From Formed
             to Informed Opinions



RHETORIC I                          Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                ...
Nothing is so firmly believed
              as what we least know.
                                        – Michel de Mont...
Nothing is so firmly believed
              as what we least know.
                                         – Michel de Mon...
First, Some Definitions




RHETORIC I                            Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                             Instruc...
First, Some Definitions
  • Opinion: a conclusion or a judgment that, although it is
    open to question, seems true or pr...
First, Some Definitions
  • Opinion: a conclusion or a judgment that, although it is
    open to question, seems true or pr...
Examples of Facts




RHETORIC I                       Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                        Instructor
Topeka is the capital of Kansas.
President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in
       Dallas, Texas, on Nov. 22, 1963.
During the 2008
presidential campaign,
Barack Obama posted a
copy of his birth
certificate online as a
response to opponent...
Examples of Opinions




RHETORIC I                          Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                           Instructor
Of all the 50 states, Kansas may be
        the most backward.
President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in
       Dallas, Texas, on Nov. 22, 1963,
           by Lee Harvey Oswald.
The birth certificate that
Barack Obama
produced to verify that
he was born in Hawaii in
1961 – and thus a
qualified candida...
Your Turn




RHETORIC I               Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                Instructor
Your Turn
In groups of three, generate a short list of facts.
Then develop a claim about each fact that is
based upon inte...
Where Do Our Opinions
            Come From?



RHETORIC I                      Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                     ...
Received (inherited) opinions
Involuntary opinions
Adapted opinions
Linked opinions
And... (what we’re after)...




RHETORIC I                             Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                             ...
And... (what we’re after)...
             Informed opinions



RHETORIC I                             Bruce Clary
Fall 200...
How do we get there?




RHETORIC I                          Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                           Instructor
How do we get there?
             Critical Thinking


RHETORIC I                          Bruce Clary
Fall 2009           ...
The Three Essential Attitudes




RHETORIC I                                   Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                      ...
The Three Essential Attitudes
1. A willingness to recognize that our own belief
   or position is an opinion that could be...
The Three Essential Attitudes
1. A willingness to recognize that our own belief
   or position is an opinion that could be...
The Three Essential Attitudes
1. A willingness to recognize that our own belief
   or position is an opinion that could be...
❝To say that [critical thinking] implies a skeptical state of mind
    is by no means to say that it implies a self-satisfi...
❝ The heart of critical thinking is a willingness to face
    objections to one’s own beliefs, a willingness to adopt
    ...
Two Models of Critical Thinking
  1. Stock Issues
  2. Elements of Thought




RHETORIC I                            Bruce...
Stock Issues Model
  1. Topicality
  2. Inherency
  3. Significance
  4. Workability
  5. Solvency
  6. Disadvantages


RHE...
Stock Issues Model
  1. Topicality      Is what we’re talking about relevant?
  2. Inherency
  3. Significance
  4. Workabi...
Stock Issues Model
  1. Topicality      Is what we’re talking about relevant?
  2. Inherency       What’s the real cause o...
Stock Issues Model
  1. Topicality      Is what we’re talking about relevant?
  2. Inherency       What’s the real cause o...
Stock Issues Model
  1. Topicality      Is what we’re talking about relevant?
  2. Inherency       What’s the real cause o...
Stock Issues Model
  1. Topicality      Is what we’re talking about relevant?
  2. Inherency       What’s the real cause o...
Stock Issues Model
  1. Topicality      Is what we’re talking about relevant?
  2. Inherency       What’s the real cause o...
Elements of Thought Model




RHETORIC I                               Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                              ...
Elements of Thought Model
Whenever we think,




RHETORIC I                               Bruce Clary
Fall 2009           ...
Elements of Thought Model
Whenever we think,
     we think for a purpose
     within a point of view
     based on assumpt...
Elements of Thought Model
Whenever we think,
     we think for a purpose
     within a point of view
     based on assumpt...
Elements of Thought Model




RHETORIC I                               Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                              ...
Elements of Thought Model
Whenever we think,




RHETORIC I                               Bruce Clary
Fall 2009           ...
Elements of Thought Model
Whenever we think,
     we think for a ____________
     within a ________________
     based on...
Elements of Thought Model
Whenever we think,
     we think for a ____________
     within a ________________
     based on...
Consider also…




RHETORIC I                    Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                     Instructor
Consider also…
  1. Checklist for Critical Thinking (p. 14)




RHETORIC I                                     Bruce Clary...
Consider also…
  1. Checklist for Critical Thinking (p. 14)
  2. Checklist for Examining Assumptions (p. 19)




RHETORIC ...
Consider also…
  1. Checklist for Critical Thinking (p. 14)
  2. Checklist for Examining Assumptions (p. 19)
  3. Checklis...
Keep your eyes on the prize




RHETORIC I                                 Bruce Clary
Fall 2009                          ...
Keep your eyes on the prize

              Moving from cocksure ignorance
                to thoughtful uncertainty.




R...
From Formed to Informed Opinions
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From Formed to Informed Opinions

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Second day of freshman rhetoric. Intro to critical thinking.

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From Formed to Informed Opinions

  1. 1. From Formed to Informed Opinions RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  2. 2. Nothing is so firmly believed as what we least know. – Michel de Montaigne RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  3. 3. Nothing is so firmly believed as what we least know. – Michel de Montaigne To become educated is to move from cocksure ignorance to thoughtful uncertainty. – Unknown RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  4. 4. First, Some Definitions RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  5. 5. First, Some Definitions • Opinion: a conclusion or a judgment that, although it is open to question, seems true or probable to you RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  6. 6. First, Some Definitions • Opinion: a conclusion or a judgment that, although it is open to question, seems true or probable to you • Fact: a thing that is indisputably true; the truth about events as opposed to interpretation RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  7. 7. Examples of Facts RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  8. 8. Topeka is the capital of Kansas.
  9. 9. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on Nov. 22, 1963.
  10. 10. During the 2008 presidential campaign, Barack Obama posted a copy of his birth certificate online as a response to opponents who claimed that he was not a “natural born citizen” and, thus, ineligible to be President of the United States.
  11. 11. Examples of Opinions RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  12. 12. Of all the 50 states, Kansas may be the most backward.
  13. 13. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on Nov. 22, 1963, by Lee Harvey Oswald.
  14. 14. The birth certificate that Barack Obama produced to verify that he was born in Hawaii in 1961 – and thus a qualified candidate for President of the United States – is a forgery.
  15. 15. Your Turn RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  16. 16. Your Turn In groups of three, generate a short list of facts. Then develop a claim about each fact that is based upon interpretation, thus adding the element of uncertainty. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  17. 17. Where Do Our Opinions Come From? RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  18. 18. Received (inherited) opinions
  19. 19. Involuntary opinions
  20. 20. Adapted opinions
  21. 21. Linked opinions
  22. 22. And... (what we’re after)... RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  23. 23. And... (what we’re after)... Informed opinions RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  24. 24. How do we get there? RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  25. 25. How do we get there? Critical Thinking RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  26. 26. The Three Essential Attitudes RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  27. 27. The Three Essential Attitudes 1. A willingness to recognize that our own belief or position is an opinion that could be mistaken. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  28. 28. The Three Essential Attitudes 1. A willingness to recognize that our own belief or position is an opinion that could be mistaken. 2. A willingness to acknowledge the possibility that another’s opinion could be correct. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  29. 29. The Three Essential Attitudes 1. A willingness to recognize that our own belief or position is an opinion that could be mistaken. 2. A willingness to acknowledge the possibility that another’s opinion could be correct. 3. A willingness to do the hard work necessary to acquire and evaluate information/evidence. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  30. 30. ❝To say that [critical thinking] implies a skeptical state of mind is by no means to say that it implies a self-satisfied fault- finding state of mind. Quite the reverse: Because critical thinkers seek to draw intelligent conclusions, they are sufficiently open-minded that they can adopt a skeptical attitude toward their own ideas, toward their own assumptions, and toward the evidence they themselves tentatively offer, as well as toward the assumptions and evidence offered by others.❞ –Barnet & Bedau, p. 3-4 RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  31. 31. ❝ The heart of critical thinking is a willingness to face objections to one’s own beliefs, a willingness to adopt a skeptical attitude not only toward authority and toward views opposed to our own but also toward common sense – that is, toward the views that seem obviously right to us.❞ –Barnet & Bedau, p. 3-4 RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  32. 32. Two Models of Critical Thinking 1. Stock Issues 2. Elements of Thought RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  33. 33. Stock Issues Model 1. Topicality 2. Inherency 3. Significance 4. Workability 5. Solvency 6. Disadvantages RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  34. 34. Stock Issues Model 1. Topicality Is what we’re talking about relevant? 2. Inherency 3. Significance 4. Workability 5. Solvency 6. Disadvantages RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  35. 35. Stock Issues Model 1. Topicality Is what we’re talking about relevant? 2. Inherency What’s the real cause of the problem? 3. Significance 4. Workability 5. Solvency 6. Disadvantages RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  36. 36. Stock Issues Model 1. Topicality Is what we’re talking about relevant? 2. Inherency What’s the real cause of the problem? 3. Significance Is this really that big of a deal? 4. Workability 5. Solvency 6. Disadvantages RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  37. 37. Stock Issues Model 1. Topicality Is what we’re talking about relevant? 2. Inherency What’s the real cause of the problem? 3. Significance Is this really that big of a deal? 4. Workability Is the proposed answer realistic? 5. Solvency 6. Disadvantages RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  38. 38. Stock Issues Model 1. Topicality Is what we’re talking about relevant? 2. Inherency What’s the real cause of the problem? 3. Significance Is this really that big of a deal? 4. Workability Is the proposed answer realistic? 5. Solvency Will it really solve the problem? 6. Disadvantages RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  39. 39. Stock Issues Model 1. Topicality Is what we’re talking about relevant? 2. Inherency What’s the real cause of the problem? 3. Significance Is this really that big of a deal? 4. Workability Is the proposed answer realistic? 5. Solvency Will it really solve the problem? 6. Disadvantages What unintended effects might occur? RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  40. 40. Elements of Thought Model RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  41. 41. Elements of Thought Model Whenever we think, RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  42. 42. Elements of Thought Model Whenever we think, we think for a purpose within a point of view based on assumptions leading to implications and consequences. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  43. 43. Elements of Thought Model Whenever we think, we think for a purpose within a point of view based on assumptions leading to implications and consequences. We use data, facts, and experiences to make inferences and judgments based on concepts and theories to answer a question or solve a problem. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  44. 44. Elements of Thought Model RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  45. 45. Elements of Thought Model Whenever we think, RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  46. 46. Elements of Thought Model Whenever we think, we think for a ____________ within a ________________ based on _______________ leading to ______________ and consequences. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  47. 47. Elements of Thought Model Whenever we think, we think for a ____________ within a ________________ based on _______________ leading to ______________ and consequences. We use ______, facts, and experiences to make _____________ and judgments based on ___________ and theories to answer a ____________ or solve a problem. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  48. 48. Consider also… RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  49. 49. Consider also… 1. Checklist for Critical Thinking (p. 14) RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  50. 50. Consider also… 1. Checklist for Critical Thinking (p. 14) 2. Checklist for Examining Assumptions (p. 19) RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  51. 51. Consider also… 1. Checklist for Critical Thinking (p. 14) 2. Checklist for Examining Assumptions (p. 19) 3. Checklist for Evaluating Letters of Response (p. 22) RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  52. 52. Keep your eyes on the prize RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor
  53. 53. Keep your eyes on the prize Moving from cocksure ignorance to thoughtful uncertainty. RHETORIC I Bruce Clary Fall 2009 Instructor

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