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GREEN CHEMISTRYPREVENTING POLLUTIONSUSTAINING THE EARTH
WHAT IS A SUSTAINABLE   CIVILIZATION?
WE SHOULD CONSIDER                THIS QUESTION FROM               SEVERAL VIEWPOINTS:The environment and human health.A s...
TO UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF CHEMISTRY IN SUSTAINABILITY,            WE WILL LOOK AT THE             FIRST TWO POINTS…• The e...
IN A SUSTAINABLE                       CIVILIZATION…• Technologies used for  production of needed goods  are not harmful t...
IN A SUSTAINABLE                        CIVILIZATION…• At the end of their use, materials  are recycled if they are not  b...
IN A SUSTAINABLE                       CIVILIZATION…• Manufacturing processes are either  designed so as not to produce wa...
BUT HOW CANCHEMISTRY HELP US    TO ACHIEVE  A SUSTAINABLE   CIVILIZATION?
BENEFITS OF                   CHEMICAL INDUSTRY:• Antibiotics and other medicines• Fertilizers, pesticides• Plastics• Nylo...
THE POLLUTION             PREVENTION ACT OF 1990• This was the U.S. environmental  law stating that the first choice  for ...
GREEN CHEMISTRY                      WORKS TOWARD                   SUSTAINABILITY BY:• Making chemical products that do n...
GREEN CHEMISTRY                      WORKS TOWARD                   SUSTAINABILITY BY:• Designing more efficient processes...
GREEN CHEMISTRY                           MEANS…• Preventing pollution before it  happens rather than cleaning up the  mes...
GREEN CHEMISTRY                            MEANS…• Saving companies money by  using less energy and fewer/safer  chemicals...
EXAMPLES OF                       GREEN CHEMISTRY•   Reducing lead pollution•   Putting out fires the green    way•   Safe...
IN SUMMARY,                GREEN CHEMISTRY IS…•   Scientifically sound,•   Cost effective, and•   Leads toward a sustainab...
Is Green Chemistry only applied modern chemistry?An academic chemist may contribute by making focusedfundamental research ...
Is Green Chemistry only applied modern chemistry?An academic chemist may contribute by making focusedfundamental research ...
SOME UNCONVENTIONAL REACTION MEDIA  Water  Ionic Liquids  Supercritical Fluids  Solvent-free…   best choice is NO SOLVENT
Why do we need a solvent/reaction medium?• To dissolve reactants• To stabilize a transition state• To promote a reaction p...
Main properties of solvents• Solubility “power”• Polarity• Density and viscosity• Boiling point• Toxicity, explosivity• In...
How Green is a solvent?First of all a solvent should be non-toxic for human  beings, animals and plants.In addition it sho...
WATER AS REACTION MEDIUM WHY?Water is a high-boiling liquid.Organic reaction mixtures are generally heterogenous in water....
ADVANTAGES in the use of WATER AS REACTION MEDIUM • Water actively participates to the process. • In Water it is often unn...
Notes On Green Chemistry
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Notes On Green Chemistry

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Notes On Green Chemistry

  1. 1. GREEN CHEMISTRYPREVENTING POLLUTIONSUSTAINING THE EARTH
  2. 2. WHAT IS A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION?
  3. 3. WE SHOULD CONSIDER THIS QUESTION FROM SEVERAL VIEWPOINTS:The environment and human health.A stable economy that uses energy andresources efficiently.Social and political systemsthat lead to a just society.
  4. 4. TO UNDERSTAND THE ROLE OF CHEMISTRY IN SUSTAINABILITY, WE WILL LOOK AT THE FIRST TWO POINTS…• The environment and human health.• A stable economy that uses energy and resources efficiently.
  5. 5. IN A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION…• Technologies used for production of needed goods are not harmful to the environment or to human health.• Renewable resources (such as plant-based substances or solar energy) are used rather than those, like fossil fuels, that will eventually run out.
  6. 6. IN A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION…• At the end of their use, materials are recycled if they are not biodegradable (easily broken down into harmless substances in the environment).
  7. 7. IN A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION…• Manufacturing processes are either designed so as not to produce waste products, – OR –• Waste products are recycled or biodegradable.
  8. 8. BUT HOW CANCHEMISTRY HELP US TO ACHIEVE A SUSTAINABLE CIVILIZATION?
  9. 9. BENEFITS OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY:• Antibiotics and other medicines• Fertilizers, pesticides• Plastics• Nylon, rayon, polyester, and other synthetic materials• Gasoline and other fuels• Water purification• Organic Semiconductors
  10. 10. THE POLLUTION PREVENTION ACT OF 1990• This was the U.S. environmental law stating that the first choice for preventing pollution is to design industrial processes that do not lead to waste production.• This is the approach of green chemistry.
  11. 11. GREEN CHEMISTRY WORKS TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY BY:• Making chemical products that do not harm either our health or the environment,• Using industrial processes that reduce or eliminate hazardous chemicals, and
  12. 12. GREEN CHEMISTRY WORKS TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY BY:• Designing more efficient processes that minimize the production of waste materials.
  13. 13. GREEN CHEMISTRY MEANS…• Preventing pollution before it happens rather than cleaning up the mess later.
  14. 14. GREEN CHEMISTRY MEANS…• Saving companies money by using less energy and fewer/safer chemicals, thus reducing the costs of pollution control and waste disposal.
  15. 15. EXAMPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY• Reducing lead pollution• Putting out fires the green way• Safer dry cleaning
  16. 16. IN SUMMARY, GREEN CHEMISTRY IS…• Scientifically sound,• Cost effective, and• Leads toward a sustainable civilization.
  17. 17. Is Green Chemistry only applied modern chemistry?An academic chemist may contribute by making focusedfundamental research to:- identify novel processes efficient from both the chemical andenvironmental point of views.- Study how a novel medium influences the reactivity of organicmolecules and discover new synthetic tools by exploiting theproperties of novel reaction media.- Define easily scalable and automatizable procedure.- Eliminate the use of unacceptable organic solvents. The use of unconventional media does NOT turn a process GREEN…
  18. 18. Is Green Chemistry only applied modern chemistry?An academic chemist may contribute by making focusedfundamental research to:- identify novel processes efficient from both the chemical andenvironmental point of views.- Study how a novel medium influences the reactivity of organicmolecules and discover new synthetic tools by exploiting theproperties of novel reaction media.- Define easily scalable and automatizable procedure.- Eliminate the use of unacceptable organic solvents. The use of unconventional media does NOT turn a process GREEN…
  19. 19. SOME UNCONVENTIONAL REACTION MEDIA Water Ionic Liquids Supercritical Fluids Solvent-free… best choice is NO SOLVENT
  20. 20. Why do we need a solvent/reaction medium?• To dissolve reactants• To stabilize a transition state• To promote a reaction path• To control the thermal exchange during the reactive event• To purify the product• To analyze the reaction mixture and run purity tests
  21. 21. Main properties of solvents• Solubility “power”• Polarity• Density and viscosity• Boiling point• Toxicity, explosivity• Influence on Ozone depletion• Greenhouse effect
  22. 22. How Green is a solvent?First of all a solvent should be non-toxic for human beings, animals and plants.In addition it should be considered:• Energy (evaporation, pressurization, etc.)• Recovery and Recycle of the solvent• Toxicity of the related by-product• Influence of the solvent on the final product Does the solvent comes from renewable resources?
  23. 23. WATER AS REACTION MEDIUM WHY?Water is a high-boiling liquid.Organic reaction mixtures are generally heterogenous in water.The evaporation of water to recover the species dissolved in, iscostly and tedious.Is it worth to perform organic reactions in water?
  24. 24. ADVANTAGES in the use of WATER AS REACTION MEDIUM • Water actively participates to the process. • In Water it is often unnecessary the protection-deprotection of functional groups (-OH, -COOH). • IN WATER it is possible to influence the reactivity and the selectivity of a process by controlling/modifying the pH. • It allows to isolate solid products by simple filtration. • WATER IS NOT TOXIC.

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