in order to ensure durability and long service life, in view of the higher pressures in the cylinder that are required to optimize fuel consumption and reduce particulate emissions. New materials These measures include the use of new materials such as vermicular graphite casting and improved engine management software. Particulate formation within the engine can be minimized by initiation injection earlier and with high injection pressure.
Picture Faith in diesel engine As you have seen, Volvo has immense faith in the diesel engine as the driving force for tomorrow’s trucks. With the measures for exhaust reduction or exhaust after treatment that I previously mentioned, there is ample scope for cutting emissions from diesel engines to levels that are as low as those from today’s cleanest alternative fuel, natural gas. Efficient There is at present nothing to beat diesel power. More importantly, it is vital to use the right fuel for the right purpose. We must aim to use the limited supply of oil where it is most efficient, and biomass where that is most efficient.
Picture Volvo has developed a hybrid truck where the main power source is a diesel engine that can run on either conventional or bio-renewable diesel oil. It is supplemented with an electric motor that is used primarily when moving off from standstill, during acceleration and when idling. During braking, the retardation energy is harnessed and stored in the batteries. An intelligent control system makes sure that the vehicle is always propelled in the optimum, most fuel-efficient way. Hybrid technology makes it possible to reduce a truck’s fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by up to 35%. During idling, in traffic tailbacks and when loading and unloading, the truck produces zero emissions. What is more, the noise level is significantly lower. Volvo’s hybrid truck is still at the development stage, but within a few years the first series-produced Volvo hybrids will start being seen on urban roads.
Picture Dimethyl ether (DME) In the long run, we have to switch to non-fossil fuels. The reasons, as we all know, are carbon dioxide emissions and – not to be forgotten – the limited supply of oil. Having said that, however, the diesel process does not necessarily require diesel fuel. The diesel engine also works perfectly well, for instance, with a fuel such as DME (dimethyl ether). DME can be made from biomass in an energy-efficient process, and burns with a high efficiency rating and low emissions of both nitrogen oxides and particulates, without the need for exhaust after-treatment. Volvo is currently testing DME for suitability as a vehicle fuel. Synthetic diesel Synthetic diesel oil is a clean liquid fuel that can be made from fossil sources (natural gas, coal) and renewable biomass sources (forestry raw materials). Its total energy efficiency is relatively high, but lower than that of DME.
Picture Methane (Compressed natural gas & biogas) Natural gas is a fossil fuel and it creates higher carbon dioxide emissions than diesel, since the high fuel efficiency of the diesel technology is lost. Today, particle emissions are lower from natural gas engines but forthcoming emissions regulations will have the effect that diesel engines will soon reach the same particle levels – with much higher energy efficiency. Biogas has roughly the same content and properties as natural gas but it is a renewable fuel. Availability, however, is very limited. Other drawbacks for both natural gas and biogas are also the cost and space needed for gas tanks.
Picture If we compare a number of different fuels and see how environmentally suitable they are from well to wheel, this is what the results look like. We can thus see that DME made from black lye, a by-product from paper manufacture, is the alternative fuel that offers the highest efficiency from well to wheel. What is more, it also produces very small emissions of carbon dioxide. If we only examine energy efficiency, conventional diesel oil is still the best alternative.
Picture Conclusion The easiest and most rewarding initiatives for the nearest 5 to 10 years for reducing energy consumption, greenhouse gases and other emissions is to be better at doing what we already do very well. That means that we should provide efficient conventional vehicles, which together with the right services create the foundation for efficient transport solutions. In the longer term, a shift in technology will naturally become necessary. Today, there are clear signals indicating that the world’s reserves of oil are more limited than was previously thought and demand is increasing.
Pehr G Gyllenhammar, President and CEO Volvo, 1972 ” We are a part of the problem. But also a part of the solution.” Introduction <ul><li>Volvo’s core Values </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Care the Environment </li></ul>
<ul><li>Speed – deliveries “from door to door” </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility – the truck is easy to tailor to suit the need </li></ul><ul><li>Transport efficiency </li></ul>Efficient transportation 70%
Life cycle assessment - LCA Volvo FH Input data: Euro 3, Low sulphur fuel, 1.000.000 km, 31 litre/100 km Environmental impact according to EPS Efficient transportation
<ul><li>Transport sector emits up to 25% CO ² </li></ul><ul><li>Road traffic accounts for about 15% </li></ul><ul><li>40 billion dollars a year in countermeasures </li></ul><ul><li>Total emissions of carbon dioxide are continuing to increase </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary to jointly agree on long-term goals and effective measures </li></ul>Emission of CO 2 Effects on the climate 25% Transport sector Road traffic 15%
<ul><li>Global average temperature will rise 1.4 to 5.9°C by the year 2100 </li></ul><ul><li>A temperature rise that is greater </li></ul><ul><li>than anything since the Ice Age </li></ul><ul><li>ended more than 10,000 years ago </li></ul>Global average temperature Effects on the climate
<ul><li>Global agreement is required to bring about a reduction in emissions (adopted 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% by the year 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>EU -20% between 1990 and 2020 </li></ul>Kyoto Protocol Effects on the climate
<ul><li>Volvo welcomes tougher new legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Volvo has better opportunity than most others for meeting strict emissions requirements </li></ul>Significant improvement in air quality Traffic +20% Air quality -30% NO X
<ul><li>Emissions from new trucks have dropped by 80 and 98% </li></ul>Focus on NO X and particles -80% NO X Air quality Particles -98%
<ul><li>Cut nitrogen oxide emissions by a further two-thirds within the coming ten years </li></ul><ul><li>Need for more widespread access to higher-quality fuel </li></ul>Focus on NO X and particles Air quality
<ul><li>Important to utilise the full potential available with today’s technology </li></ul><ul><li>Greater streamlining of the entire transport apparatus </li></ul>Not only better trucks and fuel Air quality
Effects on the health Air quality <ul><li>Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) - Breathing difficulties, asthma problems, impaired lung function </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide (CO) - Prevents absorption of oxygen in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons (HC) - Can be carcinogenic or affect the nervous system </li></ul>
Environmental effects <ul><li>Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - Acidification and </li></ul><ul><li>over-fertilisation of soil and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons (HC) - Formation of </li></ul><ul><li>ground-level ozone. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphur dioxides (SO2) - Acidification of </li></ul><ul><li>soil and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Ground-level ozone (O3) - Harms plants </li></ul><ul><li>and affects the productivity of crops. </li></ul>Air quality
Sharpening of the emission standards Note: Due to different test cycles in Japan, the EU and the US, requirements are not directly comparable. Air quality
<ul><li>We take our responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing others to adopt a stance and pursue a direction in which we believe </li></ul><ul><li>Volvo is playing an active role in the environmental debate </li></ul><ul><li>We are involved in in-depth cooperation with universities and technical colleges </li></ul>Volvo accepts the challenge Volvo’s choice of action
<ul><li>To be ranked as the best in our industry </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a holistic approach that encompasses every aspect of our trucks’ lifecycle </li></ul>Volvo apply a holistic approach Volvo’s choice of action
<ul><li>Assessments in the product development process </li></ul><ul><li>Database with detailed information on about 6.000 chemical products </li></ul><ul><li>We have phased out the use of brominated flame-retardant agents </li></ul><ul><li>Non-asbestos brake linings are standard </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental guidelines for product development </li></ul>Basis for development Volvo’s choice of action
<ul><li>Made in a factory that is certified according to ISO 14001 </li></ul><ul><li>Materials come from suppliers who meet our strict environmental standards </li></ul><ul><li>Painted in the world’s cleanest paintshop </li></ul><ul><li>Contains 33% reused material </li></ul><ul><li>Can be recycled to more than 90%. </li></ul>Volvo FH Volvo’s choice of action
Fuel consumption and emissions have decreased Volvo’s choice of action Particles -98% Fuel -30% NO X -80%
<ul><li>Open, factual information on material choice, energy consumption and emissions for the truck’s life-cycle </li></ul>Environmental product declaration Volvo’s choice of action
Advanced Powertrain technology <ul><li>Volvo D13, one of the most modern diesel engines in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Volvo I-Shift contributes to lower fuel consumption </li></ul>VOLVO D13 VOLVO I-Shift Volvo’s choice of action
Air Deflector System <ul><li>Tailormade air deflector for each truck model and cab size </li></ul>Volvo’s choice of action
Engine Volvo D13 <ul><li>In-line six-cylinder diesel engine </li></ul><ul><li>Single cylinder head </li></ul><ul><li>Four valves per cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>Turbocharger and Intercooler </li></ul>The diesel engine
<ul><li>The maximum efficiency rating of a modern diesel engine is about 45% </li></ul><ul><li>Long service life and high reliability </li></ul>High efficiency The diesel engine
Regulated emissions The diesel engine <ul><li>Carbon monoxide (CO) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon (HC) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxide (NO X ) </li></ul><ul><li>Particulates </li></ul><ul><li>These substances account for about 0.087 (%) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Diesel engines are faced with a “trilemma” between nitrogen oxides, particulates and fuel consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing nitrogen oxide emission increases emissions of particu- lates and at the same time raises fuel consumption </li></ul>“ Trilemma” NO x Particulates Fuel consumption Systems for exhaust gas treatment
NO x Particulates Fuel consumption <ul><li>Conform to more stringent standards </li></ul><ul><li>This will require some form of exhaust after-treatment </li></ul>The challenge Systems for exhaust gas treatment
<ul><li>Optimization of the injection process and exhaust gas recirculation limit nitrogen oxide formation </li></ul>High temperature formes NO X Systems for exhaust gas treatment
<ul><li>A portion of the exhaust gas can be cooled and routed back to the induced air </li></ul><ul><li>This method is known as EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) </li></ul>Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems for exhaust gas treatment
<ul><li>SCR makes use of urea </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 ) to harmless molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) and water </li></ul>Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems for exhaust gas treatment Exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides AdBlue tank Metering unit Ammonia + water vapour + nitrogen oxides SCR catalytic converter Nitrogen + water
<ul><li>Owing to incomplete combustion </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon compounds have a diameter of approx. 0.00005 millimetres (0.05 µm) </li></ul>Particles Systems for exhaust gas treatment
<ul><li>The exhaust gas flows through a porous filter structure </li></ul><ul><li>This process can reduce particulate emission by 90% </li></ul><ul><li>The filter utilises continuously regenerating trap technology </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the availability of sulphur-free diesel fuel (<10 ppm) </li></ul>Volvo exhaust filter Particles -90% Systems for exhaust gas treatment
<ul><li>By using SCR to reduce emissions of NOx the engine can be optimised for complete combustion and low particle levels. </li></ul>Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems for exhaust gas treatment Exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides AdBlue tank Metering unit Ammonia + water vapour + nitrogen oxides SCR catalytic converter Nitrogen + water
<ul><li>Includes an additional tank </li></ul><ul><li>An electronic metering unit </li></ul><ul><li>A ceramic catalytic converter </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio of urea to diesel fuel is about 6:100 </li></ul><ul><li>Urea is a non-toxic, colourless, odourless, crystallizing liquid readily soluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of SCR technology calls for a comprehensive supply network for the reducing agent </li></ul>Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems for exhaust gas treatment
<ul><li>To ensure durability and long service life </li></ul><ul><li>To optimize fuel consumption and reduce particulate emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Use of new materials </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation injection earlier </li></ul><ul><li>High injection pressure </li></ul>Significant modification of the Engine Systems for exhaust gas treatment
<ul><li>There is at present nothing to beat diesel power </li></ul><ul><li>Vital to use the right fuel for the right purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Limited supply of renewable fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Use the limited supply of oil where it is most efficient, and biomass where that is most efficient </li></ul>Best from well to wheel Alternative fuels
<ul><li>Volvo Hybrid Truck: Up to 35% lower fuel consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Low emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Low noise level </li></ul>Hybrid technology
<ul><li>The diesel engine also works perfectly well with a fuel such as DME (dimethyl ether) </li></ul><ul><li>Burns with a high efficiency rating and have low emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Without the need for exhaust after-treatment </li></ul>DME and synthetic diesel Alternative fuels
<ul><li>Natural gas: Higher carbon dioxide emissions than diesel Low particle emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Biogas: Renewable fuel Very limited supply </li></ul>Methane (natural gas & biogas) Alternative fuels