Spec Stylesheet

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Stylesheet for the staff of The McPherson College Spectator.

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Spec Stylesheet

  1. 1. McPherson College SPECTATOR Staff Manual and Stylesheet I. Spectator Mission II. Organizational Structure Publisher Publisher The mission of the McPherson College Spectator is The Spectator is published by the Student Govern- twofold: 1) To serve and enhance the campus ment Association of McPherson College. Its policies community by providing an informed and responsible are determined by the Board of Publications. Modest forum for campus news and student voices and 2) To salaries are paid to the editor-in-chief, page editors, provide an experience where students can learn about advertising sales manager, advertising design and the civic role of journalism and practice the range of layout manager, and business manager, all of whom skills required of professional journalists. are the employees of SGA. In addition, reporters and photographers are compensated on a per-story/ The vision for the Spectator is to manifest in its photograph basis. journalistic practices the nine elements of journalism identified by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel in their Editorial Staff landmark work, The Elements of Journalism (Three Rivers Press, 2001). The Spectator is fulfilling both The Editorial Staff is the decision-making body of The parts of its statement of mission when the following Spectator. Members include all salaried editors, the statements are true: business manager, the advertising managers, and the faculty adviser (without vote).  The Spectator’s first obligation is to the truth.  Its first loyalty is to students and members of the Salaried staff are subject to review by the Editorial campus community. Board if they fail to perform their duties. By majority  Staff members practice a discipline of vote, the Editorial Staff may recommend to the Board verification. of Publications the dismissal of any salaried staff  Staff members maintain an independence from member. The staff is responsible for recommending a those they cover. replacement for a vacated position.  The Spectator remains an independent monitor When questions concerning the publication of of power. controversial material, the coverage of sensitive  It must provide a public forum for criticism and stories, or the editorial position in the lead editorial box compromise. arise, a majority vote of the Editorial Staff will be the  It makes the significant interesting and relevant. deciding factor. The faculty adviser may veto the  Reporting is comprehensive and proportional. decision, but the team may overrule the adviser with a  Staff members are allowed to exercise their unanimous vote. personal conscience.
  2. 2. Staff Organization  assigning reporters to stories  copy-editing stories Editor-in-Chief  designing pages  writing headlines and cutlines The editor-in-chief is the administrative head of the  producing pages in Adobe InDesign® Spectator staff. He or she is responsible for  consulting with the photography editor  managing the Spectator office space concerning photo assignments and sizes for  all communication regarding staff meetings planned layout.  planning and conducting staff meetings It is also assumed that section editors will occasionally  handling concerns of reporters, photographers, contribute articles to their pages. and page editors about matters that affect the satisfactory and timely production of the paper. Section editors, in consultation with the editor-in-chief, decide the acceptability of any components of their The editor-in-chief works closely with section editors pages, but final authority and responsibility lie with the and the photography editor in all phases of paper editor-in-chief (in consultation as requested with the production, including faculty adviser).  planning stories to be covered for each issue Photography Editor  assigning reporters and photographers to specific stories The photography editor has responsibility for all  editing copy aspects of producing photographs for the Spectator,  designing pages including  selecting and cropping photos  managing all aspects of the photography  writing headlines and cutlines equipment owned by the Spectator  submitting the final publication to the printer.  planning photo shoots in consultation with the The editor-in-chief carries the authority to make final section editors decisions concerning the acceptability of any  giving photographers assignments component of the paper. The editor-in-chief may—but  taking photos but is not required to—consult the faculty adviser on  developing film difficult or controversial decisions.  cropping photos  digitally editing and preparing photos for print. It is assumed that the editor-in-chief will frequently contribute writing to the Spectator, especially in the Advertising Sales Manager areas of news analysis and opinion (although personal interest can dictate the kind of writing contributed). The ad sales manager is the Spectator's representative in the McPherson business community. In addition, the editor-in-chief oversees the business He or she is responsible for soliciting enough aspects of the Spectator. He or she advertising to keep the Spectator’s agency account  works with the advertising sales manager to solvent. Responsibilities include ensure the sale of adequate ads for each issue  distributing display advertising contracts at the  works with the advertising design manager to beginning of each semester to all potential ensure the appropriate and timely completion of advertisers, either in person or by mail ads for each issue  soliciting the required quota of advertising for  works with the business manager to ensure each issue through contracts and periodic sales financial records are accurately maintained, calls subscriptions promptly filled and accounts  clearly and effectively communicating ad- professionally handled. vertisers' ideas and needs for display ads Section Editors accurately and on time to the advertising design and layout manager The Spectator staff includes four section editors: the  providing advertisers with proofs, as requested. news editor, opinions editor, campus life editor and sports editor. Section editors carry lead responsibility for two pages per issue, including:  planning stories and photos for their section 2
  3. 3. Advertising Design and Layout Manager  Satisfactorily cover any assigned beats  Follow the Spectator Stylesheet and AP The ad design and layout manager, in consultation Stylebook with the editor-in-chief and the faculty adviser, carries  Prepare copy in the manner prescribed in this creative control over all Spectator advertising. His or manual. her major responsibilities include Staff members who are enrolled in an EN 315  meeting the requests of advertisers for their Journalism Practicum must confer with the faculty display ads adviser about additional requirements.  preparing proofs of ads as requested for advertisers to approve before publication Faculty Adviser  planning with the ad sales manager and the The faculty adviser for the Spectator is an educator photography editor the photos needed for appointed by the dean of the faculty in cooperation upcoming display ads with the Department of English. Her role is to provide  preparing digital files ready for placement on an ethical, encouraging environment where students desktop publisher pages and transferring those learn and practice sound journalistic principles. ads to the editor-in-chief. One way advisers fulfill their educational responsibility Business Manager is by serving as a resource that students can consult. The business manager cares for the financial records This advisory role, however, is precarious because it and all business matters of the Spectator except for can easily conflict with students’ right to free the sale of advertisements. The major responsibilities expression. The student press carries all the rights, are privileges, and responsibilities granted by the First Amendment, and prior review is unconstitutional. The  caring for all matters related to subscriptions, critical factor here is that the students must initiate the including selling and billing subscribers and dialogue; an adviser may offer suggestions when her labeling and mailing subscribers' papers input is overtly sought.  billing advertisers and collecting on bills  receiving bills and submitting them to the college The adviser must teach without censoring, editing, Business Office for payment designing, directing or producing. Thus, a prickly  keeping the books reality in student journalism is that much of the  maintaining records of writers' and learning derives from lessons learned from mistakes. photographers' strings for payment This is uncomfortable because journalism is a  requesting string payments from the college relatively unforgiving profession and news readers are Business Office unforgiving consumers. It is these same high ex- pectations, however, that make post-publication Staff Writers and Photographers learning experiences so effective. Publication critiques Staff reporters and photographers are extremely are another way advisers meet their obligations as important and fully accountable members of the educators. Spectator staff. Their writing load may vary from issue A more detailed discussion of the adviser’s role can be to issue (and depending upon whether they are found at College Media Adviser’s Code of Ethics enrolled for academic credit). Some flexibility in (http://www.collegemedia.org). assignments is possible when arrangements are appropriately made in advance with section editors Spectator Office and/or the editor-in-chief. Editors will try to give staff The Spectator office is located in Beeghly Hall 204 at members the types of assignments they prefer; the far south end of the second-floor hallway. The however, both reporters and photographers can office is locked, but keys are issued to each editor and expect to receive a wide range of assignments. manager. Reporters who need access to the Whether or not they are enrolled for credit, staff Spectator office may contact any of the paid-position reporters and photographers are expected to staff.  Attend all staff meetings The editor-in-chief is in charge of the office, and  Satisfactorily complete stories or photo shoots editors and reporters and other staff members share in by the assigned deadline 3
  4. 4. the responsibility of keeping the office a productive looking interface that is much easier to use than place to work. the old system, Taylor said. “Last year, I felt like I was trying to use a The Spectator and Academic Credit system that was way outdated,” said Riley Students may receive one hour of academic credit per Miller, sr., Rocky Ford, Colo. “This looks and semester for their work on the Spectator. Students feels like the best search engines on the Web.” who desire credit may enroll for any of the EN 315 That is the news--the fresh report that journalism practica, which include reporting, editing, emphasizes the impact for our readership. design and layout, advertising management, and photojournalism. Students enrolled for credit have  Sports stories are especially susceptible to slightly more stringent requirements than those recounting outdated events. Unless a recent outlined in this manual. For additional expectations, game was a victory or loss of particular see the practica syllabi. importance, leads in sports stories should usually feature the upcoming match(es) or the next game of real magnitude. III. Staff Manual News Is Accurate and Unbiased What Is News? No obligations of the journalist are more important than accuracy and truthtelling. Every staff member News is a fresh report of events, facts or others’ bears responsibility for seeing that information printed opinions that is important or helpful for readers to in the Spectator is correct and fairly represents the know. truth. News Has Impact and Relevance The following practices constitute a discipline of Probably the biggest problem faced by the staff of a bi- verification that can assure the most accurate stories weekly paper is providing its readers the fresh reports. possible. A staff can employ two tactics to fight this problem:  Confirm with sources any quotation that is  Load the issue with advances instead of reports controversial or about which there is any about past events. Students already know about question of accuracy. what last week’s Mohler said. They can be truly  Double-check copy against documentary informed, however, by an article about next information; or, when documentary evidence week's Religious Heritage lecturer and perhaps does not exist, confirm facts with two have their interest piqued enough to look independent sources. forward to the speech.  Strive to get all sides of an issue, no matter how  Assess past events or actions to determine their difficult or controversial. current or future impact. Then, feature this  Don’t cover events or activities that you are impact prominently in the story's lead. Compare involved in. (For example, an SGA member the following leads, for example: shouldn’t cover a story about SGA.)  Avoid quoting friends. Make every effort to Miller Library installed new software for its on- interview those who rarely if ever appear in the line catalog over the summer. The system was Spectator. installed during the final weeks of August and was up and running by the time classes started Guidelines for Writers on Aug. 28.    Responsibility to Staff Library staff and returning students are praising Nothing—absolutely nothing—is more critical to the the new, user-friendly software they are now success and morale of a news organization than staff using to access the library’s on-line catalog. writers who will do what it takes to get a good story "Students really seem to appreciate the and turn it in by deadline. Conversely, nothing faster search returns and the new look,” said demoralizes a staff more than writers who fail to do Susan Taylor, director of library services, earlier justice to the assignment and who submit copy late. this week. The screen is now a professional- Editors pay a huge emotional and physical price for the irresponsibility of others. 4
  5. 5. Reporters must do whatever is necessary to get a  Be open about taking notes. The subject wants story right—interview people they don’t know, make your piece to be correct. If you wish to record the phone calls at nights or on weekends, revise copy interview, ask your subject’s permission. Do not more times than they want, and practice the discipline assume they are comfortable with being of verification described above. You will not only make recorded. your editors happy; you will make yourself happy. You  If there is something you do not understand, ask can be satisfied with a job well done and reap the for an explanation. appreciation of your subjects and your readers.  Do not rush from question to question. If you pause deliberately, your subject may continue to Interviewing talk, providing you with your best information Interviews are an essential part of getting any story, and best quotes. and your interviewing skills will have a direct influence  End every interview with the question, "Is there on the quality of your reporting. While interviewing anything I didn't ask that I should have?" You will subjects in person is more desirable, do not forget that be surprised at what this can elicit, and it gives the telephone is a quick way to get accurate the subject the feeling that you have been information for stories. Many subjects, too, will respond thorough. to e-mail questions, which they can answer with more Off-the-Record: What Does It Mean? care, on their own schedule, in writing. If anyone ever makes a comment in an interview with It is important to follow the guidelines below when you the request that it be "off the record," STOP the interview persons: interview and find out what your source means. Does By telephone: she mean:  Be sure you know what you want to ask before  Your source never wants to see that comment you call. Make a list. Talk from notes if this will or information in print? help.  You can report the information if you can keep  Be sure you identify yourself in a business-like the source's identity out of the story? way to whoever answers. Tell them what you Once you give your word the material will be "off the are doing, and what you want: record," you must keep your promise. Hello, my name is Adrielle Harvey, and I'm Never accept information off the record when it writing an article for the McPherson College belongs on the record. Remarks made at a public Spectator on the college's fall enrollment meeting such as Student Government, for example, figures. While I have the numbers, I need some are always on the record, despite requests that they information on how these numbers compare to be withheld from publication. previous years. I'd like to talk to Karlene Tyler about this. Is she in? As a policy, the Spectator does not publish unattributed quotes or information. If the source asks  Even if your deadline is urgent, respect your to remain anonymous, explain that you cannot report subjects’ time and ask them, information that can’t be attributed to a named source. Is this a good time to talk—or could I call Avoiding Libel back/we make an appointment for a better time? Here are some general rules about libel: Then get that appointment for a better time, right then.  You may not damage a person's reputation without the risk of paying the consequences. In person:  You may be sued if you subject a person to  Write your questions in a notebook to be used public scorn, ridicule, or opprobrium. especially for interviewing. You might write one  You may be sued if you harm persons in their question at the top of a blank page and then trade, occupation, or profession. write answers below.  It is not necessary to name persons for readers  When interviewing feature story subjects, to be able to identify them. If readers can identify especially, be aware of unspoken information. the person you are writing about and your Keep notes on your subjects’ appearance and statements harm her reputation, they are mannerisms and on the interview setting. libelous even though you never used her name. 5
  6. 6. Exception: Criticism of the arts (plays, movies, an RTF file. (Every word processor has an RTF, or books, CDs, exhibits, etc.) is immune, as long as Rich Text Format, mode.) it is fair, based on fact, and contains no malice, Reporters may submit stories to their section editor as and as long as it limits itself to the work, rather an e-mail attachment. Keep a backup copy of the file than criticizes the man or woman who created in case it becomes corrupted in the process of being the work. forwarded to the editor. See the "Libel Manual" in The Associated Press Please follow these guidelines in preparing copy: Stylebook and Libel Manual for a complete treatment of libel.  At the top your story, type your name exactly as you want it to appear in your byline. (Page Covering Beats editors and the editor-in-chief make the final Many if not most staff members will be assigned determination on whether the byline appears beats. Beats may change from semester-to-semester, with the story.) but important beats will generally remain the same.  Turn on double-spacing. (It’s easier for you and They include your editor to proofread.)  Keep paragraphs short. Journalistic paragraphs President’s Office Student Government are average two sentences and almost never Provost/Academic Dean Student Activities Board exceed three sentences. Advancement Theatre  Do not split (hyphenate) words at the ends of Business Office Auto Restoration lines. If your word processor automatically Admissions Music divides words, disable the feature. Facility Management Business Club  Omit commas before the conjunction in a series Campus Ministry/ Student Services of three or more sentence elements. Counseling Creative Arts Society  Do not use tabs to indent paragraphs. Editors Faculty Friendship Art Exhibits must strip them out before placing them into the Once you have been assigned a beat, find out all you desktop publisher. This consumes precious time can about it. at editing sessions and introduces errors.  Space only once after periods at the end of  Go to the source of information suggested, sentences. These, too, must be stripped from introduce yourself, and tell that person you have copy by editors. his/her beat for the semester and want to know  On matters of style, writers should be guided first all you can about their functions. Learn who’s in by this stylesheet (see section IV) and second this office/department. (Secretaries are often the by the AP Stylebook. best sources of information.)  Meet all deadlines, or explain to your editor 48  Get any handbooks or information that office hours in advance why your deadline will not be puts out. Be sure to get put on the met. distribution list for all agendas, minutes, announcements, or policies that the office Writing Straight News produces. The inverted pyramid is the basic design for most  Find out the best time to talk with the sources straight news stories. The most important facts are and touch base with them at that time on a blurted out in the first paragraph (the lead), and the regular basis—perhaps during the week after reporter works his way down to and through the least publication of an issue of the Spec. important information.  Discuss any potential stories with your section editor or the editor-in-chief to confirm that you The purpose of the inverted pyramid is to put the facts should pursue the story or that it should be in order of decreasing importance. Thus, if the reader assigned to another staff writer. reads only the first few paragraphs of a story, chances are she has read the most important parts of the story. Preparing Copy The inverted pyramid is also a tool for your page Reporters should prepare copy on a word processor, editors. Frequently, they will have to cut copy as they preferably Microsoft Word®. If you are using some design their pages. When reporters effectively use the word processor other than Word®, save your work as inverted pyramid, page editors can cut the last 6
  7. 7. paragraphs of a story, knowing these are the least In its most basic form, the editorial follows a rather important parts of a report. predictable pattern. Newswriting consists of the five Ws and the H:  The editorial writer first establishes the "news peg," that is, the timely information or issue on WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHY, HOW which the editorial is based. The problem or Each news story must answer as many of the five Ws situation posed by the news peg is explained, and the H as possible. and the writer's position clearly stated.  An analysis of the situation follows, examining Newswriting is lead writing. The lead is not only the the facts and details in a way that reveals the first paragraph of a news story, it is the essence of reasoning behind the editorialist's opinion. what you know about that event, written crisply and  The editorial usually re-emphasizes the writer's tightly. position and then offers a solution, backed with There are always several good ways to write a lead, arguments suggesting the rightness of the but usually one best way for each story—the way that solution. gets the most interesting or the most important news  The editorial always ends with a strong into the first few words of the lead. (See the entry statement—often the strongest statement in the under leads in the stylesheet.) editorial.  Editorials need not always be serious. With a Writing Features lighter touch, one can entertain at the same time What is a feature story? Whatever works. Many he or she teaches, criticizes, praises, or defends. features are based on dramatic situations, such as the Letters to the Editor Policy football player with the career-ending injury. Others are based on the unique, such as the student with a pet The Spectator's editorial pages provide a public forum boa constrictor in his dorm room. Others are based on for student opinion. Through letters to the editor, overlooked, common occurrences, such as cleaning students may air concerns, opinions, and suggestions. the bathrooms in the dorms, students who go home on The following policy guides the publication of all letters weekends, etc. to the editor and should be printed in full in the first There is no feature "formula," as there is in straight issue of each semester. newswriting (and, to a lesser extent, editorial writing).  All letters will be handled by the editors. A feature is a longer article, usually 500 words or  The Spectator does not publish letters to which more, that tells the facts truthfully, but in which the authors will not attach their names except in the story is in the telling as much as in the facts. extraordinary circumstances where the writer’s The greatest danger in a feature is that its emphasis safety or privacy is endangered. upon the way the story is written will lead the writer to  Editors reserve the right to edit letters to correct use florid phrases, clichés and generalities. inaccuracies, excessive wordiness, unnecessary vulgarity or poor taste, and potentially libelous The success of a feature depends upon the quality of statements. If changes of any consequence are information gathered; attention to word choices; made, editors will notify the writer to see if he or understated, detailed descriptions and anecdotes; she prefers to withdraw the letter. and, an organization of materials that effectively  Letters to the editor may be attached in e-mail to moves the reader to an informed viewpoint about the spectator@bulldog.mcpherson.edu or dropped subject. in campus mail addressed to the Spec. The final Writing Editorials deadline is Monday before the Fridays on which a paper is published. An editorial is a brief essay, usually 300 words or less, expressing a carefully reasoned position or opinion on As a matter of practice, the opinions editor or the a recent issue. Ideally, a Spectator editorial will inform editor-in-chief must confirm the authorship of all letters and lead student opinion. It will interpret current submitted for publication. campus news to students and point out its significance. Editorialists can take at least four different approaches: teaching, attacking, defending, or praising. 7
  8. 8. buildings In the first reference, use the campus IV. Stylesheet building's full name. (Exception: Center for Sport and Physical Education, which may be referred to Spectator staff members should always refer first to as the Sport Center on first reference.) the guidelines in this stylesheet. If the relevant On second reference, Hall may be properly dropped guidelines are not listed here, defer to the AP from a name, or a building may be referred to Stylebook. Entries followed by [AP] are fully consistent generically, for example, the union or SU, the with AP style. All others entries represent guidelines gazebo, the stadium. The correct first references and unique to the Spectator. spellings of campus buildings are abbreviations, organizations On first reference, Beeghly Hall use an organization's full name. Do not follow it Bittinger Hall with an abbreviation or acronym in parentheses or Brown Auditorium set off by dashes. If an abbreviation or acronym is Dotzour Hall not clear on second reference, do not use it. Heaston Gazebo abbreviations, classes In student identifications Hess Fine Arts Center (see identification, student entry), use the Hoffman Student Union abbreviations fr., soph., jr. and sr. In all other McPherson Stadium situations, spell them out. Melhorn Science Hall Metzler Hall See also entries under days of the week, months, Miller Library states, Student Council, times, titles Mingenback Mall attributions Always clearly identify the source of Mingenback Theatre quotations (and paraphrased quotations) in your Mohler Hall copy. In general, the verb said is the best verb of Morrison Hall attribution. It is not weakened by repetition. In Sport Center straight news stories, be especially careful that Templeton Hall synonyms of attribution such as admitted, Coach / coach Coach is frequently used in sports disclosed, conceded, offered, explained, etc., do stories as a formal title before the names of not give a quotation an editorial tone. persons who direct athletic teams. In such cases it As a rule, attributions should follow quotes or is capitalized: Coach David Cunningham, Coach paraphrases and be in subject-verb order; Stephenson, Coach Trimmell. however, in the case of first-reference sources that Do not capitalize coach when it is modified in any require an identifying appositive, the attribution is way or set off from a name by commas: defensive best in verb-subject order. On first reference, for coach Les Whiteman; the coach, Roger Trimmell, example, was charged with a technical foul. "Students really seem to appreciate the faster In stories not on the sports pages, college search returns and the new look,” said Susan personnel who are coaches should be referred by Taylor, director of library services. their academic titles. See the entry identification, But on second reference, faculty & staff. "Students really seem to appreciate the faster college When referring to McPherson College search returns and the new look,” Taylor said. generically, use the college with lowercase "c." When quotes exceed a single sentence in length, commas Omit the comma before and or or in a attributions should be placed at the end of the first series. For example, sentence: The Spectator lab includes eight computer stations, “Last year, I felt like I was trying to use a system two scanners and a large-format printer. that was way outdated,” said Riley Miller, sr., Rocky Use commas around years only a month and date Ford, Colo. “This looks and feels like the best are given, for example, on Feb. 12, 2005, SGA…; search engines on the Web.” but, in February 1955, SGA…. 8
  9. 9. See the entry commas in the AP Stylebook for indefinite antecedents, which have traditionally additional help. taken the masculine singular pronoun. For example, course titles See titles, course Each person has to face his own destiny. cutlines In general, write the first sentence of a cutline in present tense. Write all other sentences in Possible solutions, in order of preference are: the past tense. 1) Change the antecendent so that it can take a If student subjects in a photograph are identified in plural, neuter pronoun: an accompanying story, class and hometown All persons have to face their own destiny. identification is not needed. However, follow the identification style for students outlined in the entry 2) Rewrite the sentence to avoid the personal identification, students if they are not identified pronoun altogether: elsewhere. Each person must face the future; or Each person days of the week [AP] Capitalize them. Do not must face destiny. abbreviate, except in tabular format. See also time 3) Alternate the use of the feminine pronoun with elements. the masculine pronoun to agree with the singular, full-time Hyphenate it. indefinite antecedent: headlines In general, news story headlines should Each person has to face her own destiny. contain a verb. Use the present tense for headlines 4) Use he or she (or his or her.) about past events. Avoid splitting a phrase or idea between lines on multiple line headlines. Feature Each person has to face his or her own destiny. story heads (and some soft news stories packaged interterm When used in conjunction with a specific in "display") need not necessarily contain verbs. year, capitalize it: Interterm 2007. Otherwise, use The Spectator's headline style is down; that is, all lowercase. words except the first word in the headline and leads Strive to make the first three or four words in a proper nouns begin with a lower case letter, not a lead the most important words in the story. Avoid capital letter. using dates, and times at the beginning of leads. Homecoming Capitalize it. Do not clutter leads with too many details. For example, identification of a student can wait for the identification, students On the first or second second reference. reference to a McPherson College student, identify students by class and hometown. Abbreviate the McPherson College When referring to McPherson class. Abbreviate the state if appropriate (see College generically, use the college (lowercase states entry). If the hometown is in Kansas, omit "c"). the state unless it is necessary to avoid confusion. midterm Lowercase, no hyphen. For example, months [AP] Always spell months with five letters or John Johansen, sr., Pittsburg, Kan., claims . . . less. Abbreviate Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. but and Dec. when used with a specific date. Spell out every month when used alone or with a year alone. Michelle Dalton, soph., Wichita, claims. . . . When a phrase lists only a month and a year, do Exception: Do not fully identify students in sports not separate the year with commas. stories. If it is important to identify the athlete, do so in an appositive phrase, for example, newspaper name [AP] Do not place name in quotes. Capitalize the in a newspaper’s name if that is Jamie Sims, a sophomore from McPherson, the way the publication prefers to be known. scored the first basket. numerals [AP] In general, spell out whole numbers inclusive language Be sensitive at all times to below 10, use figures or 10 and above. Thus, gender in language. Seek to be concise and neutral. The greatest difficulties arise in matters of Spell out a numerals at the beginning of a personal pronoun agreement with singular, sentence. If necessary, rewrite the sentence. There 9
  10. 10. is one exception—a numeral that identifies a time elements The day a news event occurs usually calendar year. belongs in the lead, but not at the beginning. In general, the best placement is as soon as possible AP style for the use of numbers is complicated. If in after subjects and simple verbs: doubt, check the numerals entry in the AP Stylebook. The Board of Trustees voted Thursday to begin construction of a new dorm next fall. President / president [AP] President is Mr. Hovis's formal title when it precedes his name and is For clarity and grace, however, the time element capitalized. Do not capitalize it, however, when it should sometimes be moved back (note that the follows his name. Thus second time element above follows the object) or preceded by on: President Ron Hovis said . . . The Board of Trustees postponed on Thursday but college plans to begin construction of a new dorm Dr. Paul W. Hoffman, president of McPherson next year. College, spoke about . . . In verb forms with auxiliary verbs, the time element semesters When used in conjunction with a specific usually works best between the auxiliary and the year, capitalize fall and spring: Fall 2006, Spring main verb: 2007. Use lowercase when the reference is The time element should sometimes be moved generic: fall semester, spring semester. See also back or preceded by on. interterm. Never use both the day and the date. For events states [AP] The names of eight states are never less than one week in the past or the future, use abbreviated: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, the day. Do not write yesterday or tomorrow, or last Ohio, Texas and Utah. Monday or next Monday. The tense of the verb will Use the listed AP abbreviation in conjunction with convey past or future. For events more than one the name of a city or town, except those in Kansas week in the past or future, use the date. which cannot be confused with a town or city in times [AP] Use figures except for noon and midnight. another state. Use the abbreviations a.m. and p.m. and a colon to Ala. Md. N.Y. separate hours from minutes: 11 a.m., 1 p.m., 3:30 Ariz. Mass. Okla. p.m. Do not use constructions with o'clock. Ark. Mich. Ore. Be careful to avoid redundancy in time Calif. Minn. Pa. expressions. For example, 7 p.m. Thursday, not 7 Colo. Miss. R.I. p.m. Thursday evening. Conn. Mo. S.C. Del. Mont. S.D. titles, academic See the entry identification, Fla. Neb. Tenn. faculty & staff Ga. Nev. Vt. titles, books and compositions [AP] Use Ill. N.C. Va. quotation marks to indicate book titles, movie titles, Ind. N.D. Wash. play titles, poem titles, song titles, television Kan. N.H. W.Va. program titles, and titles of lectures, speeches and Ky. N.J. Wis. works of art. La. N.M. Wyo. Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more Place one comma between the city and the state letters. name, and another comma after the state name, unless ending a sentence. Exception: Do not use quotation marks around the word Bible or the titles of books that are primarily Student Government Association Spell it out in reference works. See AP Stylebook for examples. first reference in story. The short form is acceptable in headlines and on second reference. titles, course Capitalize (without quotation marks) course titles when they are used as proper nouns terms, academic See the entries for semesters and interterm. 10
  11. 11. and match the course titles listed in the academic catalog or line schedule; for example, He enrolled in EN 315A Journalism Practicum: Reporting. or More freshmen enroll in Principles of Biology than any other course. tomorrow, yesterday Do not use these time elements. Use the appropriate day of the week. Given our Friday publication, that means Saturday or Thursday. Revised 1 September 2006 11

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