The Steps toward War Dr. Bruce Clary Thursday, January 3, 2013
Puritan Heritage in North Cavalier Heritage in South John Winthrop Henry Laurens 17th-Century Governor 18th-Century Vice Gov. Massachusetts Bay Colony South Carolina Colony
Northwest Ordinance 1787• Established territory west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River as free territory
“There was never a moment during the earliest yearsof our national history when the slavery issue wasnot a sleeping serpent. The issue lay coiled up underthe table during the deliberations of theConstitutional Convention in 1787. It was, owingto the cotton gin, more than half awake at the timeof the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.... Thereafter,slavery was on everyones mind, though not alwayson his tongue.” ——John Jay Chapman
“Representatives and direct taxes shall beapportioned among the several states which may beincluded within this union, according to theirrespective numbers, which shall be determined byadding to the whole number of free persons,including those bound to service for a term of years,and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of allother Persons.” Article I, Section 1 U.S. Constitution
“No person held to service or labor in one state,under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall,in consequence of any law or regulation therein, bedischarged from such service or labor, but shall bedelivered up on claim of the party to whom suchservice or labor may be due.” Article IV, Section 4 U.S. Constitution
“The Migration or Importation of such Persons asany of the States now existing shall think proper toadmit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress priorto the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight,but a tax or duty may be imposed on suchImportation, not exceeding ten dollars for eachPerson.” Article I, Section 9 U.S. Constitution
Slave Trade Act of 1807 Abolished the international slave tradeThis replica of a slave trade ship moored by Tower Bridge in 2007 to commemoratethe 200th anniversary of the Slave Trade Act.
“We the People of the United States, in Order toform a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insuredomestic Tranquility, provide for the commondefence, promote the general Welfare, and securethe Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and ourPosterity, do ordain and establish this Constitutionfor the United States of America.” Preamble U.S. Constitution
“There was never a moment during the earliest yearsof our national history when the slavery issue wasnot a sleeping serpent. The issue lay coiled up underthe table during the deliberations of theConstitutional Convention in 1787. It was, owingto the cotton gin, more than half awake at the timeof the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.… Thereafter,slavery was on everyone’s mind, though not alwayson his tongue —John Jay Chapman
Rise of Abolitionism • 1820-30s: American Colonization Society • 1831: First issue of The Liberator • 1833: American Anti-Slavery Society “I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as foundedjustice. On this subject, I do not wish to think, or to • 1842: Frederick Douglass gives his first speak, or write, with lecture moderation.… Urge me not to use moderation in acause like the present. I am • 1845: Douglass publishes his Narrative in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD.” —William Lloyd Garrison
The Nullification Crisis• In 1828 and 1832, Congress passes tariffs that exacerbate economic difficulties plaguing South Carolina. “Please give my• South Carolina passes an Ordinance of compliments to my friends in your State and say to them, Nullification, claiming that the tariffs shall that if a single drop of blood not apply in the state. shall be shed there in• President Jackson pushes through the opposition to the laws of the United States, I will hang the Force Bill, which empowers the federal first man I can lay my hand on engaged in such government to enforce the tariff. treasonable conduct, upon the first tree I can reach.” —Andrew Jackson
Manifest DestinyThree Key Themes• the virtue of the American people and their institutions;• the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the U.S.; and• the destiny under God to accomplish this work.
Compromise of 1850 • Enacts the Fugitive Slave Act • Admits California as a free state • Opens New Mexico and Utah territories under popular sovereignty
• Published in 1852, it sold 300,000 copies in the U.S. alone in its first year.• The book’s impact was so great that when Lincoln met Stowe, he allegedly said, “So this is the little lady who made this big war.”
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) • Creates territories of Kansas and Nebraska • Repeals the Missouri Compromise • Establishes popular sovereignty, empowering territorial settlers to determine if they will allow slavery within their boundaries
Dred Scott Decision 1857 U.S. Supreme Court rules that • No people of African descent could beThe authors of theConstitution, said Chief citizensJustice Roger B. Taney inhis decision, viewed all • Congress had no authority to prohibitblacks as “beings of aninferior order, and altogether slavery in federal territories and, thus, theunfit to associate with the Missouri Compromise waswhite race, either in social orpolitical relations, and so far unconstitutionalinferior that they had norights which the white man • Slaves cannot be taken from ownerswas bound to respect.” without due process
John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry October 1859
Election of Abraham Lincoln November 6, 1860“I have no purpose, directlyor indirectly, to interfere withthe institution of slavery inthe States where it exists. Ibelieve I have no lawful rightto do so, and I have noinclination to do so.” Abraham Lincoln
Crittenden CompromiseThe Crittenden Compromise was a last-ditch effort by a Kentuckysenator to head off the secession crisis. It would have•Guaranteed the existence of slavery in the slave states•Permanently re-established the Missouri Compromise line:slavery would be prohibited north of the 36°30´ parallel andguaranteed south of itThe compromise included a clause that it could not be repealed oramended.
Order of Secession•December 20, 1860 South Carolina•January 9, 1861 Mississippi•January 10, 1861 Florida•January 11, 1861 Alabama•January 19, 1861 Georgia•January 26, 1861 Louisiana•February 1, 1861 Texas
Lincoln Inaugural“In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not inmine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The governmentwill not assail you. You can have no conflict, without beingyourselves the aggressors.… We are not enemies, but friends.We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained,it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords ofmemory, stretching from every battlefield, and patriot grave, toevery living heart and hearth-stone, all over this broad land,will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, assurely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.”